List of rocks on Mars

Summary

This is an alphabetical list of named rocks (and meteorites) found on Mars, by mission. This list does not include Martian meteorites found on Earth.

Names for Mars rocks are largely unofficial designations used for ease of discussion purposes, as the International Astronomical Union's official Martian naming system declares that objects smaller than 100 m (330 ft) are not to be given official names. Because of this, some less significant rocks seen in photos returned by Mars rovers have been named more than once, and others have even had their names changed later due to conflicts or even matters of opinion. Often rocks are named after the children or family members of astronauts or NASA employees. The name Jazzy, for example, was taken from a girl named Jazzy who grew up in Grand Junction, CO, USA. Her father worked for NASA and contributed to the findings and naming of the rocks.

Acheron FossaeAcidalia PlanitiaAlba MonsAmazonis PlanitiaAonia PlanitiaArabia TerraArcadia PlanitiaArgentea PlanumArgyre PlanitiaChryse PlanitiaClaritas FossaeCydonia MensaeDaedalia PlanumElysium MonsElysium PlanitiaGale craterHadriaca PateraHellas MontesHellas PlanitiaHesperia PlanumHolden craterIcaria PlanumIsidis PlanitiaJezero craterLomonosov craterLucus PlanumLycus SulciLyot craterLunae PlanumMalea PlanumMaraldi craterMareotis FossaeMareotis TempeMargaritifer TerraMie craterMilankovič craterNepenthes MensaeNereidum MontesNilosyrtis MensaeNoachis TerraOlympica FossaeOlympus MonsPlanum AustralePromethei TerraProtonilus MensaeSirenumSisyphi PlanumSolis PlanumSyria PlanumTantalus FossaeTempe TerraTerra CimmeriaTerra SabaeaTerra SirenumTharsis MontesTractus CatenaTyrrhen TerraUlysses PateraUranius PateraUtopia PlanitiaValles MarinerisVastitas BorealisXanthe TerraMap of Mars
The image above contains clickable links
(view • discuss)
Interactive image map of the global topography of Mars, overlain with locations of Mars Lander and Rover sites. Hover your mouse over the image to see the names of over 60 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Whites and browns indicate the highest elevations (+12 to +8 km); followed by pinks and reds (+8 to +3 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevations (down to −8 km). Axes are latitude and longitude; Polar regions are noted.
(See also: Mars map; Mars Memorials map / list)
(   Active ROVER  Inactive  Active LANDER  Inactive  Future )
Beagle 2
Bradbury Landing
Deep Space 2
Columbia Memorial Station
InSight Landing
Mars 2
Mars 3
Mars 6
Mars Polar Lander
Challenger Memorial Station
Mars 2020
Green Valley
Schiaparelli EDM
Carl Sagan Memorial Station
Columbia Memorial Station
Tianwen-1
Thomas Mutch Memorial Station
Gerald Soffen Memorial Station
Notable rocks on Mars
Adirondacksquare.jpg
PIA00819left-MarsRock-BarnacleBill.gif
PIA14762-MarsCuriosityRover-BathurstInletRock.jpg
MarsViking1Lander-BigJoeRock-19780211.jpg
Block Island.jpg
58606main image feature 167 jwfull.jpg
MarsCuriosityRover-CoronationRock-N165-20120817-crop.jpg
El Capitan sol27 pancam.jpg
Adirondack
(Spirit)
Barnacle Bill
(Sojourner)
Bathurst Inlet
(Curiosity)
Big Joe
(Viking)
Block Island
(Opportunity) M
Bounce
(Opportunity)
Coronation
(Curiosity)
El Capitan
(Opportunity)
PIA17074-MarsOpportunityRover-EsperanceRock-20130223-fig1.jpg
PIA16187-MarsCuriosityRover-GoulburnRock-20120817-crop.jpg
PIA07269-Mars Rover Opportunity-Iron Meteorite.jpg
PIA09089-RA3-hirise-closeup annotated.png
PIA17062-MarsCuriosityRover-HottahRockOutcrop-20120915.jpg PIA16192-MarsCuriosityRover-Target-JakeRock-20120927.jpg
PIA05482 modest.jpg
NASA Curiosity rover - Link to a Watery Past (692149main Williams-2pia16188-43).jpg
Esperance
(Opportunity)
Goulburn
(Curiosity)
Heat Shield
(Opportunity) M
Home Plate
(Spirit)
Hottah
(Curiosity)
Jake Matijevic
(Curiosity)
Last Chance
(Opportunity)
Link
(Curiosity)
Mackinac Island.jpg
Mars rock Mimi by Spirit rover.jpg
PIA13418 - Oileán Ruaidh meteorite on Mars (false colour).jpg
Pot of gold upclose.jpg
PIA16452-MarsCuriosityRover-Rocknest3Rock-20121005.jpg
391243main-MarsRover-ShelterIslandMeteorite-20091002-crop.jpg
PIA16795-MarsCuriosityRover-TintinaRock-Context-20130119.jpg
NASA-MarsRock-Yogi-SuperRes.jpg
Mackinac Island
(Opportunity) M
Mimi
(Spirit)
Oileán Ruaidh
(Opportunity) M
Pot of Gold
(Spirit)
Rocknest 3
(Curiosity)
Shelter Island
(Opportunity) M
Tintina
(Curiosity)
Yogi
(Sojourner)
The table above contains clickable links M = Meteorite - ()

