List of artificial objects on the Moon

Summary

Locations of major spacecraft on the Moon superimposed on data from the Clementine mission in equirectangular projection.

This is a partial list of artificial materials left on the Moon, many during the missions of the Apollo program. The table below does not include lesser Apollo mission artificial objects, such as a hammer and other tools, retroreflectors, Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages, or the commemorative, artistic, and personal objects left by the twelve Apollo astronauts, such as the United States flags, the commemorative plaques attached to the ladders of the six Apollo Lunar Modules, the silver astronaut pin left by Alan Bean in honor of Clifton C. Williams whom he replaced, the Bible left by David Scott, the Fallen Astronaut statuette and memorial plaque placed by the crew of Apollo 15, the Apollo 11 goodwill messages disc, or the golf balls Alan Shepard hit during an Apollo 14 moonwalk.

Five S-IVB third stages of Saturn V rockets from the Apollo program crashed into the Moon, and are the heaviest human-made objects on the lunar surface. Humans have left over 187,400 kilograms (413,100 lb) of material on the Moon. Besides the 2019 Chinese rover Yutu-2, the only artificial objects on the Moon that are still in use are the retroreflectors for the lunar laser ranging experiments left there by the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 astronauts, and by the Soviet Union's Lunokhod 1 and Lunokhod 2 missions.[1]

Objects at greater than 90 degrees east or west are on the far side of the Moon, including Ranger 4, Lunar Orbiter 1, Lunar Orbiter 2, and Lunar Orbiter 3.

