List of longest caves

Summary

This list of longest caves includes caves in which the combined length of documented passageways exceeds 100 kilometres (62 mi). In some of these caves, passageways are still being discovered.[1][2]

Mammoth Cave, the world's longest known cave system

Geographical distribution edit

Caves are found around the world. The largest form in areas of karst landforms whose rocks dissolve easily. Preferable conditions for karst cave formation are adequate precipitation, enough plants and animals to produce ample carbon dioxide, and a landscape of gentle hills which drains slowly.[citation needed] The highest concentrations of long caves in the world are found in the Pennyroyal Plateau of southern Kentucky, United States, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, United States, and in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico.

List edit

# System Length Location coordinates Discovery Associated parks,
protected areas
1 Mammoth Cave 685.6 km (426.0 mi)[3][4] near Brownsville, Kentucky, United States 37°11′15″N 86°06′13″W / 37.18758°N 86.10357°W / 37.18758; -86.10357 (Mammoth cave historic entrance) 1791 Mammoth Cave National Park, also a World Heritage Site, International Biosphere Reserve, and International Dark Sky Park
2 Sistema Ox Bel Ha 435.8 km (270.8 mi)[5][1][6] near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico 20°09′37″N 87°29′15″W / 20.16028°N 87.48750°W / 20.16028; -87.48750 (Sistema Ox Bel Ha) 1996 southern parts in Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve
3 Shuanghedong Cave Network 417.6 km (259.5 mi)[7][8] Guizhou, China 28°14′31″N 107°16′34″E / 28.24199°N 107.27608°E / 28.24199; 107.27608 (Shuanghe Dongqun) 1988 Suiyang Shuanghedong National Geopark
4 Sistema Sac Actun / Sistema Dos Ojos 386.1 km (239.9 mi)[2] near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico 20°14′48″N 87°27′51″W / 20.246556°N 87.464111°W / 20.246556; -87.464111 (Gran Cenote) 1987
5 Jewel Cave 354.07 km (220.0 mi)[9][10] near Custer, South Dakota, United States 43°43′46″N 103°49′46″W / 43.72944°N 103.82944°W / 43.72944; -103.82944 (Jewel Cave) 1900 Jewel Cave National Monument
6 Wind Cave 266.8 km (165.8 mi)[11] near Hot Springs, South Dakota, United States 43°33′29″N 103°28′46″W / 43.55804°N 103.47955°W / 43.55804; -103.47955 (Wind Cave) 1881 Wind Cave National Park
7 Optymistychna Cave 264.5 km (164.4 mi)[12] near Korolivka, Ukraine 48°44′20″N 25°59′22″E / 48.738830378°N 25.989496042°E / 48.738830378; 25.989496042 (Grotte Optimiste) 1966 Dnistrovskyy Canion
8 Clearwater Cave System 257.8 km (160.2 mi)[13][14] near Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia 4°03′55″N 114°49′54″E / 4.06529°N 114.83176°E / 4.06529; 114.83176 (Clearwater Cave) 1978 Gunung Mulu National Park, also a World Heritage Site
9 Lechuguilla Cave 244.7 km (152.0 mi)[15][16] near Carlsbad, New Mexico, United States 32°11′26″N 104°30′12″W / 32.1906420°N 104.5033091°W / 32.1906420; -104.5033091 (Grotte de Lechuguilla) 1900 Carlsbad Caverns National Park
10 Fisher Ridge Cave System 212.1 km (131.8 mi) near Brownsville, Kentucky, United States 37°11′30″N 85°58′48″W / 37.191736°N 85.980122°W / 37.191736; -85.980122 1981 partly within Mammoth Cave National Park
11 Hölloch 211.2 km (131.2 mi)[17][18] Muotathal, Switzerland 46°58′36″N 8°47′18″E / 46.976670°N 8.788330°E / 46.976670; 8.788330 1875
12 Sistema del Alto Tejuelo 206.7 km (128.4 mi)[19] Cantabria, Spain 43°15′11″N 3°40′51″W / 43.2530670°N 3.6807990°W / 43.2530670; -3.6807990 1965
13 Siebenhengste-Hohgant-Höhle 164.5 km (102.2 mi)[20][21] Switzerland 46°47′02″N 7°54′04″E / 46.783822°N 7.901231°E / 46.783822; 7.901231 1966
14 Schönberg Cave System 156.9 km (97.49 mi)[22][23][24] Austria 47°42′06″N 13°46′20″E / 47.701528°N 13.772333°E / 47.701528; 13.772333 1976
15 Mortillano system 146.5 km (91.03 mi)[25] Cantabria, Spain 43°13′51″N 3°33′43″W / 43.23082°N 3.56197°W / 43.23082; -3.56197 1960
16 Priest's Grotto 142.1 km (88.30 mi)[26] Ukraine 48°45′52″N 25°57′57″E / 48.7644444°N 25.9658330555°E / 48.7644444; 25.9658330555 1940
17 Steinbrücken Cave 137.7 km (85.56 mi)[23] Austria 47°39′43″N 13°48′11″E / 47.661940°N 13.803060°E / 47.661940; 13.803060 1929
18 Marosakabe cave system 124 km (77.05 mi)[27][28] Madagascar 16°27′07″S 45°20′08″E / 16.45189°S 45.33543°E / -16.45189; 45.33543 (Zohy Tsongom'omby) 2006 Tsingy de Namoroka Strict Nature Reserve
19 Bullita Cave 123 km (76.43 mi)[29][30] Australia 16°03′48″S 130°23′00″E / 16.063330°S 130.383330°E / -16.063330; 130.383330 1990 Gregory National Park
20 Sistema del Gandara 119.0 km (73.94 mi)[31][32] Cantabria, Spain 43°11′34″N 3°34′46″W / 43.1927260°N 3.5794850°W / 43.1927260; -3.5794850 2005
21 Hirlatzhöhle 117.8 km (73.20 mi)[22] Austria 47°32′42″N 13°37′51″E / 47.544975°N 13.630953°E / 47.544975; 13.630953 1949
22 Réseau Félix Trombe 117.2 km (72.82 mi)[33] France 42°58′21″N 0°51′59″E / 42.972500°N 0.866390°E / 42.972500; 0.866390 1908
23 Toca da Boa Vista 114 km (70.84 mi)[34] Brazil 10°09′45″S 40°51′35″W / 10.162500°S 40.859722°W / -10.162500; -40.859722 (Toca da Boa Vista) 1987
24 Ojo Guareña 111 km (68.97 mi)[35][36] Spain 43°02′02″N 3°37′50″W / 43.03376°N 3.63059°W / 43.03376; -3.63059 1956
25 Sistema K'oox Baal 103.7 km (64.44 mi)[2][37] near Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico 20°22′21″N 87°25′02″W / 20.372622°N 87.417239°W / 20.372622; -87.417239 (K'oox Baal) 1987
26 Sistema Huautla 100.1 km (62.20 mi)[38] Mexico 18°07′16.37″N 96°48′00.03″W / 18.1212139°N 96.8000083°W / 18.1212139; -96.8000083 (Sótano de San Agustin, Sistema Huautla) 1965

