List of quasars

Summary

This article contains lists of quasars. More than a million quasars have been observed,[1] so any list on Wikipedia is necessarily a selection of them.

Proper naming of quasars are by Catalogue Entry, Qxxxx±yy using B1950 coordinates, or QSO Jxxxx±yyyy using J2000 coordinates. They may also use the prefix QSR. There are currently no quasars that are visible to the naked eye.

List of quasars

This is a list of exceptional quasars for characteristics otherwise not separately listed

Quasar Notes
Twin Quasar Associated with a possible planet microlensing event in the gravitational lens galaxy that is doubling the Twin Quasar's image.
QSR J1819+3845 Proved interstellar scintillation due to the interstellar medium.
CTA-102 In 1965, Soviet astronomer Nikolai S. Kardashev declared that this quasar was sending coded messages from an alien civilization.[2]
CID-42 Its supermassive black hole is being ejected and will one day become a displaced quasar.
TON 618 TON 618 is a very distant and extremely luminous quasar—technically, a hyperluminous, broad-absorption line, radio-loud quasar—located near the North Galactic Pole in the constellation Canes Venatici.

List of named quasars

This is a list of quasars, with a common name, instead of a designation from a survey, catalogue or list.

Quasar Origin of name Notes
Twin Quasar From the fact that two images of the same gravitationally lensed quasar is produced.
Einstein Cross From the fact that gravitational lensing of the quasar forms a near perfect Einstein cross, a concept in gravitational lensing.
Triple Quasar From the fact that there are three bright images of the same gravitationally lensed quasar. There are actually four images; the fourth is faint.
Cloverleaf From its appearance having similarity to the leaf of a clover. It has been gravitationally lensed into four images, of roughly similar appearance.
Teacup Galaxy The name comes from the shape of the extended emission, which is shaped like the handle of a teacup. The handle is a bubble shaped by quasar winds or small-scale radio jets. Low redshift, highly obscured type 2 quasar.

List of multiply imaged quasars

This is a list of quasars that as a result of gravitational lensing appear as multiple images on Earth.

Quasar Images Lens Notes
Twin Quasar 2 YGKOW G1 First gravitationally lensed object discovered
Triple Quasar (PG 1115+080) 4 Originally discovered as 3 lensed images, the fourth image is faint. It was the second gravitationally lensed quasar discovered.
Einstein Cross 4 Huchra's Lens First Einstein Cross discovered
RX J1131-1231's quasar 4 RX J1131-1231's elliptical galaxy RX J1131-1231 is the name of the complex, quasar, host galaxy and lensing galaxy, together. The quasar's host galaxy is also lensed into a Chwolson ring about the lensing galaxy. The four images of the quasar are embedded in the ring image.
Cloverleaf 4[3] Brightest known high-redshift source of CO emission[4]
QSO B1359+154 6 CLASS B1359+154 and three more galaxies First sextuply-imaged galaxy
SDSS J1004+4112 5 Galaxy cluster at z = 0.68 First quasar discovered to be multiply image-lensed by a galaxy cluster and currently the third largest quasar lens with the separation between images of 15 ″[5][6][7]
SDSS J1029+2623 3 Galaxy cluster at z = 0.6 The current largest-separatioon quasar lens with 22.6 ″ separation between furthest images[8][9][10]
SDSS J2222+2745 6[11] Galaxy cluster at z = 0.49[12] First sextuply-lensed galaxy[11] Third quasar discovered to be lensed by a galaxy cluster.[12] Quasar located at z = 2.82[12]

List of visual quasar associations

This is a list of double quasars, triple quasars, and the like, where quasars are close together in line-of-sight, but not physically related.

Quasars Count Notes
QSO 1548+115
4C 11.50 (z = 0.436)
QSO B1548+115B (z = 1.901)
2 [13][14]
QSO 1146+111 8 [15]
z represents redshift, a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion

List of physical quasar groups

This is a list of binary quasars, trinary quasars, and the like, where quasars are physically close to each other.

Quasars Count Notes
quasars of SDSS J0841+3921 protocluster 4 First quasar quartet discovered.[16][17]
LBQS 1429-008 (QQQ 1432-0106) 3 First quasar triplet discovered.
It was first discovered as a binary quasar, before the third quasar was found.[18]
QQ2345+007 (Q2345+007)
Q2345+007A
Q2345+007B
2 Originally thought to be a doubly imaged quasar, but actually a quasar couplet.[19]
QQQ J1519+0627 3 [20]

Large Quasar Groups

Large quasar groups (LQGs) are bound to a filament of mass, and not directly bound to each other.