List

Legend

Colors
No data collection
Data collection
Operational

Table of objects

Artificial object Image Country Year Mass (lb) Mass (kg) Status Location Notes
Luna 2
Block-E rocket stage.png
 Soviet Union 1959 860 390 Intentionally crashed 29°06′N 0°00′E / 29.1°N 0°E / 29.1; 0 [2]
Luna 2
Third stage of Vostok rocket
Semyorka Rocket R7 by Sergei Korolyov in VDNH Ostankino RAF0540.jpg
 Soviet Union 1959 20,100 9,100 Intentionally crashed 29°06′N 0°00′E / 29.1°N 0°E / 29.1; 0 [3]
Ranger 4
1964 71394L.jpg
 United States 1962 730 331 Intentionally crashed 15°30′S 130°42′W / 15.5°S 130.7°W / -15.5; -130.7 [4]
Ranger 6
The Ranger Spacecraft GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 United States 1964 840 381 Intentionally crashed 9°21′29″N 21°28′48″E / 9.358°N 21.480°E / 9.358; 21.480 [5]
Ranger 7
The Ranger Spacecraft GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 United States 1964 805 365 Intentionally crashed 10°38′S 20°36′W / 10.63°S 20.60°W / -10.63; -20.60 [6]
Luna 5  Soviet Union 1965 3,250 1,474 Crashed 8°N 23°W / 8°N 23°W / 8; -23 [7]
Luna 7  Soviet Union 1965 3,316 1,504 Crashed 9°48′N 47°48′W / 9.8°N 47.8°W / 9.8; -47.8 [8]
Luna 8  Soviet Union 1965 220 100 Crashed 9°06′N 63°18′W / 9.1°N 63.3°W / 9.1; -63.3 [9]
Ranger 8
The Ranger Spacecraft GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 United States 1965 809 367 Intentionally crashed 2°38′17″N 24°47′13″E / 2.638°N 24.787°E / 2.638; 24.787 [10]
Ranger 9
The Ranger Spacecraft GPN-2000-001979.jpg
 United States 1965 809 367 Intentionally crashed 12°49′41″S 2°23′13″W / 12.828°S 2.387°W / -12.828; -2.387 [11]
Luna 9
Luna-9-1.jpg
 Soviet Union 1966 220 100 Landed 7°05′N 64°22′W / 7.08°N 64.37°W / 7.08; -64.37 [12]
Luna 10  Soviet Union 1966 3,500 1,600 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown[a] [13]
Luna 11  Soviet Union 1966 3,620 1,640 Crashed Unknown[a] [14]
Luna 12  Soviet Union 1966 3,680 1,670 Crashed Unknown[a] [15]
Surveyor 1
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 United States 1966 600 270 Landed 2°28′26″S 43°20′20″W / 2.474°S 43.339°W / -2.474; -43.339 [16]
Luna 13  Soviet Union 1966 3,700 1,700 Landed 18°52′N 62°03′W / 18.87°N 62.05°W / 18.87; -62.05 [17]
Lunar Orbiter 1
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 United States 1966 851 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
6°42′N 162°00′E / 6.70°N 162°E / 6.70; 162 [18]
Surveyor 2
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 United States 1966 644 292 Crashed 5°30′S 12°00′W / 5.5°S 12°W / -5.5; -12 [19]
Lunar Orbiter 2
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 United States 1966 849 385 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°00′N 119°00′E / 3.0°N 119°E / 3.0; 119 [20]
Lunar Orbiter 3
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 United States 1966 851 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
14°18′N 97°42′W / 14.3°N 97.7°W / 14.3; -97.7 [21]
Surveyor 3
Surveyor 3 on the Moon.jpg
 United States 1967 619 281 Landed[b] 3°00′54″S 23°25′05″W / 3.015°S 23.418°W / -3.015; -23.418 [22]
Lunar Orbiter 4
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 United States 1967 851 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown[a] [23]
Surveyor 4
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 United States 1967 624 283 Crashed 0°24′N 1°20′W / 0.4°N 1.33°W / 0.4; -1.33 [24]
Explorer 35
IMP-E.jpg
 United States 1967 229 104 Crashed
(post mission)
Unknown[a] [25]
Lunar Orbiter 5
Lunar orbiter 1 (large).jpg
 United States 1967 851 386 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°S 83°W / 3°S 83°W / -3; -83 [26]
Surveyor 5
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 United States 1967 619 281 Landed 1°27′40″N 23°11′42″E / 1.461°N 23.195°E / 1.461; 23.195 [27]
Surveyor 6
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 United States 1967 622 282 Landed 0°29′N 1°24′W / 0.49°N 1.40°W / 0.49; -1.40 [28]
Surveyor 7
Surveyor NASA lunar lander.jpg
 United States 1968 640 290 Landed 40°52′S 11°28′W / 40.86°S 11.47°W / -40.86; -11.47 [29]
Luna 14  Soviet Union 1968 3,680 1,670 Crashed Unknown[a] [30]
Apollo 10
LM-4 Snoopy descent stage
LEM-linedrawing.png
 United States 1969 4,874 2,211 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown[a] [31]
Apollo 11
LM-5 Eagle descent stage
Apollo 11 Lunar Lander - 5927 NASA.jpg
 United States 1969 4,484 2,034 Landed 0°40′27″N 23°28′23″E / 0.6741°N 23.4730°E / 0.6741; 23.4730 [32]
Luna 15  Soviet Union 1969 5,992 2,718 Crashed Unknown [33]
Apollo 11
LM-5 Eagle ascent stage[c]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 United States 1969 4,815 2,184 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown [34]
Apollo 12
LM-6 Intrepid descent stage
Bean Descends Intrepid - GPN-2000-001317.jpg
 United States 1969 4,874 2,211 Landed 3°00′45″S 23°25′18″W / 3.0124°S 23.4216°W / -3.0124; -23.4216 [35]
Apollo 12
LM-6 Intrepid ascent stage[c]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 United States 1969 4,771 2,164 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°56′S 21°12′W / 3.94°S 21.20°W / -3.94; -21.20 [36]
Luna 16 descent stage[d]  Soviet Union 1970 3,040 1,380 Landed 0°41′S 56°18′E / 0.68°S 56.3°E / -0.68; 56.3 [37]
Luna 17 and Lunokhod 1  Soviet Union 1970 12,300 5,600 Landed 38°17′N 35°00′W / 38.28°N 35.0°W / 38.28; -35.0 [38]
Apollo 13
S-IVB (S-IVB-508)[39]
AS17-148-22714 crop.jpg
 United States 1970 29,661 13,454 Intentionally crashed 2°45′S 27°52′W / 2.75°S 27.86°W / -2.75; -27.86 [40]
Luna 18  Soviet Union 1971 4,140 1,880 Crashed 3°34′N 56°30′E / 3.57°N 56.5°E / 3.57; 56.5 [41]
Luna 19  Soviet Union 1971 4,140 1,880 Crashed Unknown[a] [42]
