List of language regulators

Summary

This is a list of bodies that consider themselves to be authorities on standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism and prestige, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also have a more descriptive approach, however, while maintaining and promoting (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate and codify the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors.

Many world languages have one or more language academies or official language bodies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French). The English language has never had a formal regulator anywhere, outside of private productions such as the Oxford English Dictionary.

Natural languages

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Language Territory Regulator(s) Founded
Amis   Republic of China Council of Indigenous Peoples 1996
Afrikaans   South Africa
  Namibia
Die Taalkommissie (The Language Commission) 1909
Akan   Ghana Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)
Albanian   Albania Academy of Sciences of Albania 1972
  Kosovo Academy of Sciences and Arts of Kosovo 1975
Arabic   Arab League Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية)
  Algeria Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria (المجلس الأعلى للغة العربية بالجزائر‎) 1996
  Egypt Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo (مجمع اللغة العربية بالقاهرة) 1932
  Iraq Iraqi Academy of Sciences (المجمع العلمي العراقي) 1948
  Jordan Jordan Academy of Arabic (مجمع اللغة العربية الأردني) 1924
  Libya Academy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya
  Morocco Academy of the Arabic Language in Morocco 1960
  Saudi Arabia King Salman Global Academy for Arabic Language (مجمع الملك سلمان العالمي للغة العربية)
  Somalia Academy of the Arabic Language in Mogadishu
  Sudan Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum
  Syria Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus (مجمع اللغة العربية بدمشق) 1918
  Tunisia Beit Al-Hikma Foundation (مؤسسة بيت الحكمة) 1992
  Israel
  Palestine
Academy of the Arabic Language in Israel (مجمع اللغة العربية) 2007
Aragonese   Aragon Instituto de l'Aragonés[2] (Previously: Academy of the Aragonese) 2013
Armenian   Armenia Armenian National Academy of Sciences (Հայաստան) 1943
Assamese   India Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা) 1917
Asturian   Asturias Academy of the Asturian Language (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana) 1980
Azerbaijani   Azerbaijan
  Iran
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (Azərbaycan Milli Elmlər Akademiyası) 1945
Aymara   Bolivia Language and Culture Institute of the Aymara Nation (Instituto de Lengua y Cultura de la Nación Aymara - ILCNA) 2013[citation needed]
Balochi   Iran
  Pakistan
  Afghanistan
  Oman
Balochi Academy Sarbaz (بلۏچی زبانءِ ربیدجاہ) 2017
Basque   Basque Country
  Navarre
  French Basque Country
Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language 1918
Belarusian   Belarus The Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature[3] at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus 1929
Bengali (Bangla)   Bangladesh Bangla Academy (বাংলা একাডেমি) 1955
  India Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি) 1986
Berber   Morocco Royal Institute of Amazight Culture 2001
  Algeria Haut-Conseil à l'amazighité (High Commission for Amazighity) 1995
Algerian Academy of Amazigh Language 2017
Bhojpuri   India Bhojpuri Academy, Bihar
Maithili - Bhojpuri Academy, Delhi
Bhojpuri Sahitya Academy, Madhya Pradesh
Central Bikol   Philippines Academia Bicolana defunct
Bosnian   Bosnia and Herzegovina
  Sandžak
University of Sarajevo
Breton   Brittany Public Office for the Breton Language (Ofis Publik ar Brezhoneg) 2010
Bulgarian   Bulgaria Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences 1942
Burmese   Myanmar Myanmar Language Commission ( မြန်မာစာအဖွဲ့) 1963
Catalan   Catalonia Institute for Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans) 1907
  Valencian Community Valencian Language Academy (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua) 2001
Cebuano   Philippines Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters (Akademyang Bisaya)
Cherokee   Cherokee Nation Council of the Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ)[4]
Standard Chinese   China State Language Work Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会) 1986[5]
  Republic of China Ministry of Education (教育部)
  Singapore Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会) 1979
  Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)
Cornish   Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek) 2005
Croatian   Croatia Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje) 1948
  Bosnia and Herzegovina
Czech   Czech Republic Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) (Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky)) 1946
Danish   Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council) 1955
Dalecarlian   Dalarna County Ulum Dalska 1984
Divehi   Maldives Dhivehi Academy (ދިވެހި އެކެޑަމީ) 2011
Dutch   Netherlands
  Belgium
  Suriname
Dutch Language Union (Nederlandse Taalunie) 1980
Dzongkha   Bhutan Dzongkha Development Commission (རྫོང་ཁ་གོང་འཕེལ་ལྷན་ཚོགས) 1968
English None None official, but the Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language.
Estonian   Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut) 1993
Faroese   Faroe Islands Faroese Language Board (Málráðið) 1985
Filipino   Philippines Commission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino) 1937
Finnish   Finland Institute for the Languages of Finland 1976
French   France French Academy (Académie Française) 1635
General Delegation for the French language and the languages of France (Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France) 1989
