New York City is home to over 2,000 bridges and tunnels. Several agencies manage this network of crossings, including the New York City Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York State Department of Transportation and Amtrak.
Many of the city's major bridges and tunnels have broken or set records. Opened in 1927, the Holland Tunnel was the world's first mechanically ventilated underwater vehicular tunnel. The Brooklyn Bridge, Williamsburg Bridge, George Washington Bridge, and Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge were the world's longest suspension bridges when opened in 1883, 1903, 1931, and 1964 respectively.
New York's crossings date back to 1693, when its first bridge, known as the King's Bridge, was constructed over Spuyten Duyvil Creek between Manhattan and the Bronx, located in the present-day Kingsbridge neighborhood. The bridge, composed of stone abutments and a timber deck, was demolished in 1917. The oldest crossing still standing is High Bridge, built 1848 to carry the Croton Aqueduct from Manhattan to the Bronx over the Harlem River. This bridge was built to carry water to the city as part of the Croton Aqueduct system.
Ten bridges and one tunnel serving the city have been awarded some level of landmark status. The Holland Tunnel was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1993 in recognition of its pioneering role as the first mechanically ventilated vehicular underwater tunnel, operating since 1927. The George Washington, High Bridge, Hell Gate, Queensboro, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Macombs Dam, Carroll Street, University Heights, and Washington bridges have all received landmark status, as well.
New York features bridges of many lengths and types, carrying vehicular, bicycle, pedestrian, and subway traffic. The George Washington Bridge, spanning the Hudson River between New York City and Fort Lee, New Jersey, is the world's busiest bridge in terms of vehicular traffic. The George Washington, Verrazzano-Narrows, and Brooklyn are noted for their architecture, while others are more well known for their functional importance, such as the Williamsburg Bridge with 8 vehicular lanes, 2 subway tracks, a bike lane, and pedestrian walkways.
Bridges by water body
From south to north:
|Brooklyn Bridge||1883||1,825||5,988||6 lanes of roadway (3 in each direction)||Oldest suspension bridge. Also oldest suspension/cable-stayed hybrid bridge.|
|Manhattan Bridge||1909||2,089||6,854||7 lanes of roadway and B, D, N, and Q trains||Double-decker bridge with 5 westbound lanes and 2 eastbound lanes. 3 of the westbound lanes and the subway are below the other 4 lanes.|
|Williamsburg Bridge||1903||2,227.48||7,308.0||8 lanes of roadway (4 in each direction) and J, M, and Z trains|
|Queensboro Bridge||1909||1,135||3,724||9 lanes of NY 25 (Queens Boulevard)||Officially known as the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge. Also known as 59th Street Bridge. Reversible 4 lanes on the upper deck, and 2 westbound/3 eastbound lanes on the lower deck.|
|Roosevelt Island Bridge||1955||876.91||2,877.0||2 lanes of roadway (1 in each direction)||East channel only|
|Triborough Bridge (Suspension Bridge)||1936||850||2,790||8 lanes of I‑278 (4 in each direction)||Officially known as the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge|
|Hell Gate Bridge||1916||310||1,020||3 rail tracks (2 of Northeast Corridor, 1 of New York Connecting Railroad)|
|Rikers Island Bridge||1966||1,280.16||4,200.0||2 lanes of roadway||Only connects Rikers Island to Queens|
|Bronx–Whitestone Bridge||1939||1,149.10||3,770.0||6 lanes of I-678 (Whitestone Expressway)|
|Throgs Neck Bridge||1961||886.97||2,910.0||6 lanes of I-295 (Throgs Neck Expressway)|
From south to north, east to west:
|Wards Island Bridge||1951||285.6||937||Pedestrians and bicycles only|
|Triborough Bridge (Vertical-Lift Bridge)||1936||230||750||2 lanes of exit ramp from F.D.R. Drive||Officially known as the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge|
|Willis Avenue Bridge||1901||979||3,212||4 lanes of roadway||Northbound traffic only|
|Third Avenue Bridge||1898||853.44||2,800.0||5 lanes of roadway||Southbound traffic only|
|Park Avenue Bridge||1956||100||330||4 tracks of Metro-North|
|Madison Avenue Bridge||1910||577||1,893||4 lanes of roadway|
|145th Street Bridge||1905||489||1,604||4 lanes of roadway|
|Macombs Dam Bridge||1895||774||2,539||4 lanes of roadway|
|High Bridge||1848||600||2,000||Pedestrian walkway and bicycle lanes||Oldest surviving bridge in New York City|
|Alexander Hamilton Bridge||1963||724||2,375||8 lanes of I‑95 and US 1|
|Washington Bridge||1888||723.9||2,375||5 lanes of roadway|
|University Heights Bridge||1908||82||269||2 lanes of roadway|
|Broadway Bridge||1962||170.08||558.0||4 lanes of Broadway/ US 9 and the 1 train||Also known as Harlem Ship Canal Bridge|
|Henry Hudson Bridge||1936||673||2,208||6 lanes of NY 9A / Henry Hudson Parkway||Double-decked bridge|