Apollo 14
S-IVB (S-IVB-509)
AS17-148-22714 crop.jpg
 United States 1971 30,900 14,016 Intentionally crashed 8°05′S 26°01′W / 8.09°S 26.02°W / -8.09; -26.02 [43]
Apollo 14
LM-8 Antares descent stage
LRO Apollo14 landing site 369228main ap14labeled 540.jpg
 United States 1971 4,727 2,144 Landed 3°38′43″S 17°28′17″W / 3.6453°S 17.4714°W / -3.6453; -17.4714 [44]
Apollo 14
LM-8 Antares ascent stage[c]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 United States 1971 4,705 2,132 Crashed
(post-mission)
3°25′S 19°40′W / 3.42°S 19.67°W / -3.42; -19.67 [45]
Apollo 15
S-IVB (S-IVB-510)
AS17-148-22714 crop.jpg
 United States 1971 30,944 14,036 Intentionally crashed 1°31′S 11°49′W / 1.51°S 11.81°W / -1.51; -11.81 [46]
Apollo 15
LM-10 Falcon descent stage
Apollo16LM.jpg
 United States 1971 6,193 2,809 Landed 26°07′56″N 3°38′02″E / 26.1322°N 3.6339°E / 26.1322; 3.6339 [47]
Apollo 15
Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV-1)
Apollo15LunarRover.jpg
 United States 1971 460 210 Landed 26°05′N 3°40′E / 26.08°N 3.66°E / 26.08; 3.66
Apollo 15
LM-10 Falcon ascent stage[c]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 United States 1971 4,700 2,132 Crashed
(post-mission)
26°22′N 0°15′E / 26.36°N 0.25°E / 26.36; 0.25 [48]
Apollo 15 subsatellite
Apollo 15 Subsatellite.jpg
 United States 1971 79 36 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown[a] [49]
Luna 20 descent stage[d]  Soviet Union 1972 <12,626 <5,727 Landed 3°34′N 56°30′E / 3.57°N 56.5°E / 3.57; 56.5 [50]
Apollo 16
S-IVB (S-IVB-511)
AS17-148-22714 crop.jpg
 United States 1972 30,869 14,002 Intentionally crashed 1°55′16″N 24°37′23″W / 1.921°N 24.623°W / 1.921; -24.623 [51]
Apollo 16
LM-11 Orion descent stage
Apollo16LM.jpg
 United States 1972 6,096 2,765 Landed 8°58′23″S 15°30′01″E / 8.9730°S 15.5002°E / -8.9730; 15.5002 [52]
Apollo 16
Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV-2)
AS16-110-18009 (21673657156).jpg
 United States 1972 460 210 Landed 8°58′S 15°31′E / 8.97°S 15.51°E / -8.97; 15.51
Apollo 16
LM-11 Orion ascent stage[c]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 United States 1972 4,713 2,138 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown [53]
Apollo 16 subsatellite
Apollo 15 Subsatellite.jpg
 United States 1972 79 36 Crashed
(post-mission)
Unknown[a] [54]
Apollo 17
S-IVB (S-IVB-512)
AS17-148-22714 crop.jpg
 United States 1972 30,780 13,960 Intentionally crashed 4°13′S 12°19′W / 4.21°S 12.31°W / -4.21; -12.31 [55]
Apollo 17
LM-12 Challenger descent stage
Apollo16LM.jpg
 United States 1972 6,169 2,798 Landed 20°11′27″N 30°46′18″E / 20.1908°N 30.7717°E / 20.1908; 30.7717 [56]
Apollo 17
Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV-3)
Apollo 17 rover at final resting site.jpg
 United States 1972 460 210 Landed 20°10′N 30°46′E / 20.17°N 30.77°E / 20.17; 30.77
Apollo 17
LM-12 Challenger ascent stage[c]
Apollo 17 LM Ascent Stage.jpg
 United States 1972 4,740 2,150 Crashed
(post-mission)
19°58′N 30°30′E / 19.96°N 30.50°E / 19.96; 30.50 [57]
Luna 21 and Lunokhod 2[e]  Soviet Union 1973 10,690 4,850 Landed 25°51′N 30°27′E / 25.85°N 30.45°E / 25.85; 30.45 [58]
Explorer 49 (RAE-B)
RAE B.jpg
 United States 1973 723 328 Crashed Unknown[a] [59]
Luna 22  Soviet Union 1974 8,800 4,000 Crashed Unknown[a] [60]
Luna 23  Soviet Union 1974 12,300 5,600 Landed 12°45′N 62°12′E / 12.75°N 62.20°E / 12.75; 62.20 [61]
Luna 24 descent stage[d]  Soviet Union 1976 <12,787 <5,800 Landed 12°45′N 62°12′E / 12.75°N 62.20°E / 12.75; 62.20 [62]
Hagoromo
Hiten
[f]
Hiten.gif
 Japan 1990 26 12 Crashed
(not confirmed)
Unknown [63]
Hiten
Hiten.gif
 Japan 1993 315 143 Intentionally crashed 34°18′S 55°36′E / 34.3°S 55.6°E / -34.3; 55.6 [64]
Lunar Prospector
Lunar Prospector orbiter.jpg
 United States 1998 278 126 Intentionally crashed 87°42′S 42°21′E / 87.7°S 42.35°E / -87.7; 42.35 [65][66]
SMART-1
SMART-1 Impact flash.jpg
Various[g] 2006 677 307 Intentionally crashed 34°15′43″S 46°11′35″W / 34.262°S 46.193°W / -34.262; -46.193 [67]
Moon Impact Probe (MIP)
Chandrayaan-1
Chandrayaan-1-MIP2.jpg  India 2008 77 35 Intentionally crashed 89°46′S 39°24′W / 89.76°S 39.40°W / -89.76; -39.40 [68][69][70]
SELENE Rstar (Okina)  Japan 2009 117 53 Crashed 28°12′47″N 159°01′59″W / 28.213°N 159.033°W / 28.213; -159.033 [71][72][73]
Chang'e 1
Chang e 1.jpg
 China 2009 4,400 2,000 Intentionally crashed 1°30′S 52°22′E / 1.50°S 52.36°E / -1.50; 52.36 [74][75][76]
SELENE (Kaguya) main orbiter  Japan 2009 4,374 1,984[74] Intentionally crashed 65°30′S 80°30′E / 65.5°S 80.5°E / -65.5; 80.5 [77][78][79]
LCROSS Shepherding Spacecraft
LCROSS Centaur.jpg
 United States 2009 1,500 700 Intentionally crashed 84°43′44″S 49°21′36″W / 84.729°S 49.36°W / -84.729; -49.36 [h][80][81]
LCROSS Centaur
LCROSS Centaur 1.jpg
 United States 2009 5,000 2,270 Intentionally crashed 84°40′30″S 48°43′30″W / 84.675°S 48.725°W / -84.675; -48.725 [i][82][83]
GRAIL
GRAIL.jpg
 United States 2012 293 133 Crashed
(post-mission)
75°37′N 26°38′W / 75.62°N 26.63°W / 75.62; -26.63 [84]
Chang'e 3
Yutu rover
 China 2013 2,600 1,200 Operational[j] 44°07′N 19°31′W / 44.12°N 19.51°W / 44.12; -19.51 [85][86][87]
LADEE
LADEE fires small engines.jpg
 United States 2014 547 248 Intentionally crashed 10°48′N 91°36′W / 10.8°N 91.6°W / 10.8; -91.6
Chang'e 4
Yutu-2 rover
 China 2019 2,600 1,200 Operational 45°30′S 177°36′E / 45.5°S 177.6°E / -45.5; 177.6
Beresheet
Beresheet model on Habima Square 20190222 01.jpg
 Israel 2019 330 150 Crashed[88][89] 32°35′44″N 19°20′59″E / 32.5956°N 19.3496°E / 32.5956; 19.3496
Longjiang-2  China 2019 104 47 Intentionally crashed[90] 16°41′44″N 159°31′01″E / 16.6956°N 159.5170°E / 16.6956; 159.5170 (Longjiang-2 impact site) [91]
Chandrayaan-2
Vikram lander