See also edit

External links edit

  • World's Deepest Caves
  • World's Longest Caves

References edit

  1. ^ a b "List of Long Underwater Caves in Quintana Roo Mexico". Quintana Roo Speleological Survey. National Speleological Society. 2023-01-10. Retrieved 2023-01-10.
  2. ^ a b c "Dry Caves and Sumps of Quintana Roo Mexico". Quintana Roo Speleological Survey. National Speleological Society. 2023-01-10. Retrieved 2023-02-04.
  3. ^ "Exploration in the World's Longest Cave" (PDF). Retrieved 2017-12-03..
  4. ^ Emily Deletter (September 13, 2022). "Mammoth Cave discovers 6 more miles, still the longest cave system in the world". Cincinnati.com. Retrieved October 9, 2022.
  5. ^ "CINDAQ 2022 Annual report". El Centro Investigador del Sistema Acuífero de Quintana Roo A.C.(CINDAQ). January 26, 2023. Retrieved February 3, 2023.
  6. ^ Bill Mixon. Mexico news (PDF). Vol. 34. p. 22. Retrieved 2014-06-01..
  7. ^ "Grottes et karsts de Chine-Shuanghedongqun - 双河洞". Retrieved 2023-12-06..
  8. ^ Jean Pierre Barbary; Jean Bottazzi (23 April 2023). "Grottes et karsts de Chine - Sur les traces de Xu Xiake - Shuanghedong 双河洞 400 km !". Retrieved 2023-04-29.
  9. ^ "Jewel Cave Cave Exploration". National Park Service (NPS). January 10, 2024. Retrieved January 11, 2024.
  10. ^ "Jewel Cave Reaches 200 Miles". National Park Service (NPS). December 19, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
  11. ^ "150 miles and counting: Wind Cave celebrates significant milestone". National Park Service (NPS). October 18, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  12. ^ "optymistychna is the longest cave in ukraine". ukrainegoodnews.com. 2014-06-04.
  13. ^ Eavis, Rob (April–May 2016). "What a Rollercoaster". Descent (249): 24–29.
  14. ^ "The Clearwater Cave System". mulucaves.org. Retrieved 2023-02-05.
  15. ^ "Lechuguilla Cave Info". 2022. Retrieved 2023-10-13.
  16. ^ "Lechuguilla Cave". National Park Service (NPS). July 17, 2019. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  17. ^ Arbeitsgemeinschaft Höllochforschung AGH. "Offizielle Vermessungs-Werte AGH". hoellochforschung.ch (in German). Retrieved 2023-02-05.
  18. ^ "Arbeitsgemeinschaft Hoellochforschung AGH" (in German). Archived from the original on 2019-01-19. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
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  20. ^ Anonyme. "Grandes cavités suisses" (in French). Retrieved 2020-02-20..
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  24. ^ Harald Zeltlhofer (2022-09-12). "Schönberg Höhlensystem" (in German). Retrieved 2023-02-05.
  25. ^ "Mortillano !!!! 146,5 Km.!!!!" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016-09-13..
  26. ^ "Найдовші печери України (від 1000 м.)" (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2022-03-27..
  27. ^ "Expédition Malagasy 2018" (in French). Retrieved 2018-08-31.
  28. ^ Jean-Nicolas Delaty; Eric Sibert (June 2023). "Malagasy 2022-Tsingy de Namoroka". Spelunca. 170. Fédération française de spéléologie: 3. ISSN 0249-0544..
  29. ^ Grimes, K. G.; Martini, J. E. (2016). "Bullita cave system, Judbarra / Gregory Karst, tropical Australia" (PDF). Boletín Geológico y Minero: 21–44. Retrieved 2023-10-13..
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  31. ^ "Classement des plus grandes cavités" (in French). Retrieved 2024-01-17..
  32. ^ "Le réseau de la Gandara" (in French). Retrieved 2024-01-17..
  33. ^ "Le réseau Félix Trombe Henne Morte" (in French). Retrieved 2024-02-14.
  34. ^ Sociedade Brasileira de Espeleologia. "As maiores cavernas do Brasil" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2018-12-08..
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  38. ^ "The PESCH Mission". Retrieved 2023-04-06.