1976 – Viking program: Viking 1 and Viking 2 landers

Viking 1 Lander – July 20, 1976; Last Earth Contact – November 13, 1982.[1][2]
Viking 1 was operational on Mars for 2245 sols (2307 days; 6 years, 116 days).
Mars landing coordinates: 22°29′N 49°58′W / 22.48°N 49.97°W / 22.48; -49.97 (Viking 1 lander)[1]

  • Bashful
  • Big Joe
  • Delta
  • Dopey
  • Grumpy
  • Metate 1
  • Metate 2
  • Midas Muffler
  • Patch
  • Sleepy
  • Sponge
  • Whale

Viking 2 Lander – September 3, 1976; Last Earth Contact – April 11, 1980.[1][3]
Viking 2 was operational on Mars for 1281 sols (1316 days; 3 years, 221 days).
Mars landing coordinates: 47°58′N 225°44′W / 47.97°N 225.74°W / 47.97; -225.74 (Viking 2 lander)[1]
(Raw Images - Camera/Sol and 1-JPL and 2-JPL + NASA Image Viewer.)

  • Bonneville
  • Centaur
  • Doc
  • Happy
  • Icl
  • Mr. Badger
  • Mr. Mole
  • Mr. Rat
  • Mr. Toad
  • Notch
  • Other
  • Plymouth
  • Sneezy
  • Snow White
  • Titan
Panorama of rocks near the Viking 1 Lander (July 20, 1976) - First "clear" image ever transmitted from the surface of Mars.
Panorama of rocks near the Viking 1 Lander (July 23, 1976).
Panorama of rocks near the Viking 2 Lander (1976).

1997 – Sojourner rover (Mars Pathfinder)

Sojourner rover – July 4, 1997; Last Earth Contact – September 27, 1997.[4]
Sojourner was operational on Mars for 92 sols (95 days; 95 days).
Mars landing coordinates: 19°7′48″N 33°13′12″W / 19.13000°N 33.22000°W / 19.13000; -33.22000 (Sojourner rover (Mars Pathfinder))
(Raw Images - 1-Camera/Sol and 2-Camera/Sol and 3-Camera/Sol and 1-JPL and 2-JPL + NASA Image Viewer.)

