List of duplicating processes


This is a partial list of text and image duplicating processes used in business and government from the Industrial Revolution forward. Some are mechanical and some are chemical. There is naturally some overlap with printing processes and photographic processes, but the challenge of precisely duplicating business letters, forms, contracts, and other paperwork prompted some unique solutions as well. There were many short-lived inventions along the way.

Duplicating processesEdit

Within each type, the methods are arranged in very rough chronological order.

1917 office with a "Multigraph" duplicating machine at lower right

External linksEdit

  • Duplicating in the year B.C. - Before (xerographic) Copies at the Wayback Machine (archived June 24, 2009)
  • Making Copies from Carbon to Kinkos
  • Copies in Seconds (PDF)
  • Antique Copying Machines at
  • Office and Reprographic Printing Cheatsheet – Preservation Self-Assessment Program