Pragyan rover
GSLV Mk III M1, Chandrayaan-2 - Pragyan rover mounted on the ramp of Vikram lander.jpg
 India 2019 3,243 1,471 Crashed[92] 70°52′52″S 22°47′02″E / 70.8810°S 22.7840°E / -70.8810; 22.7840 [93]
Total estimated dry mass 421,109 191,012

Image gallery

Map of the Moon showing some landing sites. (Click to enlarge)
Surveyor 3 on the Moon, photographed by Alan Bean during Apollo 12 (1969)
Locations of retro reflector experiments

See also

Notes

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Spacecraft was in lunar orbit but is assumed to have decayed from orbit and crashed into the Moon, location unknown.
  2. ^ Portions recovered by Apollo 12 in 1969: it returned about 22 pounds (10 kg) of the Surveyor 3's original landing mass of 666 pounds (302 kg) to Earth to study the effects of long term exposure.
  3. ^ a b c d e f The ascent stage of Apollo 10 was commanded to fire its engine, left lunar orbit and entered solar orbit. The ascent stage of Apollo 11 was left in orbit and thereafter its orbit decayed and it crashed onto the Moon at an unknown location. The Apollo 16 ascent stage failed to crash onto moon when commanded and it decayed from orbit at a later date and also crashed at an unknown location. The ascent stages of the remaining successful missions (Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 17) were each deliberately crashed onto the Moon. Apollo 13's complete Apollo Lunar Module re-entered Earth's atmosphere after having served as a lifeboat during the aborted mission.
  4. ^ a b c Luna program sample return mission; mass listed is for both ascent and descent stages, though only the descent stage was left on the Moon.
  5. ^ Lander and rover weighed 4,000 pounds (1,814 kg); the rest assumed to have decayed in orbit and impacted the Moon.
  6. ^ Was injected into lunar orbit in 1990, assumed to have decayed from orbit.
  7. ^ Countries constituting the European Space Agency.
  8. ^ –2.36 miles (–3.80 km) in elevation (Cabeus crater).
  9. ^ –2.38 miles (–3.83 km) in elevation (Cabeus crater).
  10. ^ Rover ceased transmission March 2015. Lander operational as of June 2018.

References

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External links

  • NASA catalogue of manmade material on the Moon
  • List of Apollo 11 artifacts on the Moon
  • Lunar Litter: A short film about debris left behind on manned Moon missions