  • Anthill
  • Auto
  • Baby Otter
  • Bama
  • Bambam
  • Barnacle Bill
  • Barsoom
  • Basket
  • Bebob
  • Blackhawk
  • Book Shelf
  • Booboo
  • Bosco
  • Boyle
  • Brak
  • Brick
  • Broken Wall
  • Bug
  • Bullwinkle
  • Bunky
  • Cabbage Patch
  • Calvin
  • Cardiac Hill
  • Casper
  • Chimp
  • Clumk
  • Contour
  • Couch
  • Cradle
  • Darth Vader
  • Desert Princess
  • Dilbert
  • Dilbert's Boss
  • Dogbert
  • Dragon
  • Duck
  • Elvis
  • Ender
  • Flat Top
  • Flipper
  • Flute Top
  • Frog
  • Froggy
  • Garfield
  • Garibaldi
  • Garrak
  • Geordi
  • Ginger
  • Goldilocks
  • Goose
  • Gosling
  • Grandma
  • Grizzly
  • Grommit
  • Gumby
  • Half Dome
  • Hamster
  • Hardstop
  • Hassock
  • Hedgehog
  • Hero
  • Hippo
  • Hobbs
  • Homer
  • Hoppy
  • Iggie
  • Iguana
  • Indiana Jones
  • Jailhouse
  • Janeway
  • Jazzy
  • Jedi
  • Jimmy Cricket
  • Kitten
  • Lamb
  • Landon
  • Little Flat Top
  • Longhorn
  • Lookout
  • Lozenge
  • Lumpy
  • Lunchbox
  • Mafalda
  • Marvin the Martian
  • Matterhorn
  • Mesa
  • Mini
  • Mint Julep
  • Moe
  • Mohawk
  • Mouse
  • Mr. Mole
  • Nibbles
  • Nigel
  • Obelisk
  • Otter
  • Pancake
  • Paz
  • Penguin
  • Picnic
  • Piglet
  • Pinky
  • Pinocchio
  • Piper
  • Platypus
  • Pokey
  • Poohbear
  • Poptart
  • Potato
  • Pumpkin
  • Pyramid
  • Pyramid Point
  • Ratbert
  • Ren
  • Rocky
  • Rolling Stone
  • Rye Bread
  • Sandworm
  • Sardine
  • Sassafras
  • Scooby Doo
  • Scout
  • Seawolf
  • Shaggy
  • Shark
  • Simba
  • Sisyphus
  • Smidgen
  • Snoopy
  • Snowy
  • Snukums
  • Souffle
  • Squash
  • Squeeze
  • Space Ghost
  • Spock
  • Spud
  • Stack
  • Stimpy
  • Stripe
  • Stump
  • Sulu
  • T. Rex
  • The Dice
  • Tick
  • Tigger
  • Titus
  • Torres
  • Troll
  • Trooper
  • Turtle
  • Tweak
  • Valentine
  • Warthog
  • Wedge
  • Woodie
  • Yogi
  • Zaphod
  • Zorak
  • Zucchini
Panorama of rocks near the Sojourner rover (July 10, 1997).
Panorama of rocks near the Sojourner rover (December 5, 1997).

2004 – Spirit rover (MER-A)

Spirit Rover – January 4, 2004; Last Earth Contact – May 25, 2011.[5]
Spirit was operational on Mars for 2208 sols (2249 days; 6 years, 77 days).
Mars landing coordinates: 14°34′06″S 175°28′21″E / 14.5684°S 175.472636°E / -14.5684; 175.472636 (Spirit rover)[6]
(Raw Images - Camera/Sol and JPL + NASA Image Viewer.)

  • Aboa
  • Adirondack
  • Allan Hills (iron meteorite)
  • Arctowski
  • Belgrand
  • Bread-Basket
  • Casey Station
  • Castilla
  • ChanCheng
  • Cheyenne
  • Clovis
  • Coba
  • Cobra Hoods
  • Concordia
  • Davis
  • Druzhnaya
  • Ebenezer
  • El Dorado
  • Esperanza
  • Faget (geological feature)
  • Ferraz
  • Garruchaga
  • Gueslega
  • Halley
  • Home Plate (geological feature)
  • Humphrey
  • Juan Carlos
  • Jubany
  • King George Island
  • Kohnen
  • Korolev
  • Macquarie
  • Magic Carpet
  • Marambio
  • Mazatzal
  • Melchior
  • Mimi
  • Molodezhnaya
  • Montalva
  • Oberth (geological feature)
  • O Higgens
  • Orcadas
  • Pot of Gold
  • Prat
  • Primero
  • Riquelme
  • San Martin
  • Sashimi
  • Scott Base
  • Sejong
  • Signy
  • Sobral
  • Stone Council
  • Sushi
  • Tetl
  • Tor
  • Tyrone
  • Vernadsky
  • Vostok
  • Wasa
  • White Boat
  • Wishstone
  • Zhong Shan (iron meteorite)
Panorama of rocks near the Spirit roverGusev Crater "Winter Haven" ("McMurdo") (August 17, 2006) (high-resolution description).
Panorama of rocks near the Spirit rover – Gusev Crater (August 5, 2004).

