List of military equipment of the Canadian Army during the Second World War

Summary

At the beginning of the Second World War, Canada did not have an extensive manufacturing industry besides car manufacturing. Therefore, most of Canadian weapons and equipment during the war were imported from either Britain or the US.

Knives and bayonetsEdit

Model From Blade length Comments
Fairbairn-Sykes fighting knife 1941 18 cm Various models.
Ross bayonet 1905 ? Stepped guard on early model, flat on later model. Sharpened later models were taken overseas in World War I.
P1907 bayonet 1907 ? Used on No. 1 rifle (previously called SMLE)
No. 4 MK. II bayonet 1941 ? Used on No. 4 MK. I, No. 4 MK. I* and Sten MK. V
M346 ? 90mm Standard issue containing a 90mm sheeps foot blade, a 40mm stab/can opener blade, a 100mm fid/ marlin spike and a lanyard bale wire loop, based on the Case Model 6353/1905. Manufactured by Case in the USA for the Canadian Military until 1948 when production moved to Pictou, Nova Scotia, Canada. Markings include "Case XX Metal Stampings" on the base of the sheeps foot blade and a C with a broad arrow inside stamped on the scales (case) normally near the rivet holding the blades.[1]
 
Standard issue knife for Canadian troops in WW2. Similar versions from different manufacturers were issued from WW1 through 1970s.

SmallEdit

PistolsEdit

Model Origin Acquired Type Cartridge Variants Notes
Colt Model 1911   United States 1914 Semi-automatic .45 ACP
  • Model 1911
  • Model 1911A1
Canada purchased some in World War I and more in World War II.
Smith & Wesson Triple Lock   United States 1917 Revolver .44 Special
  • 2nd Model
Low-cost version
Browning Hi-Power   Belgium 1944 Semi-automatic 9×19mm Parabellum
  • Pistol No.1 Mk.1
  • Pistol No.2 Mk.1
Produced under license in Canada by John Inglis & Company
Smith & Wesson Model 10   United States 1942 Revolver .38-200
  • S&W Victory Model
Webley Revolver   United Kingdom 1915 Revolver .455 Webley
  • Webley .455 Mk.VI
Obsolete, secondary sidearm
Enfield No. 2   United Kingdom 1932 Revolver .38-200
  • Mk.1
Secondary sidearm
Colt Police Positive   United States 1907 Revolver .38 S&W Secondary sidearm

Submachine gunsEdit

Model Origin Acquired Action Cartridge Variants Notes
Thompson   United States 1942 Blowback, "Blish Lock" .45 ACP
  • Model 1928
  • Model 1928A1
  • M1
  • M1A1
Sten   United Kingdom 1941 Blowback, Open bolt 9×19mm Parabellum
  • Mk. II
  • Mk. III
  • Mk. V
M50 Reising   United States 1941 Blowback, Closed bolt .45 ACP
  • M50
Extremely limited use, primarily by the Veterans Guard of Canada for guard duties.

RiflesEdit

Model Origin Acquired Action Cartridge Variants Notes
Lee–Enfield No.1   United Kingdom 1916 Bolt-action .303 British Mk.VII
  • Mk.III
  • Mk.III*
Lee–Enfield No.4   United Kingdom 1943 Bolt-action .303 British Mk.VII
  • Mk.I
  • Mk.6*
Primary service rifle.
Pattern 1914 Enfield   United Kingdom 1914 Bolt-action .303 British Mk.VII For training and use by snipers.[2]
M1917 Enfield   United States 1917 Bolt-action .30-06 Springfield Limited domestic use.
Ross   Canada 1910 Straight pull bolt-action .303 British Mk.VII
  • Mk.III
  • Mk.III*
For training and Veteran's Guard of Canada use only.

Grenades and grenade launchersEdit

This list is grossly incomplete, listing a small fraction of approximately 30 grenade varieties used by Canadians during World War II.