LQG Count Notes
Webster LQG
(LQG 1)
5 First LQG discovered. At the time of its discovery, it was the largest structure known.[21][22]
Huge-LQG
(U1.27)
73 The largest structure known in the observable universe, as of 2013.[23][24]

List of quasars with apparent superluminal jet motion

This is a list of quasars with jets that appear to be superluminal due to relativistic effects and line-of-sight orientation. Such quasars are sometimes referred to as superluminal quasars.

Quasar Superluminality Notes
3C 279 4c First quasar discovered with superluminal jets[25][26][27][28][29]
3C 179 7.6c Fifth discovered, first with double lobes[30]
3C 273 This is also the first quasar ever identified[31]
3C 216
3C 345 [31][32]
3C 380
4C 69.21
(Q1642+690, QSO B1642+690)
8C 1928+738
(Q1928+738, QSO J1927+73, Quasar J192748.6+735802)
PKS 0637-752
QSO B1642+690

Quasars that have a recessional velocity greater than the speed of light (c) are very common. Any quasar with z > 1 is receding faster than c, while z exactly equal to 1 indicates recession at the speed of light.[33] Early attempts to explain superluminal quasars resulted in convoluted explanations with a limit of z = 2.326, or in the extreme z < 2.4.[34] The majority of quasars lie between z = 2 and z = 5.

Firsts

Title Quasar Year Data Notes
First quasar discovered 3C 48 1960 first radio source for which optical identification was found, that was a star-like looking object
First "star" discovered later found to be a quasar
First radio source discovered later found to be a quasar
First quasar identified 3C 273 1962 first radio-"star" found to be at a high redshift with a non-stellar spectrum.
First radio-quiet quasar QSO B1246+377 (BSO 1) 1965 The first radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects (QSO) were called Blue Stellar Objects or BSO, because they appeared like stars and were blue in color. They also had spectra and redshifts like radio-loud quasi-stellar radio-sources (QSR), so became quasars.[27][35][36]
First host galaxy of a quasar discovered 3C 48 1982
First quasar found to seemingly not have a host galaxy HE0450-2958 (Naked Quasar) 2005 Some disputed observations suggest a host galaxy, others do not.
First multi-core quasar PG 1302-102 2014 Binary supermassive black holes within the quasar [37][38]
First quasar containing a recoiling supermassive black hole SDSS J0927+2943 2008 Two optical emission line systems separated by 2650 km/s
First gravitationally lensed quasar identified Twin Quasar 1979 Lensed into 2 images The lens is a galaxy known as YGKOW G1
First quasar found with a jet with apparent superluminal motion 3C 279 1971 [25][26][27]
First quasar found with the classic double radio-lobe structure 3C 47 1964
First quasar found to be an X-ray source 3C 273 1967 [39]
First "dustless" quasar found QSO J0303-0019 and QSO J0005-0006 2010 [40][41][42][43][44][45][46]
First Large Quasar Group discovered Webster LQG
(LQG 1)
1982 [21][22]

Extremes

Title Quasar Data Notes
Brightest 3C 273 Apparent magnitude of ~12.9 Absolute magnitude: −26.7
Seemingly optically brightest APM 08279+5255 Seeming absolute magnitude of −32.2 This quasar is gravitationally lensed; its actual absolute magnitude is estimated to be −30.5
Most luminous SMSS J215728.21-360215.1 Absolute magnitude of −32.36 Highest absolute magnitude discovered thus far.
Most powerful quasar radio source 3C 273 Also the most powerful radio source in the sky
Most powerful SMSS J215728.21-360215.1
Most variable quasar radio source QSO J1819+3845 (Q1817+387) Also the most variable extrasolar radio source
Least variable quasar radio source
Most variable quasar optical source
Least variable quasar optical source
Most distant J0313-1806 z = 7.64 [47][48]
Most distant radio-quiet quasar
Most distant radio-loud quasar QSO J1427+3312 z = 6.12 Found June 2008[49][50]
Most distant blazar quasar PSO J0309+27 z > 6
Least distant Markarian 231 600 Mly [51] inactive: IC 2497
Largest Large Quasar Group Huge-LQG
(U1.27)
73 quasars [23][24]

First quasars found

First 10 Quasars Identified
Rank Quasar Date of discovery Notes
1 3C 273 1963 [52]
2 3C 48 1963 [52]
3 3C 47 1964 [52]
3 3C 147 1964 [52]
5 CTA 102 1965 [53]
5 3C 287 1965 [53]
5 3C 254 1965 [53]
5 3C 245 1965 [53]
5 3C 9 1965 [53]

These are the first quasars which were found and had their redshifts determined.

Most distant quasars

Artist's conception of the oldest known quasar as of 2021, J0313–1806 existing only ~670 million years after the Big Bang despite its large size.

In 1964 a quasar became the most distant object in the universe for the first time. Quasars would remain the most distant objects in the universe until 1997, when a pair of non-quasar galaxies would take the title (galaxies CL 1358+62 G1 & CL 1358+62 G2 lensed by galaxy cluster CL 1358+62).[54]

In cosmic scales distance is usually indicated by redshift (denoted by z) which is a measure of recessional velocity and inferred distance due to cosmological expansion.

Quasars with z > 6[55]
Quasar Distance Notes
J0313-1806 z = 7.64 Currently the most distant known quasar.[47]
ULAS J1342+0928 z = 7.54 Former most distant quasar.
J1007+2115 (Pōniuāʻena) z = 7.52
ULAS J1120+0641
(ULAS J112001.48+064124.3)
z = 7.085 Former most distant quasar. First quasar with z > 7.[56]
CHFQS J2348-3054
(CHFQS J234833.34-305410.0)
z = 6.90
PSO J172.3556+18.7734 z = 6.82 Currently the most distant radio-loud known quasar
CFHQS J2329-0301
(CFHQS J232908-030158)
z = 6.43 Former most distant quasar.[57][58][59][60]
SDSS J114816.64+525150.3
(SDSS J1148+5251)
z = 6.419 Former most distant quasar.[61][62][63][60][64][65]
SDSS J1030+0524
(SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0)
z = 6.28 Former most distant quasar. First quasar with z > 6.[66][64][67][68][69][70][71]
SDSS J104845.05+463718.3
(QSO J1048+4637)
z = 6.23 [65]
SDSS J162331.81+311200.5
(QSO J1623+3112)
z = 6.22 [65]
CFHQS J0033-0125
(CFHQS J003311-012524)
z = 6.13 [58]
SDSS J125051.93+313021.9
(QSO J1250+3130)
z = 6.13 [65]
CFHQS J1509-1749
(CFHQS J150941-174926)
z = 6.12 [58]
QSO B1425+3326 / QSO J1427+3312 z = 6.12 Most distant radio-quasar.[49][72]
SDSS J160253.98+422824.9
(QSO J1602+4228)
z = 6.07 [65]
SDSS J163033.90+401209.6
(QSO J1630+4012)
z = 6.05 [65]
CFHQS J1641+3755
(CFHQS J164121+375520)
z = 6.04 [58]
SDSS J113717.73+354956.9
(QSO J1137+3549)
z = 6.01 [65]
SDSS J081827.40+172251.8
(QSO J0818+1722)
z = 6.00 [65]
SDSSp J130608.26+035626.3
(QSO J1306+0356)
z = 5.99 [69][70][71]
Most Distant Quasar by Type
Type Quasar Date Distance Notes
Most distant J0313-1806 2021 z = 7.64 [47]
Most distant radio loud quasar QSO B1425+3326 / QSO J1427+3312 2008 z = 6.12
Most distant radio quiet quasar
Most distant OVV quasar
Most Distant Quasar Titleholders
Quasar Date Distance Notes
J0313-1806 2021–present z = 7.64 Current record holder.[47]
ULAS J1342+0928 2017–2021 z = 7.54 [73]
ULAS J1120+0641 2011–2017 z = 7.085 Not the most distant object when discovered. First quasar with z > 7.[56]
CFHQS J2329-0301
(CFHQS J232908-030158)
2007–2011 z = 6.43 Not the most distant object when discovered. It did not exceed IOK-1 (z = 6.96), which was discovered in 2006.[57][58][59][60][74][75][76]
SDSS J114816.64+525150.3
(SDSS J1148+5251)
2003–2007 z = 6.419 Not the most distant object when discovered. It did not exceed HCM 6A galaxy lensed by Abell 370 at z = 6.56, discovered in 2002. Also discovered around the time of discovery was a new most distant galaxy, SDF J132418.3+271455 at z = 6.58.[61][62][63][60][74][77][78][79][80][81]
SDSS J1030+0524
(SDSSp J103027.10+052455.0)
2001–2003 z = 6.28 Most distant object when discovered. First object with z > 6.[66][64][67][68][70][71]
SDSS 1044-0125
(SDSSp J104433.04-012502.2)
2000–2001 z = 5.82 Most distant object when discovered. It exceeded galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z = 5.74; discovered in 1999) as the most distant object.[82][83][70][71][74][84][85]
RD300
(RD J030117+002025)
2000 z = 5.50 Not the most distant object when discovered. It did not surpass galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z = 5.74; discovered in 1999).[86][87][83][88][74]
SDSSp J120441.73−002149.6
(SDSS J1204-0021)
2000 z = 5.03 Not the most distant object when discovered. It did not surpass galaxy SSA22-HCM1 (z = 5.74; discovered in 1999).[88][74]
SDSSp J033829.31+002156.3
(QSO J0338+0021)
1998–2000 z = 5.00 First quasar discovered with z > 5. Not the most distant object when discovered. It did not surpass galaxy BR1202-0725 LAE (z = 5.64; discovered earlier in 1998).[74][82][89][90][91][92][93]
PC 1247+3406 1991–1998 z = 4.897 Most distant object when discovered.[82][94][95][96][97]
PC 1158+4635 1989–1991 z = 4.73 Most distant object when discovered.[82][97][98][99][100][101]
Q0051-279 1987–1989 z = 4.43 Most distant object when discovered.[102][98][101][103][104][105]
Q0000-26
(QSO B0000-26)
1987 z = 4.11 Most distant object when discovered.[102][98][106]
PC 0910+5625
(QSO B0910+5625)
1987 z = 4.04 Most distant object when discovered; second quasar with z > 4.[82][98][107][108]
Q0046–293
(QSO J0048-2903)
1987 z = 4.01 Most distant object when discovered; first quasar with z > 4.[102][98][107][109][110]
Q1208+1011
(QSO B1208+1011)
1986–1987 z = 3.80 Most distant object when discovered and a gravitationally-lensed double-image quasar. From the time of discovery to 1991, had the least angular separation between images, 0.45″.[107][111][112]
PKS 2000-330
(QSO J2003-3251, Q2000-330)
1982–1986 z = 3.78 Most distant object when discovered.[33][107][113][114]
OQ172
(QSO B1442+101)
1974–1982 z = 3.53 Most distant object when discovered.[115][116][117]
OH471
(QSO B0642+449)
1973–1974 z = 3.408 Most distant object when discovered; first quasar with z > 3. Nicknamed "the blaze marking the edge of the universe".[115][117][118][119][120]
4C 05.34 1970–1973 z = 2.877 Most distant object when discovered. The redshift was so much greater than the previous record that it was believed to be erroneous, or spurious.[33][34][117][121][122]
5C 02.56
(7C 105517.75+495540.95)
1968–1970 z = 2.399 Most distant object when discovered.[122][123][54]
4C 25.05
(4C 25.5)
1968 z = 2.358 Most distant object when discovered.[122][54][124]
PKS 0237-23
(QSO B0237-2321)
1967–1968 z = 2.225 Most distant object when discovered.[33][124][125][126][127]
4C 12.39
(Q1116+12, PKS 1116+12)
1966–1967 z = 2.1291 Most distant object when discovered.[54][127][128][129]
4C 01.02
(Q0106+01, PKS 0106+1)
1965–1966 z = 2.0990 Most distant object when discovered.[54][127][128][130]
3C 9 1965 z = 2.018 Most distant object when discovered; first quasar with z > 2.[2][35][127][131][132][133]
3C 147 1964–1965 z = 0.545 First quasar to become the most distant object in the universe, beating radio galaxy 3C 295.[134][135][136][137]
3C 48 1963–1964 z = 0.367 Second quasar redshift measured. Redshift was discovered after publication of 3C273's results prompted researchers to re-examine spectroscopic data. Not the most distant object when discovered. The radio galaxy 3C 295 was found in 1960 with z = 0.461.[27][33][138][139][140][52][134]
3C 273 1963 z = 0.158 First quasar redshift measured. Not the most distant object when discovered. The radio galaxy 3C 295 was found in 1960 with z = 0.461.[27][52][139][140][141]

Most powerful quasars

10 Brightest Quasars
Rank Quasar Data Notes
1 SMSS J215728.21-360215.1 It has an intrinsic bolometric luminosity of ~ 6.9 × 1014 Suns or ~ 2.6 × 1041 watts [142]
2 HS 1946+7658 It has an intrinsic bolometric luminosity in excess of 1014 Suns or 1041 watts [143][144]
3 SDSS J155152.46+191104.0 Has over 1041 watts luminosity [145][146]
4 HS 1700+6416 Has a luminosity of over 1041 watts [147]
5 SDSS J010013.02+280225.8 Has a luminosity of around 1.62 × 1041 watts [148]
6 SBS 1425+606 Has a luminosity of over 1041 watts – optically brightest for z>3 [149]
7 SDSS J074521.78+473436.2 [150][151]
8 S5 0014+813 [147][152]
7 SDSS J160455.39+381201.6 z = 2.51, M(i) = 15.84
9 SDSS J085543.40-001517.7 [153]

See also

References

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External links

  • Interactive interface into the catalog of Quasars from the Sloane Digital Sky Survey
  • Catalogue of Bright Quasars and BL Lacertae Objects
  • Kitt Peak Quasar List (1975) VII/11
  • Revised and Updated Catalog of Quasi-stellar Objects (1993) VII/158