2004 – Opportunity rover (MER-B)

Opportunity rover – January 25, 2004; Last Earth Contact June 10, 2018.[7][8]
Opportunity was operational on Mars for 5110 sols (5250 days; 14 years, 136 days).
Mars landing coordinates: 1°56′46″S 354°28′24″E / 1.9462°S 354.4734°E / -1.9462; 354.4734 (Opportunity rover)[6]
(Raw Images - Camera/Sol and JPL + NASA Image Viewer.)

Panorama of rocks near the Opportunity rover – Eagle crater (March 5, 2004).
Panorama of rocks near the Opportunity rover – Payson outcropErebus crater (February 26, 2006).

2008 – Phoenix lander

Phoenix lander – May 25, 2008; Green Valley, Vastitas BorealisLast Earth Contact – November 10, 2008.[12]
Phoenix was operational on Mars for 157 sols (161 days; 161 days).
Mars landing coordinates: 68°13′N 125°42′W / 68.22°N 125.7°W / 68.22; -125.7 (Phoenix lander) (68°13′11.9994″N 125°42′0″W / 68.219999833°N 125.70000°W / 68.219999833; -125.70000 (Phoenix lander))
(Raw Images - Camera/Sol and JPL + NASA Image Viewer.)

  • Baby Bear
  • Burn Alive
  • Burn Alive 3
  • Dodo
  • Goldilocks
  • Lower Cupboard
  • Mama Bear
  • Neverland
  • Papa Bear
  • Rosy Red 2
  • Rosy Red 3
  • Runaway
  • Snow White
  • Stone Soup
  • Upper Cupboard
Panorama of rocks near the Phoenix lander (May 25, 2008).
Panorama of rocks near the Phoenix lander (August 19, 2008).

2012 – Curiosity rover (Mars Science Laboratory)

Curiosity rover – August 6, 2012; Gale crater; CURRENTLY ACTIVE.[13]
As of September 24, 2021, Curiosity has been active for 3248 sols (3336 total days; 9 years, 49 days).
Mars landing coordinates: 4°35′22″S 137°26′30″E / 4.5895°S 137.4417°E / -4.5895; 137.4417 (Curiosity rover) (4°35′22.2″S 137°26′30.1194″E / 4.589500°S 137.441699833°E / -4.589500; 137.441699833 (Curiosity rover))
(Raw Images - Camera and Sol and 1-JPL and 2-JPL + NASA Image Viewer.)

  • Alexander Hills (area)
  • Amargosa Valley (area)
  • Bathurst Inlet
  • Bonanza King
  • Book Cliffs (area)
  • Buckskin
  • Burwash
  • Chinle (area)
  • Confidence Hills (area)
  • Coronation
  • Crest
  • Crestaurum
  • Cumberland
  • Darwin Outcrop
  • Dingo Gap (area)
  • Discovery Ridge (area)
  • Egg Rock (meteorite)
  • Ekwir_1
  • Et-Then
  • Garden City (area)
  • Gillespie (area)
  • Gillespie Lake
  • Glenelg (area)
  • Goulburn
  • Harrison
  • Hidden Valley (area)
  • High Dune (area)
  • Hottah
  • Ithaca
  • Jake Matijevic
  • John Klein-A/B/C
  • Kimberley (area)
  • Knorr[14]
  • Lamoose
  • Lebanon (iron meteorite)
  • Link
  • Little Colonsay
  • Missoula
  • Mojave (area)
  • Mojave 2
  • Murray Unit (area)
  • Namib Dune (area)
  • Not Bones
  • Nova
  • Old Soaker
  • Pahrump Hills (area)
  • Panorama Point (area)
  • Pink Cliffs (area)
  • Point Lake (area)
  • Portage[15]
  • Rapitan
  • Rocknest (area)
  • Rocknest 3[16]
  • Sayunei
  • Selwyn
  • Shaler[17][18]
  • Sheepbed
  • Shoemaker
  • Snake River[19]
  • Stimson unit (area)
  • Strathdon
  • Sutton Inlier (area)[14]
  • Telegraph Peak (area)
  • Tintina[14][20]
  • Twin Cairns Island (area)
  • Unnamed-20120902
  • Unnamed-20180102
  • Vera Rubin Ridge (area)
  • Waypoint 1 (area)
  • Wernecke[14]
  • Whale
  • Whimsical
  • Wildrose
  • Windjana
  • Winnipesaukee
  • Yellowjacket
  • Yellowknife Bay (area)
Panorama of rocks as viewed by the Curiosity rover – near Bradbury Landing (August 9, 2012).
Panorama of rocks near Mount Sharp as viewed from the Curiosity rover (September 20, 2012; white balanced; raw color).
Panorama of rocks near the Curiosity rover at "Rocknest" (November 16, 2012; white balanced; raw color; interactives).
Panorama of rocks and drilling sites near the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay (December 24, 2012).
Panorama of rocks in "Hidden Valley" near the "Pahrump Hills" on Mount Sharp as viewed by the Curiosity rover (September 11, 2014).
Panorama of rocks at the "Mojave" site on Mount Sharp (January 31, 2015).
Panorama of the rocky slopes of Mount Sharp (September 9, 2015).
Panorama of rocks viewed by Curiosity on the slopes (at 327 m (1,073 ft) elevation) of Mount Sharp (October 25, 2017; video (1:53)).
Panorama of rocks viewed by Curiosity on the slopes of Mount Sharp (December 1, 2019; video (3:09)).
Panorama of rocks near the Curiosity rover – at Yellowknife Bay around sunset (February 2013; Sun simulated by artist).
Rocks viewed by Curiosity - Effect of 2018 dust storm winds[28]
Before dust storm winds (September 14, 2018)
After dust storm winds (October 25, 2018)
Mars Curiosity rover - 26 drill holes (July 1, 2020)
[Click Here for updated 32 drill holes version (August 17, 2021)]

2018 – InSight lander

InSight lander – May 8, 2018; Elysium Planitia; CURRENTLY ACTIVE.
As of September 24, 2021, InSight has been active for 1005 sols (1033 days; 2 years, 302 days).
Mars landing coordinates: 4°30′09″N 135°37′24″E / 4.5024°N 135.6234°E / 4.5024; 135.6234 (InSight lander) (4°30′8.6394″N 135°37′24.24″E / 4.502399833°N 135.6234000°E / 4.502399833; 135.6234000 (InSight lander))
(Raw Images - NASA and JPL + NASA Image Viewer.)

Panorama of InSight lander landing site (December 9, 2018)

2021 – Perseverance rover (Mars 2020)

Perseverance rover – February 18, 2021; Jezero crater; CURRENTLY ACTIVE.
As of September 24, 2021, Perseverance has been active for 212 sols (218 total days; 218 days).
Mars landing coordinates: 18°26′41″N 77°27′03″E / 18.4447°N 77.4508°E / 18.4447; 77.4508 (Peseverance rover) (18°26′40.92″N 77°27′2.88″E / 18.4447000°N 77.4508000°E / 18.4447000; 77.4508000 (Curiosity rover))
(Raw Images - Camera and Sol and 1-JPL + 2-JPL + 3-JPL + NASA Image Viewer.)

  • Landing Site (area)
  • Artuby outcrop (area)
  • "Crater Floor Fractured Rough" (area)
  • Delta sediment (area)
  • Faillefeu rock
  • First borehole (Roubion)
  • Foux rock
  • Intriguing rocks
  • Máaz – 1st study target
  • Máaz rock
  • Odd Rock
  • "Paver rocks"
  • Rochette rock
  • Wind-carved rock
  • Yeehgo rock
Panorama from Perseverance's Octavia E. Butler Landing site (February 18, 2021)
Panorama from Perseverance's Octavia E. Butler Landing site − Wind-carved rock (February 24, 2021)
Panorama from Perseverance's Octavia E. Butler Landing site (February 21, 2021)
Panorama from Perseverance's Octavia E. Butler Landing site (ultra-high-rez; February 22, 2021)
Panorama-faraway from Perseverance – "Delta Scarp" over a mile away (ultra-high-rez; March 17, 2021)
Panorama from Perseverance – "Crater Floor Fractured Rough" (July 8, 2021)
Panorama from Perseverance views "Crater Floor Fractured Rough" and "paver rocks" area (July 15, 2021)
Panorama of Perseverance viewing first drill site (enhanced color; July 28, 2021)
Panorama includes Perseverance rover and Ingenuity helicopter near Octavia E. Butler Landing site (April 6, 2021)