  Belgium Royal Academy of French Language and Literature of Belgium (Académie royale de langue et de littérature françaises de Belgique)[citation needed] 1920
  Quebec Office québécois de la langue française (Québec Office of the French Language) 1961
Friulian   Friuli-Venezia Giulia Agjenzie Regjonâl pe Lenghe Furlane[6] 2001
Galician   Galicia Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega) 1906
Georgian   Georgia (country) Cabinet of Georgia (საქართველოს მთავრობა)
German   Germany
  Austria
   Switzerland
  South Tyrol
  Belgium
  Alsace
  Liechtenstein
  Luxembourg
  Namibia
  Syddanmark
  Opole Voivodeship
  Silesian Voivodeship
Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung) 2004
Greenlandic   Greenland The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik) 1998[7]
Guarani   Paraguay Guarani Language Academy (Guarani Ñe’ ẽ Rerekuapavẽ) 2013
Gujarati   India Gujarat Sahitya Akademi (ગુજરાત સાહિત્ય અકાદમી) 1981
Hakka   Republic of China Hakka Affairs Council (客家委員會) 2001
Haitian Creole   Haiti Haitian Creole Academy (Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen) 2014
Hebrew   Israel Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית) 1890
Hindi   India Central Hindi Directorate (केन्द्रीय हिन्दी निदेशालय) 1960
Hmar   India Hmar Literature Society[citation needed]
Hungarian   Hungary
  Slovakia
  Romania
  Serbia
  Austria
Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics (Nyelvtudományi Kutatóközpont) 1949
Icelandic   Iceland Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies (Stofnun Árna Magnússonar í íslenskum fræðum) 1962
Igbo   Nigeria Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture 1949
Indonesian   Indonesia Language Development and Fostering Agency (Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa) 1947
Inuktitut   Canada Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᑕᐱᕇᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ) 1971
Irish   Ireland
  Northern Ireland
Foras na Gaeilge (Irish Institute) 1999
Italian   Italy
  San Marino
   Switzerland
  Vatican City
  Monaco
  Corsica
  Istria County
  Eritrea
  Libya
Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran) 1583
Japanese   Japan National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics (国立国語研究所) 1948
Kabiye   Togo Kabiye Academy (Académie kabiyè) 1975[8]
Kannada   Karnataka Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian   Poland The Kashubian Language Council (Radzëzna Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka) 2006
Kazakh   Kazakhstan Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Қазақстан Республикасының Ғылым және жоғары білім министрлігі) 2022
Khmer   Cambodia Royal Academy of Cambodia (រាជបណ្ឌិត្យសភាកម្ពុជា) 1965
Korean   South Korea National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원/國立國語院) 1991
  North Korea The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science (사회과학원 어학연구소)
  China China Korean Language Regulatory Commission (중국조선어규범위원회/中国朝鲜语规范委员会)
Kven   Norway Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt 2007
Kurdish   Kurdistan Kurdish Academy (ئەکادیمیای کوردی) 1971
Kyrgyz   Kyrgyzstan National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия) 2009[9]
Lao   Laos Educational Science Research Institute, Ministry of Education and Sports (ສະຖາບັນຄົ້ນຄວ້າວິທະຍາສາດການສືກສາ ກະຊວງສຶກສາທິການ ແລະ ກີລາ)
Institute of Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, National University of Laos (ສະຖາບັນວິທະຍາສາດສັງຄົມ ຄະນະອັກສອນສາດ ມະຫາວິທະຍາໄລແຫ່ງຊາດລາວ)
Latin   Holy See Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) [10] 2012
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin) 1867
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin) 1905
Latvian   Latvia Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs) 1992
Lithuanian   Lithuania Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija) 1990
Lusoga   Uganda Lusoga Language Authority
Luxembourgish   Luxembourg Council for the Luxembourgish Language (Conseil fir d'Letzebuerger Sprooch) 1998
Macedonian   North Macedonia Linguistics and Literary Science Department at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts 1967
Malagasy   Madagascar Malagasy Academy (Académie Malgache) 1902
Malay   Malaysia Institute of Language and Literature (Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka) 1956
  Brunei Language and Literature Bureau (Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka) 1960
  Singapore Majlis Bahasa Melayu Singapura (Malay Language Council, Singapore)
Malayalam   India Kerala Sahitya Akademi (കേരള സാഹിത്യ അക്കാദമി) 1956
Maltese   Malta National Council for the Maltese Language (Il-Kunsill Nazzjonali tal-Ilsien Malti) 2005
Manx   Isle of Man Manx Language Advisory Council (Coonceil ny Gaelgey) 1985
Māori   New Zealand Māori Language Commission (Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori) 1987
Marathi   India Maharashtra Sahitya Parishad (महाराष्ट्र साहित्य परिषद) 1906
Meitei (officially called Manipuri)   India Directorate of Language Planning and Implementation (ꯗꯥꯏꯔꯦꯛꯇꯣꯔꯦꯠ ꯑꯣꯐ ꯂꯦꯡꯒ꯭ꯋꯦꯖ ꯄ꯭ꯂꯥꯅꯤꯡ ꯑꯦꯟ꯭ꯗ ꯏꯝꯄ꯭ꯂꯤꯃꯦꯟꯇꯦꯁꯟ) 2013
Manipuri Sahitya Parishad (ꯃꯅꯤꯄꯨꯔꯤ ꯁꯥꯍꯤꯇ꯭ꯌ ꯄꯔꯤꯁꯗ) 1935
Mirandese   Portugal Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language) 2000
Mixtec   Mexico Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi) 1997
Khalkha Mongolian   Mongolia Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[11]
Chakhar Mongolian   China Council for Language and Literature Work
Nepali     Nepal Nepal Academy (नेपाल प्रज्ञा–प्रतिष्ठान) 1957
Northern Frisian   North Frisia Northern Frisian Institute (Nordfriisk Instituut) 1964
Norwegian (Riksmål/Bokmål)   Norway Norwegian Academy 1953
Norwegian Bokmål
Norwegian Nynorsk
Norwegian Language Council 2005
Occitan   Occitania
  France
  Spain
  Monaco
  Italy
Occitan Language Council (Conselh de la Lenga Occitana),[12]
Permanent Congress of the Occitan Language (Congrès Permanent de la Lenga Occitana),[13]
Institute of Aranese Studies (Institut d'Estudis Aranesi) (Aranese)[14]
1996
Odia   India Odisha Sahitya Akademi (ଓଡ଼ିଶା ସାହିତ୍ୟ ଏକାଡେମୀ) 1957
Pashto   Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan (د علومو اکاډمي نښه) 1978
  Pakistan Pashto Academy (پښتو اکېډمي) 1955
Persian   Iran Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی) 1935
  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan (آکادمی علوم افغانستان) 1978
Paiwan   Republic of China Council of Indigenous Peoples 1996
Polish   Poland Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego) 1996
Portuguese   Portugal Lisbon Academy of Sciences (Academia das Ciências de Lisboa) 1779
  Brazil Brazilian Academy of Letters (Academia Brasileira de Letras) 1897
  Galicia Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language (Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa) 2008
Quechua   Ecuador Academy of the Kichwa Language (Kichwa Amawta Kamachik/ Academia de la Lengua Kichwa, abbreviated 'KAMAK')[15] 2003[15]
  Peru Peruvian Ministries of Education and of Culture (as part of their functions)
Department of Cuzco High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa Simi Hamut'ana Kuraq Suntur/ Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua) 1953[16]
Department of Cajamarca Cajamarca Regional Academy of the Quechua Language (Academia Regional del Idioma Quechua de Cajamarca - ARIQ)[17][18] 1986[18]
Department of Ancash Ancash Regional Academy of Quechua (Academia Regional de Quechua de Ancash - ARQA)
  Bolivia Language and Culture Institute of the Quechua Nation (Instituto de Lengua y Cultura de la Nación Quechua - ILCNQ) 2013[19]
Department of Cochabamba Cochabamba Regional Academy of the Quechua Language (Academia Regional de la Lengua Quechua de Cochabamba)
Rohingya   Arakan (Rakhine State) Rohingya Language Academy (𐴌𐴟𐴇𐴥𐴝𐴚𐴒𐴙𐴝 𐴎𐴟𐴁𐴝𐴕 𐴀𐴠𐴑𐴝𐴋𐴠𐴔𐴞)
Romanian   Romania Academia Română (Romanian Academy) 1866
  Moldova Academy of Sciences of Moldova (Academia de Științe a Moldovei) 1961
Romansh    Switzerland Lia Rumantscha 1919
Russian   Russia
  Belarus
  Kazakhstan
  Kyrgyzstan
  Tajikistan
Russian Language Institute (Институт русского языка) 1944
Scots   Scotland Scots Language Centre (Center for the Scots Leid) 1993
Scottish Gaelic The Gaelic Board (Bòrd na Gàidhlig) 2006
Secwepemctsín   Canada Secwepemc Cultural Education Society 1983
Serbian and Montenegrin   Serbia
  Montenegro
  Srpska
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language (Одбор за стандардизацију српског језика) 1997
Sicilian   Sicily Cademia Siciliana[20] 2016
Sindhi   Pakistan Sindhi Language Authority (سنڌي ٻولي جو با اختيار ادارو) 1992
Sinhala   Sri Lanka Hela Havula (හෙළ හවුල) 1941
Slovak   Slovakia Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied) 1942
Slovene   Slovenia Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti) 1938
Somali   Djibouti
  Ethiopia
  Somalia
Regional Somali Language Academy (Akademiye Goboleedka Af Soomaaliga) 2013
Sorbian   Germany
  Czech Republic
  Poland
Sorbian Institute (Serbski institut) 1951
Spanish   Spain
  Colombia
  Ecuador
  Mexico
  El Salvador
  Venezuela
  Chile
  Peru
  Guatemala
  Costa Rica
  Philippines
  Panama
  Cuba
  Paraguay
  Bolivia
  Dominican Republic
  Nicaragua
  Argentina
  Uruguay
  Honduras
  Puerto Rico
  United States
  Equatorial Guinea
  Israel
Association of Spanish Language Academies 1951
Swahili   Tanzania National Swahili Council (Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa) 1967
  Kenya National Kiswahili Association (Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa) 1998
Swedish   Sweden Language Council of Sweden (Språkrådet) 1941
Swedish Academy (Svenska Akademien) 1786
  Finland Institute for the Languages of Finland
Tajik   Tajikistan
  Uzbekistan
Rudaki Institute of Language and Literature (Институти забон ва адабиёт ба номи А. Рӯдакии) 1932
Tamil   India Tamil University (தமிழ்ப் பல்கலைக்கழகம்) 1981
Tamil Nadu State Official Language Commission (மாநில அலுவல் மொழி ஆணையம்)[citation needed] 1965
  Sri Lanka Department of Official Languages (அதிகாரப்பூர்வ மொழிகள் துறை)[citation needed]
  Singapore Tamil Language Council (வளர்தமிழ் இயக்கம்)[citation needed] 2000
  Malaysia Malaysian Tamil Language Standardisation Council (மலேசியத் தமிழ் மொழியின் காப்பகம்) 2019
Tatar   Tatarstan Tatarstan Academy of Sciences (Татарстан Республикасы Фәннәр академиясе) 1804
Telugu   India Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum   East Timor National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai   Thailand Royal Society of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา) 1926
Tibetan   Tibet Autonomous Region Committee for Tibetan Language Affairs [1]
  India Committee for the Standardisation of the Tibetan Language
Tulu   India Karnataka Tulu Sahitya Academy
Turkish   Turkey
  Cyprus
  Northern Cyprus
Türk Dil Kurumu (Turkish Language Association) 1932
Ukrainian   Ukraine NASU Institute of Ukrainian Language 1991
Urdu   Pakistan National Language Promotion Department (اِدارۀ فروغِ قومی زُبان)
  India National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language (قومی کونسل برائے فروغ اردو زبان)
Urhobo   Nigeria Urhobo Studies Association
Vietnamese   Vietnam Institute of Linguistics of Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences
Võro   Estonia Võro Institute
Waray   Philippines Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh   Wales Welsh Language Commissioner (Aled Roberts) 2012
West Frisian   Friesland Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy) 1938
Wolof   Senegal Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)
Yiddish   United States
  Sweden
  Russia
YIVO[21] 1925
Yoruba   Nigeria Yoruba Academy October 2007

