List of political ideologies

Summary

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In social studies, a political ideology is a certain set of ethical ideals, principles, doctrines, myths or symbols of a social movement, institution, class or large group that explains how society should work and offers some political and cultural blueprint for a certain social order. A political ideology largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used. Some political parties follow a certain ideology very closely while others may take broad inspiration from a group of related ideologies without specifically embracing any one of them. An ideology's popularity is partly due to the influence of moral entrepreneurs, who sometimes act in their interests. Political ideologies have two dimensions: (1) goals: how society should be organized; and (2) methods: the most appropriate way to achieve this goal.

An ideology is a collection of ideas. Typically, each ideology contains certain ideas on what it considers to be the best form of government (e.g. autocracy or democracy) and the best economic system (e.g. capitalism or socialism). The same word is sometimes used to identify both an ideology and one of its main ideas. For instance, socialism may refer to an economic system, or it may refer to an ideology that supports that economic system. The same term may also refer to multiple ideologies, which is why political scientists try to find consensus definitions for these terms. For example, while the terms have been conflated at times, communism has come in common parlance and in academics to refer to Soviet-type regimes and Marxist–Leninist ideologies, whereas socialism has come to refer to a wider range of differing ideologies which are most often distinct from Marxism–Leninism.[1]

Political ideology is a term fraught with problems, having been called "the most elusive concept in the whole of social science".[2] While ideologies tend to identify themselves by their position on the political spectrum (such as the left, the centre or the right), they can be distinguished from political strategies (e.g. populism as it is commonly defined) and from single issues around which a party may be built (e.g. civil libertarianism and support or opposition to European integration), although either of these may or may not be central to a particular ideology. Several studies show that political ideology is heritable within families.[3][4][5][6][7]

The following list is strictly alphabetical and attempts to divide the ideologies found in practical political life into several groups, with each group containing ideologies that are related to each other. The headers refer to the names of the best-known ideologies in each group. The names of the headers do not necessarily imply some hierarchical order or that one ideology evolved out of the other. Instead, they are merely noting that the ideologies in question are practically, historically, and ideologically related to each other. As such, one ideology can belong to several groups and there is sometimes considerable overlap between related ideologies. The meaning of a political label can also differ between countries and political parties often subscribe to a combination of ideologies.

AnarchismEdit

 
Anarchy symbol
Political internationals

ClassicalEdit

Post-classicalEdit

ContemporaryEdit

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

AuthoritarianismEdit

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

CommunitarianismEdit

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

Regional variantsEdit

CommunismEdit

Political internationals

LeninismEdit

Marxism–LeninismEdit

LibertarianEdit

 
An Anarchist A laid over a Communist Hammer and sickle.

MarxismEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

ConservatismEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

ReactionaryEdit

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

United StatesEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

CorporatismEdit

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

Western EuropeEdit

DemocracyEdit

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

Direct democracy movementsEdit

Pirate politicsEdit

Pirate politics
IdeologyAnti-corruption
Civil libertarianism
Civil rights
Direct democracy
E-democracy
Participatory democracy
Social liberalism
Political internationals

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Christian democracyEdit

Political internationals
GeneralEdit
OtherEdit

OtherEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AsianEdit

AmericanEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

EnvironmentalismEdit

Political internationals

Bright green environmentalismEdit

Deep green environmentalismEdit

Light green environmentalismEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

Fascism and NazismEdit

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

By countryEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

Identity politicsEdit

Political internationals

Age-related rights movementsEdit

Animal-related rights movementsEdit

Disability-related rights movementsEdit

FeminismEdit

GeneralEdit

OppositionEdit

Chronological variantsEdit

Ethnic and social variantsEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit
AmericanEdit
AsianEdit
EuropeanEdit
OceanianEdit

LGBT social movementsEdit

Men's movementEdit

Regional variantsEdit

Self-determination movementsEdit

African-AmericanEdit

Indigenous peoplesEdit

Latin AmericanEdit

Separatist and supremacist movementsEdit

EthnicEdit

BlackEdit
WhiteEdit
Regional variantsEdit
AfricanEdit
AmericanEdit
AsianEdit
EuropeanEdit
OceaniaEdit

GenderEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Student movementsEdit

GeneralEdit

Regional variantsEdit

LiberalismEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

LibertarianismEdit

Political internationals

Left-libertarianismEdit

Right-libertarianismEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

United StatesEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

NationalismEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

Unification movementsEdit

PopulismEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

Left-wing populismEdit

Right-wing populismEdit

OtherEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AsianEdit

AmericanEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

ProgressivismEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

Religio-political ideologiesEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

Political atheism and agnosticismEdit

Political Baháʼí FaithEdit

Political BuddhismEdit

Political ChristianityEdit

Political ConfucianismEdit

Political HinduismEdit

Political indigenous religionsEdit

Political IslamEdit

Political JudaismEdit

Political NeopaganismEdit

Political ShintoEdit

Political SikhismEdit

Political TaoismEdit

Political ZoroastrianismEdit

Satirical and anti-politicsEdit

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

Social democracyEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

SocialismEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

AuthoritarianEdit

LibertarianEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Religious variantsEdit

Regional variantsEdit

AfricanEdit

AmericanEdit

AsianEdit

EuropeanEdit

OceanianEdit

SyndicalismEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

OppositionEdit

Regional variantsEdit

TranshumanismEdit

Political internationals

GeneralEdit

OtherEdit

Regional variantsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Roberts, Andrew (2004). The State of Socialism: A Note on Terminology. Cambridge University Press. 63 (2). 349–366.
  2. ^ D. McLellan, Ideology, University of Minnesota Press, 1986, p. 1.
  3. ^ Bouchard, T. J.; McGue, M. (2003). "Genetic and environmental influences on human psychological differences". Journal of Neurobiology. 54 (1). 44–45.
  4. ^ Eaves, L. J.; Eysenck, H. J. (1974). "Genetics and the development of social attitudes". Nature. 249, 288–289.
  5. ^ Hatemi, P. K.; Medland, S. E.; Morley, K. I.; Heath, A. C.; Martin, N. G. (2007). "The genetics of voting: An Australian twin study". Behavior Genetics. 37 (3). 435–448.
  6. ^ Hatemi, P. K.; Hibbing, J.; Alford, J.; Martin, N.; Eaves, L. (2009). "Is there a 'party' in your genes?". Political Research Quarterly. 62 (3). 584–600.
  7. ^ Settle, J. E.; Dawes, C. T.; Fowler, J. H. (2009). "The heritability of partisan attachment". Political Research Quarterly. 62 (3). 601–613.

External linksEdit

  • Useful Notes on Political Ideologies