List of political parties in the Netherlands

Summary

This article lists political parties in the Netherlands, which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives, is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes.

No party has won a majority of seats since the election of 1894,[1] and no party has even approached the seats needed for a majority since the current proportional representation system was implemented in 1918. All Dutch governments since then have been coalitions between two or more parties. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government.

General overviewEdit

 
Members of four Dutch political parties (PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD) campaigning in Ulft, shortly before the 2010 municipal elections

National political partiesEdit

Parties represented in the States GeneralEdit

Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation Seats Ref.
Eur. EP group Intl. Senators House reps. MEPs
VVD   People's Party for Freedom and Democracy,
Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie
Conservative liberalism Centre-right Mark Rutte ALDE Renew LI
12 / 75
34 / 150
5 / 29
[18][19][20]
D66   Democrats 66,
Democraten 66
Social liberalism Centre Sigrid Kaag ALDE Renew LI
7 / 75
24 / 150
2 / 29
[19][18]
CDA   Christian Democratic Appeal,
Christen-Democratisch Appèl
Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Wopke Hoekstra EPP EPP CDI
9 / 75
15 / 150
5 / 29
[21][22][23][24]
PVV   Party for Freedom,
Partij voor de Vrijheid
Right-wing populism Right-wing to far-right Geert Wilders
5 / 75
17 / 150
0 / 29
[25][26][27][28]
PvdA   Labour Party,
Partij van de Arbeid
Social democracy Centre-left Attje Kuiken PES S&D PA
6 / 75
9 / 150
6 / 29
[2][29]
GL   GreenLeft,
GroenLinks
Green politics Centre-left to left-wing Jesse Klaver EGP Greens–EFA GG
8 / 75
8 / 150
3 / 29
[29]
SP   Socialist Party,
Socialistische Partij
Democratic socialism Left-wing Lilian Marijnissen
4 / 75
9 / 150
0 / 29
[30][31][32][33]
JA21   Right Answer 2021,
Juiste Antwoord 2021
Liberal conservatism Right-wing Joost Eerdmans ECR ECR
7 / 75
3 / 150
3 / 29
PvdD   Party for the Animals,
Partij voor de Dieren
Animal rights Left-wing Esther Ouwehand APEU GUE–NGL
3 / 75
6 / 150
1 / 29
[34]
CU   Christian Union,
ChristenUnie
Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Gert-Jan Segers ECPM EPP
4 / 75
5 / 150
1 / 29
[2][29][35][36]
FvD   Forum for Democracy,
Forum voor Democratie
National conservatism Right-wing to far-right Thierry Baudet ID
2 / 75
5 / 150
1 / 29
[37][38][39]
SGP   Reformed Political Party,
Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij
Christian right Right-wing Kees van der Staaij ECPM ECR
2 / 75
3 / 150
1 / 29
[2][29][40]
DENK   DENK Identity politics Centre-left Farid Azarkan
0 / 75
3 / 150
0 / 29
[41][42]
BVNL   Interest of the Netherlands,
Belang van Nederland
Classical liberalism Right-wing Wybren van Haga
0 / 75
3 / 150
0 / 29
Volt   Volt Netherlands,
Volt Nederland
Social liberalism Centre Laurens Dassen Volt Greens–EFA
0 / 75
2 / 150
0 / 29
[43]
50+   50PLUS Pensioners' interests Centre Martin van Rooijen
2 / 75
0 / 150
0 / 29
[2][19][18][34]
GO   Otten Group,
Groep Otten
Economic liberalism Centre-right Henk Otten
2 / 75
0 / 150
0 / 29
[44]
BBB   Farmer–Citizen Movement,
BoerBurgerBeweging
Agrarianism Centre-right Caroline van der Plas
0 / 75
1 / 150
0 / 29
BIJ1   BIJ1 Egalitarianism Left-wing to far-left Sylvana Simons
0 / 75
1 / 150
0 / 29
[45]
OPNL Independent Politics Netherlands
Onafhankelijke Politiek Nederland
Regionalism Centre Ton Raven EFA
1 / 75
0 / 150
0 / 29
MDD More Direct Democracy
Meer Directe Democratie
Direct Democracy Centre-right Dorien Rookmaker EAFD ECR
0 / 75
0 / 150
1 / 29

Parties without representation in the States GeneralEdit

Party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation Ref.
European EP group International
CO   Code Orange
Code Oranje
Direct democracy Syncretic Bert Blase
NVU   Dutch People's Union
Nederlandse Volks-Unie
Ethnic nationalism Far-right Constant Kusters
VSN   Free and Social Netherlands
Vrij en Sociaal Nederland
Humanism Centre Bas Filippini
VP   Free-minded Party
Vrijzinnige Partij
Liberalism Centre Vacant
LHK   Henk Krol List
Lijst Henk Krol
Progressive conservatism Centre-right Vacant
JL   Jesus Lives
Jezus Leeft
Evangelism Right-wing Florens van der Spek
JONG   JONG
Youth politics Centre Jaron Tichelaar
LDP   Liberal Democratic Party (LibDem)
Liberaal Democratische Partij
Social liberalism Centre Sammy van Tuyll
LP   Libertarian Party
Libertaire Partij
Right-libertarianism Right-wing Robert Valentine EPIL LI [46]
NLB   NLBeter Public sector interests Centre Esther van Fenema
PSP   Pacifist Socialist Party '92
Pacifistisch Socialistische Partij '92
Pacifism Left-wing Vacant
PvdR Party for the Republic
Partij voor de Republiek
Republicanism Centre Bruno Braakhuis
PDNM Party The New Human
Partij De Nieuwe Mens
Spiritual left[citation needed] Centre-left[citation needed] Niraï Melis &
Raishrie Gajadin
[47]
PPNL   Pirate Party
Piratenpartij
Pirate politics Syncretic Matthijs Pontier PPEU Greens–EFA PPI [48]
SPL Splinter Social liberalism Centre-left Femke Merel van Kooten
DB The Base
De Basis
Universal basic income Centre-left Dennis Rosenbaum
PvdT   Party of the Future
Partij van de Toekomst
Joke Party Syncretic Johan Vlemmix
UCF Ubuntu Connected Front Ubuntuism Left-wing Regillio Vaarnold
NCPN   New Communist Party of the Netherlands
Nieuwe Communistische Partij van Nederland
Marxism–Leninism Far-left Rinze Visser IMCWP
VCP   United Communist Party
Verenigde Communistische Partij
Communism Far-left Engel Modderman

Regional and local political partiesEdit

European NetherlandsEdit

Regional partiesEdit

Political party Active in Main ideology Position Leader European
affiliation
FNP Frisian National Party
Fryske Nasjonale Partij
  Friesland Civic nationalism Big tent[49] Sijbe Knol EFA
GB Groninger Interest
Groninger Belang
  Groningen Regionalism Centre Bram Schmaal
LB Local Brabant
Lokaal Brabant
  North Brabant Regionalism Centre Harold van den Broek
LL Local Limburg
Lokaal-Limburg
  Limburg Regionalism Centre Raimond Franssen
PvhN Party for the North
Partij voor het Noorden
  Groningen
  Friesland
  Drenthe
Regionalism Centre Dries Zwart
PvZ Party for Zeeland
Partij voor Zeeland
  Zeeland Regionalism Centre François Babijn
OPNH Elderly Party NH
Ouderenpartij NH
  North Holland Pensioners' interests Centre Jeff Leever
SL Strong Local Drenthe
Sterk Lokaal Drenthe
  Drenthe Regionalism Centre Alfred Schoenmaker

Local partiesEdit

Party Main ideology Position Leader
OPA Elderly Politically Active
Ouderen Politiek Actief
Pensioners' interests Single-issue politics Vacant
Forza!   Forza! Netherlands
Forza! Nederland
Right-wing populism Right-wing Erik Vermeulen
HvDH Heart for The Hague
Hart voor Den Haag/Groep de Mos
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Richard de Mos
LR   Livable Rotterdam
Leefbaar Rotterdam
Fortuynism Right-wing Robert Simons
TON   Proud of the Netherlands
Trots op Nederland
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Sander van den Raadt
DG   The Greens
De Groenen
Green politics Centre Otto ter Haar
VSP   United Seniors Party
Verenigde Senioren Partij
Pensioners' interests Single-issue politics Vacant

Water board partiesEdit

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
AWP General Water Board Party
Algemene Waterschapspartij
Apoliticism Syncretic Ron van Megen
WN Water Natuurlijk Green politics Centre-left Peter Snoeren

Caribbean NetherlandsEdit

BonaireEdit

Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation
American Intl.
PDB Bonaire Democratic Party
Partido Demokrátiko Boneriano
Social democracy Centre-left Clark Abraham
UPB Bonaire Patriotic Union
Union Patriótiko Boneriano
Christian democracy Centre James Kroon ODCA CDI
MPB Bonaire People's Movement
Movementu di Pueblo Boneriano
Christian socialism Centre Elvis Tjin Asjoe
FSP Social Progressive Front
Frente Sosial Progresivo
Social democracy Centre-left Robby Beukenboom

SabaEdit

Political party Main ideology Position Leader American
affiliation
SLP Saba Labour Party Social democracy Centre-left Monique Wilson
WIPM Windward Islands People's Movement Christian democracy Centre Rolando Wilson ODCA

Sint EustatiusEdit

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
DP Democratic Party Christian democracy Centre Adelka Spanner
PLP Progressive Labour Party Social democracy Centre-left Rechelline Leerdam

Defunct political partiesEdit

 
History and evolution of all Dutch political parties to ever have had seats in the House of Representatives.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

  • Documentation Centre for Dutch Political Parties (DNPP) at University of Groningen