Constructed languages

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Apart from the Akademio de Esperanto, most constructed languages (also called conlangs) have no true linguistic regulators or language academies.[22]

Auxiliary languages

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Language Regulator(s)
Esperanto Akademio de Esperanto
Ido Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido
Lingua Franca Nova Asosia per Lingua Franca Nova
Volapük Kadäm Volapüka

Esperanto

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Esperanto and Ido have been constructed (or planned) by a person or small group, before being adopted and further developed by communities of users through natural language evolution.

Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language.

Interlingua

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Interlingua has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies. The International Auxiliary Language Association ceased to exist in 1954, and according to the secretary of Union Mundial de Interlingua "Interlingua doesn't need its Academy".[22]

Other constructed languages

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Language Regulator(s)
Klingon Marc Okrand
Lojban Logical Language Group
Naʼvi Paul Frommer
Talossan Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ

Other bodies

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These bodies do not attempt to regulate any language in a prescriptive manner and are primarily concerned with aiding and advising the government on policies regarding language usage.

  •   Hong Kong: Official Language Division Civil Service Bureau Government of Hong Kong – concerned with matters concerning government language policy
  •   Macau: Departamento dos Assuntos Linguísticos of the Public Administration and Civil Service Bureau of the Government of Macau –concerned with matters concerning government language policy

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism p.108, quotation:

    Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets such as Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks -- as with so many academies to follow -- was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian

  2. ^ "Instituto de l'Aragonés | Academia Aragonesa de la Lengua". www.academiaaragonesadelalengua.org (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 September 2023.
  3. ^ "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012. Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ...
  4. ^ Council of the Cherokee Nation
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