The following table is a partial list of artificial objects on the surface of Mars, consisting of spacecraft which were launched from Earth. Although most are defunct after having served their purpose, the Curiosity rover, the InSight lander, and the Perseverance rover are all active. Perseverance and its Ingenuity helicopter are the most recent artificial objects to land safely on Mars.
The table does not include smaller objects, such as springs, fragments, parachutes and heat shields. As of February 2021[update], there are 14 missions with objects on the surface of Mars. Some of these missions contain multiple spacecraft.
|No data collection|
In this listing, it is implied that each mission left debris according to its design. For example, the Schiaparelli EDM lander likely exploded on impact, creating an unknown number of fragments at one location. At another location, there may be a lower heat shield, and at another location, a parachute and upper heat shield. Another example is the counterweights ejected by MSL during its descent. In some cases, the nature and location of this additional debris has been determined and, in other cases, even the location of the main spacecraft has remained unknown. The identification of Beagle 2 after 11 years is one of the greatest breakthroughs yet, since prior to that, it could not be confirmed what had happened. Spacecraft that have not been precisely located include Mars 2, Mars 3, Mars 6, Mars Polar Lander, and the two Deep Space 2 probes.
|1971||USSR||Mars 2||1210||Failure during descent; crashed on surface||Estimated at |
|1971||USSR||Mars 3||1210||Transmission failure 14.5 seconds after soft landing||Estimated at Sirenum Terra|
|1973||USSR||Mars 6||635||Returned corrupted data for 224 seconds during its descent but contact lost before reaching surface||Estimated at Margaritifer Terra|
|1976||NASA||Viking 1||Viking 1 lander||657||Operated 2245 sols. Last contact Nov 11, 1982||Chryse Planitia|
|1976||NASA||Viking 2||Viking 2 lander||657||Operated 1281 sols. Last contact Apr 11, 1980||Utopia Planitia|
|1997||NASA||Mars Pathfinder||Pathfinder (lander)||360||Operated 83 sols. Last contact Sep 27, 1997||Ares Vallis|
|1999||NASA||Mars Surveyor '98||Mars Polar Lander and
Deep Space 2 (probes)
|500||Unknown failure during descent; crashed on surface||Estimated at Ultimi Scopuli
|Mars Express||Beagle 2 (lander)||33.2||Landed safely; solar panels failed to deploy||Isidis Planitia
|2004||NASA||Mars Exploration Rover||Spirit (rover)||185||Operated 2210 sols. Last contact Mar 22, 2010||Gusev crater
|Opportunity (rover)||185||Operated 5111 sols. Last contact June 10, 2018||Meridiani Planum
|2008||NASA||Phoenix Mars Lander||Phoenix (lander)||350||Operated 155 sols. Last contact Nov 2, 2008||Green Valley in Vastitas Borealis
|2012||NASA||Mars Science Laboratory||Curiosity (rover)||900||Still in operation, 3093 sols||Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater
|2016||ESA||ExoMars 2016||Schiaparelli EDM (lander)||577||Crashed on impact; transmitted descent telemetry||Meridiani Planum
|2018||NASA||InSight||InSight (lander)||358||Still in operation, 852 sols||Elysium Planitia
|2021||NASA||Mars 2020||Perseverance (rover)||1024||Still in operation, 58 sols||Jezero crater
|Ingenuity (helicopter)||1.8||Still in operational (deployment successful) , 58 sols|
Several landing sites have been named, either the spacecraft itself or the landing site: