Monarchy of Brazil
Imperial
Coat of arms of the Empire of Brazil.svg
Pedro II of Brazil - Brady-Handy.jpg
Details
StyleHis/Her Most Faithful Majesty
His/Her Imperial Majesty
First monarchMaria I
(as Queen)
Last monarchPedro II
(as Emperor)
Formation16 December 1815
Abolition15 November 1889
Pretender(s)Disputed:
Prince Pedro Carlos
(Petrópolis Branch)
Prince Luís
(Vassouras Branch)

The monarchs of Brazil (Portuguese: monarcas do Brasil) were the rulers of Brazil from the House of Braganza that reigned from the creation of the Brazilian monarchy in 1815 as a constituent kingdom of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves until the republican coup d'état that overthrew the Empire of Brazil in 1889.[1]

Since the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil in 1808 the colonial rule had de facto ended. On 16 December 1815 the Prince Regent John, the future king John VI raised Brazil to the status of a kingdom, thus making his mother, Maria I, the reigning Queen, the first Monarch of Brazil. The next year, 20 March 1816, John succeeded his mother as King of the united Luso-Brazilian monarchy. Having proclaimed independence of the Kingdom of Brazil from Portugal in 1822, Pedro I, son of John VI, was acclaimed the first Emperor of Brazil on 12 October 1822. He was later succeeded in 7 April 1831 by his son Pedro II, deposed along with the 74-years-old monarchy on 15 November 1889 in a bloodless and unpopular military coup d'état.[2][3]

Title

From 16 December 1815 to 7 September 1822, while the Kingdom of Brazil was in union with the Kingdom of Portugal, the monarch's full title and styles were, according to tradition and the United Kingdom's 1822 Constitution: By the Grace of God, King/Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc.[4]

From 12 October 1822 to 15 November 1889, as the independent Empire of Brazil, the country's monarch's full title were: By Grace of God and Unanimous Acclamation of the People, Constitutional Emperor/Empress and Perpetual Defender of Brazil[5]

It's worth noting that from a short period of time, between 15 November 1825 and 10 March 1826, according to the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, by which Portugal recognized Brazilian independence, it was granted to King John VI the courtesy title of Emperor of Brazil, while his son was the actual reigning Emperor. From the treaty's date to his death John VI used the title: By the Grace of God, John VI, Emperor of Brazil, King of Portugal and the Algarves, of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc.[4]

United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815–1822)

House of Braganza (1815–1822)

Portrait Name Monarch from Monarch until Relationship with predecessor(s)
Jcarvalho-dmariaI-mhn.jpg Maria I 16 December 1815 20 March 1816  • Daughter of Joseph I of Portugal
Domingos Sequeira - D. João VI.jpg John VI 20 March 1816 7 September 1822  • Son of Maria I of Portugal and Brazil

Empire of Brazil (1822–1889)

House of Braganza (1822–1889)

Portrait Name Monarch from Monarch until Relationship with predecessor(s)
DpedroI-brasil-full.jpg Pedro I 12 October 1822 7 April 1831  • Grandson of Maria I of Portugal and Brazil
 • Son of John VI of Portugal and Brazil
Pedro II of Brazil 1850.jpg Pedro II 7 April 1831 15 November 1889  • Great-grandson of Maria I of Portugal and Brazil
 • Grandson of John VI of Portugal and Brazil
 • Son of Pedro I of Brazil

Claimants to the throne of Brazil (1889–present)

See also

References

  1. ^ Bandeira, Moniz. Casa da Torre de Garcia d'Avila. Editora Record, 2000, pp. 423–425
  2. ^ Ermakoff 2006, p. 189.
  3. ^ Schwarcz 1998, p. 450.
  4. ^ a b Amaral, Manuel. "João VI". In: Portugal – Dicionário Histórico, Corográfico, Heráldico, Biográfico, Bibliográfico, Numismático e Artístico, Volume III, 2000–2010, pp. 1051–1055. In Portuguese.
  5. ^ Rodrigues 1863, p. 71.

External links

  • Monarchs of Brazil (1815–1889)