|Spuyten Duyvil Bridge||1899||186||610||1 track of Empire Corridor||Swing bridge|
|George Washington Bridge||1931||1,450.85||4,760.0||14 lanes of I‑95 / US 1 / US 9 / US 46||Double-deck, 8 lanes on upper level, 6 lanes on lower level. 7 lanes in each direction.|
New York Bay
|Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge||1964||2,039.1||6,690||13 lanes of I‑278||Double-deck, 6 lanes on each level. 6 lanes in each direction.|
|Kosciuszko Bridge||1939||1,835||6,020||6 lanes of I‑278||One replacement bridge completed in April 2017 and the original bridge was demolished then; second bridge to open in 2020|
|Pulaski Bridge||1954||860||2,820||6 lanes of McGuinness Boulevard||Drawbridge|
|Greenpoint Avenue Bridge||1987||55||180||4 lanes of Greenpoint Avenue||a.k.a. J. J. Byrne Memorial Bridge|
|Grand Street Bridge||1903||69.2||227||1 lane of Grand Avenue||Swing bridge; one-lane bridge|
|Metropolitan Avenue Bridge||1933||33.8||111||4 lanes of Grand Street and Metropolitan Avenue||Drawbridge; Crosses English Kills, a tributary of Newtown Creek|
|Robert F. Kennedy Bridge (truss bridge)||1936||490 metres (1,610 ft)||8 lanes of I‑278||Formerly known as the Triborough Bridge|
|Hutchinson River (heading downriver)|
|Eastchester Bridge||1926||0.4 miles||4 lanes of Boston Road ( US 1)|
|I-95 bridge||1917||5,280 feet||6 lanes of I‑95|
|Hutchinson River Parkway Bridge||1941||205 metres (673 ft)||6 lanes of Hutchinson River Parkway||Drawbridge|
|Hutchinson River Bridge
||1908||81 feet (25 m)||Northeast Corridor (Amtrak)||Also called Amtrak Pelham Bay Bridge|
|Pelham Bridge||1908||272 metres (892 ft)||4 lanes of Shore Road||Drawbridge|
|Unionport Bridge||1953||160.3 metres (526 ft)||7 lanes of I‑278 (Bruckner Boulevard) / I‑95|
|Eastern Boulevard Bridge||1953||193.2 metres (634 ft)||I‑278||Drawbridge|
|City Island Bridge||1901||290 metres (950 ft)||3 lanes of City Island Avenue|
|Union Street Bridge||1905||600 feet||2 lanes of Union Street||Drawbridge|
|Carroll Street Bridge||1889||300 feet||2 lanes of Carroll Street||New York City Designated Landmark and one of four retractable bridges in the country|
|Third Street Bridge||1905||350 feet||Third Street|
|Ninth Street Bridge||1999||700 feet||Ninth Street|
|Culver Viaduct||1938||0.6 miles||IND Culver Line (F and G trains)|
|Hamilton Avenue Bridge||1942||0.7 miles||Hamilton Avenue|
|Gowanus Expressway||1941||9 lanes of I-278 (Gowanus Expressway)|
|Mill Basin Bridge||1963||0.8 miles||6 lanes of Belt Parkway|
|Rockaway Inlet (Brooklyn and Queens)|
|Marine Parkway–Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge||1937||1226 m||4 lanes of Flatbush Avenue|
|Borden Avenue Bridge||1908||100 feet||2 lanes of Borden Avenue||One of four retractable bridges in the country|
|Hunters Point Avenue Bridge||1910||500 feet||Hunters Point Avenue|
|Cross Bay Veterans Memorial Bridge||1970||0.7 miles||6 lanes Cross Bay Boulevard|
|The Joseph P. Addabbo Memorial Bridge||1971||0.7 miles||6 lanes of Cross Bay Boulevard|
|North Channel Swing Bridge||(A train)||Not actually a movable bridge.|
Howard Beach to Broad Channel.
|Beach Channel Drawbridge||(A and S trains)||Broad Channel to The Rockaways|
|102nd Street Bridge||Connecting Hamilton Beach at Russell Street with Howard Beach, also known as "Lenihan's Bridge".|
|Hawtree Creek Bridge||163rd Avenue and 99th Street in Howard Beach across to Hamilton Beach at Rau Court and Davenport Court|
|Rockaway Inlet (Brooklyn and Queens)|
|Marine Parkway-Gil Hodges Memorial Bridge||1937||1226 m||4 lanes of Flatbush Avenue|
|Goethals Bridge||1928||2164.08 m||6 lanes of I‑278||Being replaced. Completed new Goethals opened 5/21/18 with 2 new spans that feature three, 12-foot travel lanes in each direction|
|Arthur Kill Vertical Lift Bridge||1959||170.08 m||CSX and M&E rail lines|
|Outerbridge Crossing||1928||3093 m||4 lanes of Route 440; NY 440|
|Kill Van Kull|
|Bayonne Bridge||1931||1761.74 m||2 lanes of NY 440; Route 440||Being raised; 2 lanes are open during construction, with the full 4 lanes becoming available once the roadway raising project is complete.|
Each of the tunnels that run underneath the East and Hudson Rivers were marvels of engineering when first constructed. The Holland Tunnel is the oldest of the vehicular tunnels, opening to great fanfare in 1927 as the first mechanically ventilated underwater tunnel. The Queens Midtown Tunnel was opened in 1940 to relieve the congestion on the city's bridges. Each of its tubes were designed 1.5 feet (0.46 m) wider than the Holland Tunnel in order to accommodate the wider cars of the period. When the Brooklyn–Battery Tunnel opened in 1950, it was the longest continuous underwater vehicular tunnel in North America, a title it still holds. The Lincoln Tunnel has three tubes linking midtown Manhattan to New Jersey, a configuration that provides the flexibility to provide four lanes in one direction during rush hours, or three lanes in both direction.