Grenade Launcher Introduced Type Weight, g comments
No. 36 M MK. I cup discharger for No. 1 rifle 1915 fragmentation 765 most common hand grenade during World War II
No 68 AT Grenade 1940 HEAT 894 52 mm RHA penetration
No. 69 grenade No 1942 high-explosive 383 bakelite case
No. 73 grenade No 1940 high-explosive 2000 51mm RHA penetration, used mostly for demolition
No. 74 Sticky bomb No 1940 HESH ~900 low-cost
No. 75 AT Hawkins Mine No 1942 high-explosive 1020 most common Canadian AT weapon & demolition charge during World War II
No. 82 Gammon No 1943 universal 1140 soft body

FlamethrowersEdit

Flamethrower, Portable, No 2 "Ack-Pack"

Machine gunsEdit

Infantry and dual-purpose machine gunsEdit

Type Production Fire rate, RPM Effective range Cartridge From: Produced Weight Comment
Bren Gun (various marks) Inglis, Toronto 510 600 .303 British (7.7×56mmR) 1939 599000 10.35 kg replacement for Lewis gun
Lewis gun (standard model; U.S. version; Automatic Ship's Lewis Gun) 550 800 .303 British (7.7×56mmR) or .30/06 1917 ? 13 kg occasional AA gun, limited production during World War II
Vickers machine gun (various marks and models) 475 2000 .303 British (7.7×56mmR) 1912 ? 23 kg Vickers Gas Operated was standard flexible MG on aircraft early in World War II.
M2HB Browning machine gun 550 1800 .50 BMG (12.7×99mm) 1921 3000000 23 kg used until present (2014)
M1919A4 500 1400 .30/06 1919 5000000 14 kg In 1970s converted to 7.62 NATO

Vehicle and aircraft machine gunsEdit

ArtilleryEdit

Infantry mortarsEdit

Model Caliber Max. range From Produced Weight, kg fire rate, RPM Comment
2 inch Mortar (standard and airborne lightweight models) 50.8mm 460 1937 ? 4.8 8 elevated by hand
M19 mortar 60mm 1790 1942 ? 9.3 8 received after M19 was rejected by US military
3 inch Mortar Mk. II 81.2mm 1463 1931 ? 50.8 15 crew of 3
M2 4.2 inch mortar 106.7mm 4023 1943 ? 151 5 prepared for chemical bombs delivery, never used

Heavy mortars & rocket launchersEdit

Land Mattress C-21 UCM -

Field artilleryEdit

Model Caliber Max. range From Produced Weight, kg fire rate, RPM Comment
QF 18-pounder 83.8mm 5966 1904 10469 1282 4 obsolete at start of World War II
QF 25-pounder 87.6mm 12253 1940 13000 1633 7 main Canadian World War II field gun/howitzer
BL 4.5 inch Medium Field Gun 114mm 18000 1938 ? 6190 2.5 built in UK by Canadian companies
BL 5.5 inch Medium Gun 140mm 16550 1941 ? 5900 2 received from UK
BL 60-pounder 127mm 15500 1905 1756 4400 2 in Canadian service until start of World War II

Anti-tank gunsEdit

Model Caliber Penetration 1 Penetration 2 Muzzle speed Max. range From Produced Weight, kg fire rate, RPM Comment
QF 2-pdr 40 mm 37 mm @ 457 m 27 mm @ 914 m 792 1000 1936 12000 814 22
QF 6-pdr 57 mm 88 mm @ 100 m - 884 1600 1941 ? 1140 ? produced in both UK and Canada
QF 17-pdr 76.2 mm 130 mm @ 500 m 119 mm @ 1000 m 880 1800 1942 ? 3050 ? -

Anti-tank weapons (besides anti-tank guns)Edit

Bangalore torpedo (not a grenade or anti-tank)

Anti-aircraft weaponsEdit

Model Caliber Eff. alt. From Produced Weight, kg fire rate, RPM Comment
QF 3.7-inch AA gun Mk1 94mm 7300 1941 ? 9317 15
Bofors 40 mm gun L/60 40mm 4100 1932 2250 1981 120 still in service (2014)
Polsten-Oerlikon gun 20mm 1000 1944 57 4000 450 low-cost

VehiclesEdit

Canada produced a wide variety of combat vehicles during World War II domestically, but all primary fighting vehicles were imported because of manufacturing quality concerns.

TankettesEdit

Carden Loyd Mk IV tankette - not used in combat

TanksEdit

Model From Armor max.
(mm)
Primary armament Secondary armament Weight
( t)
Power
(kW)
Range
(km)
#
Produced[note 1]
Crew Comments
Stuart tank 1941 51 37mm Gun M3 L/24 3×.30-06 Browning M1919A4 MG 14.7 190 119 25000 4 imported
Churchill tank Mk 1 1941 102 QF 2-pdr 2 × 7.92 mm Besa machine gun 38.5 261 90 7368 4 given to Canada for Dieppe Raid
Churchill Oke 1942 102 QF-2-pdr
Ronson flamethrower
2 × 7.92 mm Besa machine gun 38.5 261 90 3 4 all destroyed in Dieppe Raid
Centaur IV 1944 76 Ordnance QF 95 mm howitzer 2×7.92mm Besa machine gun 28 450 270 114 5 support tank
Sherman I, III, V 1942 76 75 mm Gun M2/M3/M6 1 × 12.7mm Browning M2HB and 2 × 7.8mm Browning M1919A4 30.3 298 193 ? 5 Lend-Lease
Sherman Firefly IC & VC 1943 89 QF 17-pdr 12.7mm Browning M2HB and 7.8mm Browning M1919A4 33 298 193 2,150 4 American chassis with British gun
Sherman V DD 1942 76 75 mm Gun M2/M3/M6 1×12.7mm Browning M2HB and 2×7.8mm Browning M1919A4 30.3 298 193 ? 5 M4 with flotation screen and propeller
Ram Badger flame tank 1941 87 QF 6-pdr Wasp II flamethrower and 2×7.62mm machine guns 29 298 232 ? 5 later versions had flamethrower replacing main gun
Sherman Badger flame tank 1942 76 75 mm Gun M2/M3/M6 Wasp IIC flamethrower and 2×7.8mm Browning M1919A4 30.3 298 193 ? 5 replacement for Ram Badger flame tank
Grizzly I 1943 75 75 mm M3 L/40 gun 2×.30-06 Browning M1919A4 MG 29.91 298 193 188 5 Canadian-built modified M4 Sherman, chassis used for Sexton self-propelled gun
M10 tank destroyer 1942 57 76.2 mm Gun M7 1×12.7mm Browning M2HB 29.6 276 300 6706 5 tank destroyer
Achilles 1944 57.2 QF 17-pdr (76mm) 1×12.7mm Browning M2HB 29.6 276 300 1,100 5 tank destroyer M10 with British gun
Archer 1943 60 QF 17-pdr (76mm) 1× .303 Bren LMG 15 145 230 655 4 tank destroyer
Light Tank Mk VIA 1936 14 Vickers .50 machine gun (12.7mm) 1× .303 Vickers machine gun 4.93 67 210 1,682 3 not used in combat
Ram tank I and II 1941 87 QF 6-pdr 3×7.62mm machine guns 29 298 232 2000 5 In field conversions saw combat in Europe, based on M3 hull.
Valentine Mk.VI 1941 65 QF 2-pdr (40mm) 1×.30-06 Browning M1919A4 MG 16.5 104 130 1420 3 Canadian-built, provided to USSR
Matilda II infantry tank 1937 78 QF 2-pdr (40mm) 1×7.92 mm Besa machine gun 25 72 257 2987 4 not used in combat
M3 Lee/Grant 1941 51 75mm M2/M3 gun (2-4)×7.8mm Browning M1919A4 27 300 193 6258 ? not used in combat

Self-propelled gunsEdit

Tank-basedEdit

Name Chassis Gun Developed Manufactured Role
Sexton M3 Lee QF 25-pdr (87.6 mm) Mk II 1942 2150 self-propelled gun
M7 Priest M3 Lee M101 howitzer (105mm) 1942 4443 self-propelled gun
Crusader III, AA Mk.I Crusader Bofors 40 mm gun 1944 ? self-propelled AA gun
Mk.II/III Crusader Oerlikon 20mm gun 1944 ? self-propelled AA gun
Skink anti-aircraft tank M4 Sherman Polsten (20mm) 1944 3 self-propelled AA gun

OtherEdit

M3 75mm Gun Motor Carriage - M3 Half-track equipped with the M1A1 75 mm gun

Armored carsEdit

Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Daimler Dingo   United Kingdom
Daimler Mk. I Armoured Car   United Kingdom
Humber Mk. I Scout Car   United Kingdom
Humber Mk. IV Armoured Car   United Kingdom
M3 Scout Car   United States
Morris Light Reconnaissance Car   United Kingdom
Staghound Armoured Car   United States
Fox Armoured Car   Canada Humber Armoured Car design modified for Canadian production
Otter Light Reconnaissance Car   Canada Similar to Humber Light Reconnaissance Car
Lynx Scout Car   Canada Similar to Dingo

Engineering and commandEdit

Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Ram ARV Mk I and II   Canada
Valentine Bridgelayer   United Kingdom
Sherman V ARV   United States

Tractors & prime moversEdit

Model/Type Years in Use Manufacturer Details
Kangaroo (armoured personnel carrier)   Canada
Loyd Carrier   United Kingdom
Wasp   United Kingdom A Universal Carrier with flame-thrower equipment
T-16 Carrier   United States Lend-Lease based upon Universal Carrier, used to tow artillery
Windsor Carrier   Canada variation of Universal Carrier
M3A1 Half-track Various,   United States
M5 Half-track International Harvester,   United States similar to M3 produced for Lend-Lease
M9A1 Half-track International Harvester,   United States Variant of M5
M14 Half-track International Harvester,   United States M3 Half-track with anti-aircraft turret
M5 "Recce"   United States A turretless M5 light tank used for reconnaissance

Miscellaneous vehiclesEdit

 
Chevrolet C8 4x2 CMP
 
Ford F60A 4x4 CMP
Model[3] Builder Country Load / Comments
AEC Matador AEC UK Field Artillery Tractor
Corbitt 6-ton 6x6 Various US 6-ton (5440 kg)
Diamond T 4-ton 6x6 Diamond T US 4-ton (3630 kg)
Dodge D8A (T212) Dodge Canada 8cwt (800 lbs, 360 kg)
Ford GP, GPA Ford US 14-ton 4x4, GPA amphibian
Morris C8 Morris-Commercial UK Field Artillery Tractor
Willys MB/Ford GPW Willys/Ford US "Jeep" 14-ton 4x4
C/F-8, C/F-8A CMP Chevrolet/Ford Canada 8cwt (800 lbs, 360 kg)
C/F-15, C/F-15A CMP Chevrolet/Ford Canada 15cwt (34-ton, 630 kg)
C/F-30, C/F-30A CMP Chevrolet/Ford Canada 30cwt (1+12-ton, 1360 kg)
C/F-60, C/F-60A CMP Chevrolet/Ford Canada 60cwt (3-ton, 2720 kg)
C-60X 6x6 CMP Chevrolet Canada three driven axles
F-60H 6x4 CMP Ford Canada three axles, rear un-driven
C/F-GT CMP Chevrolet/Ford Canada Field Artillery Tractor

AircraftEdit

Although the Canadian government purchased and built thousands of military aircraft for use by the RCAF Home War Establishment (RCAF Eastern Air Command and RCAF Western Air Command) and the Canadian-based units of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, under the provisions of the plan Canada was to provide the training aircraft and facilities and a very large number of Canadian airmen would be committed to go overseas to fight in Article XV squadrons formed in the Great Britain and known as 400 series squadrons of the Royal Canadian Air Force. Forty-four of these squadrons were formed and most under this agreement were equipped by the British largely from their stocks and that is why many of the types of aircraft flown in combat in great numbers (such as the North American Mustang, Boulton Paul Defiant, Bristol Beaufighter, hundreds of Supermarine Spitfires of various marks, British built Avro Lancasters, Vickers Wellington, Hawker Typhoon, Short Sunderland, etc.) by most of the RCAF squadrons engaged in the fighting are missing from the following list altogether (or the quantities actually used by the RCAF overseas are not included in the numbers given below).

FightersEdit

Name Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
Number used
Armstrong Whitworth Siskin UK fighter 1926–1940 12
Hawker Hurricane UK/Canada fighter 1939–1948 502
Grumman Goblin US/Canada fighter 1940–1942 15
North American NA-44 US fighter/utility 1940–1944 1
Supermarine Spitfire UK fighter 1940–1950 8
Curtiss Kittyhawk US fighter 1941–1946 134
Curtiss Warhawk US fighter 1942–1943 9
Hawker Sea Hurricane UK fighter 1942–1943 1
Curtiss Tomahawk US fighter 1943–1946 4
de Havilland Mosquito UK/Canada bomber/fighter-bomber 1943–1951 444
Gloster Meteor UK fighter 1945–1955 4

Attack aircraftEdit

Name Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
used
Blackburn Shark Mk.II & III UK torpedo bomber 1936–1944 26
Bristol Beaufort UK torpedo bomber/strike/minelayer 1941–1944 15
Brewster Bermuda US dive bomber 1943–1946 3
Fairey Swordfish Mk.II & III UK torpedo bomber 1943–1947 105
Fairey Albacore UK torpedo bomber 1943–1949 6

BombersEdit

Name 1968 CF
designator
Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
used
Lockheed Hudson n/a US bomber 1939–1948 247
Hawker Hart n/a UK bomber 1937–1943 3
Douglas Digby n/a US bomber 1939–1946 20
Fairey Battle n/a UK bomber/trainer/target tug 1939–1946 740
Bristol Fairchild Bolingbroke n/a Canada bomber/trainer 1939–1947 626
Handley Page Harrow n/a UK bomber/transport 1940–1941 2
Northrop Nomad n/a US light bomber 1940–1945 32
Avro Anson n/a UK/Canada medium bomber/trainer 1940–1947 4413
Handley Page Hampden n/a UK bomber 1941–1944 96
Bristol Blenheim Mk.IV n/a UK medium bomber/gunnery trainer 1941–1945 1
Douglas Boston n/a US bomber 1941–1945 3
Avro Lancaster n/a UK/Canada heavy bomber 1944–1965 229
Martin Baltimore n/a US bomber 1942–1942 1
North American Mitchell n/a US bomber 1942–1963 164
Boeing Fortress Mk.II n/a US long-range patrol bomber 1943–1946 6
Handley Page Halifax n/a UK heavy bomber 1944–1947

Reconnaissance aircraftEdit

Name 1968 CF
designator
Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
used
Canadian Vickers Vedette n/a Canada patrol flying boat 1925–1941 44
Canadian Vickers Vancouver n/a Canada patrol flying boat 1929–1940 6
Armstrong Whitworth Atlas n/a UK spotting/liaison 1927–1942 16
Westland Wapiti n/a UK spotting/liaison 1930–1944 25
Hawker Audax n/a UK spotting/liaison 1933–1943 6
Supermarine Stranraer n/a Canada patrol seaplane 1938–1946 40
Westland Lysander n/a UK/Canada spotting/liaison/target tug 1939–1946 329
Consolidated Catalina/Canso n/a US/Canada maritime patrol seaplane 1941–1962 254
Lockheed Ventura n/a US maritime patrol/target tug 1942–1947 28
Supermarine Walrus n/a UK fleet spotter/utility amphibian 1943–1947 8
Consolidated Liberator n/a US maritime patrol 1943–1948 14

TrainersEdit

Name 1968 CF
designator
Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
used
De Havilland Moth n/a UK trainer 1928–1948 89
Curtiss-Reid Rambler n/a Canada trainer/utility 1929–1954 9
Hawker Tomtit n/a UK trainer 1930–1943 2
Avro Tutor (Avro 621) n/a UK trainer 1931–1945 7
Fleet Fawn n/a Canada elementary trainer 1931–1947 51
Avro Prefect (Avro 626) n/a UK trainer 1937–1945 12
de Havilland DH.82C Tiger Moth n/a Canada trainer 1938–1948 1410
Airspeed Oxford n/a UK trainer (navigation, bombing & radio) 1939–1947 819
Fleet Finch n/a Canada elementary trainer 1939–1947 431
North American Harvard n/a US/Canada advanced trainer 1939–1968 2156
North American NA-26 n/a US trainer 1940–1942 1
de Havilland Menasco Moth n/a Canada trainer 1941–1947 136
Cessna Crane n/a US trainer 1941–1949 826
Fleet Fort n/a Canada intermediate/radio trainer 1941–1945 101
Hawker Hind n/a UK instructional airframe 1942–1943 4
Stearman Kaydet (Model 75) n/a US elementary trainer 1942–1943 301
General Aircraft Hotspur Mk.II n/a UK training glider 1942–1945 22
Fairchild Cornell n/a US elementary trainer 1942–1948 1555

