List of countries by irreligion

Summary

Irreligion, which may include deism, agnosticism, ignosticism, anti-religion, atheism, skepticism, ietsism, spiritual but not religious, freethought, anti-theism, apatheism, non-belief, pandeism, secular humanism, non-religious theism, pantheism, panentheism, and New age varies in the countries around the world. According to reports from the Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association's (WIN/GIA) four global polls: in 2005, 77% were a religious person and 4% were "convinced atheists"; in 2012, 23% were not a religious person and 13% were "convinced atheists";[2] in 2015, 22% were not a religious person and 11% were "convinced atheists";[3] and in 2017, 25% were not a religious person and 9% were "convinced atheists".[4] According to the Pew Research Centre in 2012, 16% of the world is "religiously unaffiliated", which "include atheists, agnostics and people who do not identify with any particular religion in surveys"; of that overall category, many may still hold some religious beliefs and some engage in religious practices as well.[5]

According to sociologist Phil Zuckerman, broad estimates of those who have an absence of belief in a god range from 500 to 750 million people worldwide.[6] According to sociologists Ariela Keysar and Juhem Navarro-Rivera's review of numerous global studies on atheism, there are 450 to 500 million positive atheists and agnostics worldwide (7% of the world's population) with China alone accounting for 200 million of that demographic.[7] Relative to its own populations, Zuckerman ranks the top 5 countries with the highest possible ranges of agnostics and atheists: Sweden (46-85%), Vietnam (81%), Denmark (43-80%), Norway (31-72%), and Japan (64-65%).[8][9]

Differences in questions asked in pollsEdit

Each poll uses different questions and methods:-

The numbers come from different years, and might not be accurate for countries with governments that require or urge religion or secularism.

Countries and regionsEdit

The Pew Research Centre data in the table below reflects "religiously unaffiliated" which "include atheists, agnostics and people who do not identify with any particular religion in surveys".

The WIN-Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) poll results below are the totals for "not a religious person" and "a convinced atheist" combined.

  • Keysar et al. have advised caution with WIN/Gallup International figures since more extensive surveys which have used the same wording for decades and have bigger sample sizes, have consistently reached lower figures than the numbers in the table below. For example, the WIN/GIA numbers from China were overestimated which in turn inflated global totals.[7]

The Zuckerman data on the table below only reflect the number of people who have an absence of belief in a deity only (atheists, agnostics). Does not include the broader number of people who do not identify with a religion such as deists, spiritual but not religious, pantheists, New Age spiritualism, etc.