All four underwater road tunnels were built by Ole Singstad: the Holland Tunnel's original chief engineer Clifford Milburn Holland died, as did his successor, Milton H. Freeman, after which Singstad became chief engineer, finishing the Holland Tunnel and then building the remaining tunnels.
From south to north:
From south to north:
|Lexington Avenue Tunnel||1918||391 m (1,283 ft)||IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4, 5, 6, and <6> trains)|
|149th Street Tunnel||1905||195 m (641 ft)||IRT White Plains Road Line (2 train)|
|Concourse Tunnel||1933||IND Concourse Line (B and D trains)|
From south to north:
|Downtown Hudson Tubes||1909||1,720 m (5,650 ft)||Montgomery-Cortlandt Tunnels
Port Authority Trans-Hudson
|Holland Tunnel||1927||south tube: 2,551 m (8,371 ft)
north tube: 2,608 m (8,558 ft)
|4 lanes of I-78 (Canal Street); Route 139 (NJ side)|
|Uptown Hudson Tubes||1908||1,700 m (5,500 ft)||Hoboken-Morton Tunnels
Port Authority Trans-Hudson
|North River Tunnels||1910||1,900 m (6,100 ft)||part of New York Tunnel Extension
Amtrak and New Jersey Transit (Northeast Corridor)
|Lincoln Tunnel||south tube: 1957
center tube: 1937
north tube: 1945
|south tube: 2,440 m (8,006 ft)
center tube: 2,504 m (8,216 ft)
north tube: 2,281 m (7,482 ft)
|6 lanes of I-495 (Long Island Expressway (Under land, on NY side)) / NY 495 (NY side); Route 495 (NJ side)|
|Greenpoint Tube||1933||IND Crosstown Line (G train)|
Bridges and tunnels spanning land only
- Park Avenue Tunnel (33rd–40th Streets), Park Avenue Viaduct, and Park Avenue Tunnel (45th–97th Streets), Manhattan
- Battery Park Underpass, Manhattan
- Cobble Hill Tunnel, Brooklyn
- First Avenue Tunnel from 42nd Street to 47th Street, Manhattan
- Seeley Street Bridge over Prospect Avenue, Brooklyn
- Trinity Place Bridge, Manhattan
Bridges and tunnels by use
- Queensboro Bridge: 31,000
- Lincoln Tunnel: 25,944
- Brooklyn Bridge: 22,241
- Williamsburg Bridge: 18,339
- Queens-Midtown Tunnel: 17,968
- Holland Tunnel: 16,257
- Brooklyn Battery Tunnel: 14,496
- Manhattan Bridge: 13,818
- List of bridges documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in New York
- List of tunnels documented by the Historic American Engineering Record in New York
- List of fixed crossings of the East River
- List of crossings of the Harlem River
- List of fixed crossings of the Hudson River
- List of bridges in Pittsburgh
- New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT). "Movable Bridges in the Bronx." Accessed 2015-08-25.
- "NYC DOT - Brooklyn Bridge". Retrieved 2012-02-24.
- "NYC DOT - Williamsburg Bridge". Retrieved 2012-02-24.
- "History - George Washington Bridge - The Port Authority of NY & NJ". Retrieved 2012-02-24.
- "Verrazano-Narrows Bridge". Retrieved 2012-02-24.
- "NYC DOT - Frequently Asked Questions about Bridges". Retrieved 2012-02-24.
- "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey - George Washington Bridge". The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Bod Woodruff; Lana Zak & Stephanie Wash (November 20, 2012). "GW Bridge Painters: Dangerous Job on Top of the World's Busiest Bridge". ABC News. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- "Movable Bridges over Newtown Creek and its Tributaries". New York City. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- New York City Dept. of Transportation. "Bridges over the Gowanus Canal". New York City. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Berger, Joseph (May 13, 2013). "Antique Bridge Closed to Traffic While It's Open for Repairs". New York Times. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
- McGill, John. "Underline: The Culver Viaduct". Urban Omnibus. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- "Gowanus Expressway". nycroads.com. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
- "Hugh L. Carey Tunnel (formerly Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel)". MTA Bridges & Tunnels. Retrieved 2015-12-02.
- Tunnel Under The East River
- Bridge information
- Bridges by use
- NYC DOT list of movable bridges
- Bridges NYC [history of bridges in New York City and surrounding areas]