Other rock formations

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Williams, David R. Dr. (December 18, 2006). "Viking Mission to Mars". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  2. ^ Nelson, Jon. "Viking 1". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  3. ^ Nelson, Jon. "Viking 2". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  4. ^ Nelson, Jon. "Mars Pathfinder / Sojourner Rover". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  5. ^ Nelson, Jon. "Mars Exploration Rover - Spirit". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  6. ^ a b Staff. "Mapping the Mars Rovers' Landing Sites". Esri. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  7. ^ Agle, DC; Brown, Dwayne; Wendel, JoAnna (13 February 2019). "NASA's Opportunity Rover Mission on Mars Comes to End". NASA. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  8. ^ Nelson, Jon. "Mars Exploration Rover - Opportunity". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  9. ^ Chang, Kenneth (7 June 2013). "Martian Rock Another Clue to a Once Water-Rich Planet". New York Times. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  10. ^ a b c O'Neill, Ian (January 17, 2014). "Mystery Rock 'Appears' in Front of Mars Rover". Space.com. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  11. ^ a b c Chang, Kenneth (January 24, 2014). "Mars Rover Marks an Unexpected Anniversary With a Mysterious Discovery". New York Times. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
  12. ^ Nelson, Jon. "Phoenix". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  13. ^ Nelson, Jon. "Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne (March 18, 2013). "Curiosity Mars Rover Sees Trend In Water Presence". NASA. Archived from the original on April 19, 2013. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
  15. ^ Staff (December 3, 2012). "A Sampling of Martian Soils". NASA. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
  16. ^ Staff (November 22, 2012). "Thanksgiving on Mars: Working Holiday for Curiosity Rover". Space.com. Retrieved November 22, 2012.
  17. ^ Staff (December 11, 2012). "PIA16550: Layered Martian Outcrop 'Shaler' in 'Glenelg' Area". NASA. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  18. ^ Hoagland, Richard C. (December 4, 2012). "NASA Announces Curiosity Rover To Investigate Mysterious Linear Features, Called "Shaler"". Enterprise Mission. Archived from the original on April 19, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
  19. ^ a b Staff (January 4, 2013). "PIA16564: 'Snake River' Rock Feature Viewed by Curiosity Mars Rover". NASA. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  20. ^ a b c Rincon, Paul (March 19, 2013). "Curiosity breaks rock to reveal dazzling white interior". BBC. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
  21. ^ a b Webster, Guy; Brown, Dwayne; Cantillo, Laurie (November 2, 2016). "Curiosity Mars Rover Checks Odd-looking Iron Meteorite". NASA. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
  22. ^ Anderson, Paul Scott (February 3, 2013). "Curiosity 'hammers' a rock and completes first drilling tests". The Meridiani Journal. Archived from the original on February 6, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  23. ^ Brown, Dwayne (October 30, 2012). "NASA Rover's First Soil Studies Help Fingerprint Martian Minerals". NASA. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
  24. ^ David, Leonard (January 5, 2018). "Structures on Mars". Space.com. Retrieved January 5, 2018.
  25. ^ Edwards, Christopher (January 3, 2018). "Sols 1913-1924: Curiosity's Working Holiday". NASA. Retrieved January 6, 2018.
  26. ^ Adamson, Allan (March 5, 2018). "Scientist May Have Found Evidence Of Fossilized Alien Tracks On Planet Mars". TechTimes.com. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
  27. ^ Howell, Elizabeth (March 6, 2018). "No, Those Aren't Animal Tracks on Mars". Space.com. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  28. ^ Rice, Melissa (October 29, 2018). "Sol 2216: A Windswept Workspace". NASA. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  29. ^ Kooser, Amanda (12 June 2019). "Star Trek on Mars: NASA spots Starfleet logo in dune footprint - Beam me down to Mars, Scotty". CNET. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  30. ^ Samson, Diane (16 June 2019). "William Shatner Takes Playful Jab At 'Star Wars' Over 'Starfleet' Symbol Found On Mars". TechTimes.com. Retrieved 16 June 2019.

External links

  • Mars - Geologic Map (USGS, 2014) (original / crop / full / video (00:56)).
  • Google Images: Rocks on Mars and Martian Rocks
  • Rocks on Mars (Geology.com)
  • MPF Rock Names
  • Named Rocks on Mars (ppt file)
  • NASA – Mars Exploration Program
  • Understandng 35 weird objects on Mars
  • The Origins of Life (Robert Hazen, NASA) (video, 38m, April 2014).
  • Co-Evolution of Life and Rocks on YouTube (Robert Hazen, NASA) (video, 70m, July 2019).