Pew WIN/GIA Dentsu Zuckerman
Country or region (2012)[10] (2017)[11] (2015)[3] (2012)[12][13] (2006)[14] (2004)[6]
  Afghanistan (details) < 0.1 % 9% 15%
  Albania (details) 1.4% 39% 8%
  Argentina 12.2% 34% 20% 26% 13% 4–8%
  Armenia 1.3% 6% 5% 5% 34%
  Australia (details) 24.2% 63% 58% 58% 24–25%
  Austria 13.5% 53% 54% 53% 12% 18–26%
  Azerbaijan (details) < 0.1% 64% 54% 51%
  Bangladesh (details) < 0.1% 19% 5%
  Belarus 28.6% 48% 17%
  Belgium (details) 29% 64% 48% 34% 35% 42–43%
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.5% 22% 32% 29%
  Brazil (details) 7.9% 17% 18% 14%
  Bulgaria (details) 4.2% 39% 39% 30% 30% 34–40%
  Cameroon 5.3% 17%
  Canada (details) 23.7% 57% 53% 49% 26% 19–30%
  Chile 8.6% 34%
  China (details) 52.2% 90% 90% 77% 93% 8–14%
  Colombia 6.6% 14% 17% 15%
  DR Congo 1.8% 17%
  Croatia (details) 5.1% 13% 7%
  Cuba 23% 7%
  Czech Republic (details) 76.4% 72% 75% 78% 64% 54–61%
  Denmark (details) 11.8% 61% 52% 10% 43–80%
  Dominican Republic 10.9% 7%
  Ecuador 5.5% 18% 28% 29%
  Estonia (details) 59.6% 60% 76% 49%
  Fiji 0.8% 8% 7% 6%
  Finland (details) 17.6% 55% 42% 44% 12% 28–60%
  France (details) 28% 50% 53% 63% 43% 43–54%
  Georgia (details) 0.7% 7% 13%
  Germany (details) 24.7% 60% 59% 48% 25% 41–49%
  Ghana (details) 4.2% 1% 2%
  Greece 6.1% 22% 21% 4% 16%
  Hungary (details) 18.6% 43% 32–46%
  Iceland (details) 3.5% 49% 44% 41% 4% 16–23%
  India (details) < 0.1% 5% 23% 16% 7% 9.11%
  Indonesia (details) < 0.1% 30% 15%
  Iran (details) 0.1% 20% 1%
  Iraq (details) 0.1% 34% 9%
  Ireland (details) 6.2% 56% 51% 54% 7%
  Israel (details) 3.1% 58% 65% 15–37%
  Italy (details) 12.4% 26% 24% 23% 18% 6–15%
  Japan (details) 57% 60% 62% 62% 52% 64–65%
  Kazakhstan (details) 4.2% 11–12%
  Kenya (details) 2.5% 9% 11%
  Kosovo 1.6% 3% 8%
  Kyrgyzstan 0.4% 7%
  Latvia 43.8% 52% 50% 41% 20–29%
  Lebanon (details) 0.3% 28% 18% 35%
  Lithuania 10% 40% 23% 19% 13%
  Luxembourg 26.8% 30%
  Malaysia 0.7% 23% 13%
  Malta 2.5% 1%
  Mexico (details) 4.7% 36% 28%
  Moldova 1.4% 10%
  Mongolia 35.9% 29% 9%
  Morocco (details) < 0.1% 5%
  Netherlands (details) 42.1% 66% 56% 55% 39–44%
  New Zealand (details) 36.6% 20–22%
  Nigeria (details) 0.4% 2% 16% 5% 1%
  North Korea 71.3% 15%
  North Macedonia 11% 10% 9%
  Norway (details) 10.1% 62% 31–72%
  Pakistan (details) < 0.1% 6% 11% 10%
  Palestinian territories < 0.1% 35% 19% 33%
  Panama 4.8% 13%
  Papua New Guinea < 0.1% 5% 4%
  Peru (details) 3% 23% 13% 11% 5%
  Philippines (details) 0.1% 9% 22% 11%
  Poland (details) 5.6% 10% 12% 14% 5%
  Portugal 4.4% 38% 37% 11% 4–9%
  Puerto Rico 1.9% 11%
  Romania (details) 0.1% 9% 17% 7% 2%
  Russia (details) 16.2% 30% 23% 32% 48% 24–48%
  Saudi Arabia (details) 0.7% 24%
  Serbia 3.3% 21% 21% 19%
  Singapore (details) 16.4% 13%
  Slovakia 14.3% 23% 10–28%
  Slovenia 18% 53% 30% 35–38%
  South Africa (details) 14.9% 32% 11%
  South Korea (details) 46.4% 60% 55% 46% 37% 30–52%
  South Sudan 1% 16%
  Spain (details) 19% 57% 55% 47% 16% 15–24%
  Sweden (details) 27% 73% 76% 58% 25% 46–85%
   Switzerland (details) 11.9% 58% 47% 17–27%
  Taiwan 12.7% 24%
  Tanzania 1.4% 2%
  Thailand 0.3% 2% 2%
  Tunisia 0.2% 33%
  Turkey (details) 1.2% 15% 75% (anomalous) 3%
  Uganda (details) 0.5% 1%
  Ukraine 14.7% 42% 24% 23% 42% 20%
  United Kingdom (details) 21.3% 69% 66% 31–44%
  United States (details) 16.4% 39% 39% 35% 20% 3–9%
  Uruguay (details) 40.7% 12%
  Uzbekistan 0.8% 18%
  Venezuela 10% 2% 27%
  Vietnam 29.6% 63% 54% 65% 46% 81%

By populationEdit

The Pew Research Centre in the table below reflects "religiously unaffiliated" which "include atheists, agnostics and people who do not identify with any particular religion in surveys".

The Zuckerman data on the table below only reflect the number of people who have an absence of belief in a deity only (atheists, agnostics). Does not include the broader number of people who do not identify with a religion such as deists, spiritual but not religious, pantheists, New Age spiritualism, etc.