TransportsEdit

Name 1968 CF
designator
Place of
manufacture
Primary
role(s)
Service
period
#
used
Consolidated Courier n/a US utility 1928–1941 3
Fairchild 71, 71B & 71C n/a US/Canada transport 1929–1942 23
Bellanca CH-300 Pacemaker n/a US transport 1929–1944 13
Fairchild 51 & 51A n/a US/Canada transport 1930–1946 9
de Havilland Puss Moth n/a UK transport 1931–1944 19
Fairchild Super 71 n/a Canada transport 1936–1940 2
Northrop Delta n/a Canada transport/patrol 1936–1945 20
Grumman Goose n/a US utility amphibian 1938–1956 31
Barkley-Grow T8P-1 n/a US transport 1939–1941 1
Lockheed Electra n/a US transport 1939–1946 15
Boeing 247D n/a US transport 1940–1942 8
de Havilland Dragonfly n/a UK transport 1940–1945 6
Fairchild Argus n/a US utility 1940–1945 2
Lockheed Electra Junior n/a US transport 1940–1945 10
Lockheed Model 212 n/a US transport 1940–1946 1
North American Yale n/a US intermediate/radio trainer 1940–1946 119
Stinson Voyager (Model 105) n/a US utility 1940–1946 25
Noorduyn Norseman n/a Canada utility transport 1940–1957 100
de Havilland Fox Moth n/a Canada transport 1941–1945 1
Beechcraft Expeditor CT-128 US utility/trainer 1941–1972 394
Waco AQC-6 n/a US utility 1942–1942 1
Fleet Freighter n/a Canada transport 1942–1944 2
Curtiss Seamew n/a US utility floatplane 1943–1944 82
Lockheed Lodestar n/a US transport 1943–1948 18
Douglas Dakota CC-129 US transport 1943–1990 169
Waco Hadrian Mk.II n/a US transport glider 1944–1949 32

RadarsEdit

  • Night Watchman (NW), 200-MHz, 1-kW prototype of SW radars (from 1940)
  • SW1C - surface-warning radar for merchant ships and frigates (from 1941)
  • SW2C - frequency changed to 215 MHz (1942)
  • SW3C - miniaturization to fit on torpedo boats, plan-position indicator (1943)
  • CD radar - coastal defense only (from 1942)
  • CDX radar - improvements and export to USSR (from 1943)
  • GL IIIC - mobile air search radar (from 1941)
  • Type 268 – 10 GHz submarine snorkel search radar (from 1944)
  • MEW/AS - 2.8 GHz, 300 kW submarine detection radar (from 1943)
  • MEW/HF - air search radar (from 1943)
  • 2 other unknown radar types used operationally
  • 18 radar types developed but never used

Cartridges and shellsEdit

Model/Type Period or Years in Use Manufacturer/Origins
.303 British   United Kingdom
.455 Webley   United Kingdom

Uniforms, Load Bearing and Protective EquipmentEdit

UniformsEdit

Model/Type Period or years in use Manufacturer/origins
Canadian Pattern and British Pattern
Khaki Drill
Battle Dress 1939-early 1970s   United Kingdom
Denison smock Used by the Airborne   United Kingdom

Load bearing equipmentEdit

Model/Type Period or Years in Use Manufacturer/Origins
1937 Pattern Web Equipment   United Kingdom
1942 Battle Jerkin   United Kingdom

Head dressEdit

Model/Type Period or Years in Use Manufacturer/Origins
Glengarry   United Kingdom
Tam o'shanter   United Kingdom
Field Service Cap   United Kingdom
Beret   United Kingdom
Helmet, MK II   United Kingdom
Mk III Turtle helmet   United Kingdom

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Total manufacturered, not number used by Canadian forces
  1. ^ British and Commonwealth Military Knives ISBN 978-1574270921
  2. ^ "Gazette des Armes n°444 jui/aoû 2012 - Page 36 - 37 - Gazette des Armes n°444 jui/aoû 2012 - Gazette des Armes - armes et défense - autres - Loisirs - 1001mags - Magazines en PDF à 1 € et GRATUITS !". fr.1001mags.com. Retrieved 2020-08-11.
  3. ^ Ware, Pat (2014). The Illustrated Guide to Military Vehicles. Anness. ISBN 978-1-78214-192-1.

External linksEdit

  • www.canadiansoldiers.com/weapons