Country Pew (2012)[15] Zuckerman (2004) [16][17]
  China 700,680,000 103,907,840 – 181,838,720
  India 102,870,000
  Japan 72,120,000 81,493,120 – 82,766,450
  Vietnam 26,040,000 66,978,900
  Russia 23,180,000 34,507,680 – 69,015,360
  Germany 20,350,000 33,794,250 – 40,388,250
  France 17,580,000 25,982,320 – 32,628,960
  United Kingdom 18,684,010 – 26,519,240
  South Korea 22,350,000 14,579,400 – 25,270,960
  Ukraine 9,546,400
  United States 50,980,000 8,790,840 – 26,822,520
  Netherlands 6,364,020 – 7,179,920
  Canada 6,176,520 – 9,752,400
  Spain 6,042,150 – 9,667,440
  Taiwan 5,460,000
  Hong Kong 5,240,000
  Czech Republic 5,328,940 – 6,250,121
  Australia 4,779,120 – 4,978,250
  Belgium 4,346,160 – 4,449,640
  Sweden 4,133,560 – 7,638,100
  Italy 3,483,420 – 8,708,550
  North Korea 17,350,000 3,404,700
  Hungary 3,210,240 – 4,614,720
  Bulgaria 2,556,120 – 3,007,200
  Denmark 2,327,590 – 4,330,400
  Turkey 1,956,990 - 6,320,550
  Belarus 1,752,870
  Greece 1,703,680
  Kazakhstan 1,665,840 – 1,817,280
  Argentina 1,565,800 – 3,131,600
  Austria 1,471,500 – 2,125,500
  Finland 1,460,200 – 3,129,000
  Norway 1,418,250 – 3,294,000
   Switzerland 1,266,670 – 2,011,770
  Israel 929,850 – 2,293,630
  New Zealand 798,800 – 878,680
  Cuba 791,630
  Slovenia 703,850 – 764,180
  Estonia 657,580
  Dominican Republic 618,380
  Singapore 566,020
  Slovakia 542,400 – 1,518,720
  Lithuania 469,040
  Latvia 461,200 – 668,740
  Portugal 420,960 – 947,160
  Armenia 118,740
  Uruguay 407,880
  Kyrgyzstan 355,670
  Croatia 314,790
  Albania 283,600
  Mongolia 247,590
  Iceland 47,040 – 67,620
  Brazil 15,410,000

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Global Index of Religion and Atheism" (PDF). WIN/Gallup International. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Losing our Religion? Two-Thirds of People Still Claim to be Religious" (PDF). WIN/Gallup International. 13 April 2015.
  4. ^ "Religion prevails in the world" (PDF). Gallup International. 14 November 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  5. ^ "Religiously Unaffiliated". The Global Religious Landscape. Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. 18 December 2012. The religiously unaffiliated include atheists, agnostics and people who do not identify with any particular religion in surveys. However, many of the religiously unaffiliated have some religious beliefs...Some of the unaffiliated also engage in certain kinds of religious practices.
  6. ^ a b Zuckerman, Phil (2006). "Atheism: Contemporary Numbers and Patterns". In Martin, Michael (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47–66. ISBN 9780521842709.
  7. ^ a b Keysar, Ariela; Navarro-Rivera, Juhem (2017). "36. A World of Atheism: Global Demographics". In Bullivant, Stephen; Ruse, Michael (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Atheism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199644650.
  8. ^ https://www.pdfdrive.com/the-cambridge-companion-to-atheism-d187156887.html
  9. ^ https://imgbb.com/nBN7JT6
  10. ^ "Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 18 December 2012. p. 45-50.
  11. ^ "Religion prevails in the world" (PDF). Gallup International. 14 November 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  12. ^ "WIN-Gallup International 'Religiosity and Atheism Index' reveals atheists are a small minority in the early years of 21st century". WIN-Gallup International. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  13. ^ "GLOBAL INDEX OF RELIGIOSITY AND ATHEISM – 2012" (PDF). WIN-Gallup International. 27 July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  14. ^ Dentsu Communication Institute 電通総研・日本リサーチセンター編「世界60カ国価値観データブック (in Japanese)
  15. ^ "Religiously Unaffiliated". 18 December 2012.
  16. ^ "The Cambridge Companion to Atheism - PDF Drive".
  17. ^ "81-F77-Aeb-A404-447-C-8-B95-Dd57-Adc11-E98".

External linksEdit

  •   Media related to Irreligion by country at Wikimedia Commons