Before the Conquest of Wales was completed in 1282, Wales consisted of a number of independent kingdoms, the most important being Gwynedd, Powys, Deheubarth (originally Ceredigion, Seisyllwg and Dyfed), Gwent and Morgannwg. Boundary changes and the equal division of patrimony meant that few princes ever came close to ruling the whole of Wales.

The names of those known to have ruled over one or more of the kingdoms are listed below.

Medieval Wales.JPG

Deheubarth

In 909, Dyfed was merged with Seisyllwg (which included Ceredigion) to become Deheubarth. The following is a list of kings of the two former kingdoms, followed by the kings of the combined Deheubarth (beginning with Hywel Dda).

Ceredigion

  • Ceredig ap Cunedda (424–453)[1][2][3]
  • Usai (453–490)
  • Serwyl (490–525)
  • Boddw (525–560)
  • Arthfoddw (560–595)
  • Arthlwys (595–630)
  • Clydog I (630–665)

Dyfed

Seisyllwg

House Manaw

Deheubarth

Deheubarth was in the possession of the Normans from 1093 to 1155

From 1234 to 1283, Deheubarth was subject to the princes of Gwynedd

  • Rhys the Hoarse's son, Rhys Mechyll (1234–1244) ruled a portion of Deheubarth
  • his brother, Maredudd ap Rhys (1244–1271) ruled a portion of Deheubarth
  • his son, Rhys ap Maredudd (1271–1283) ruled a portion of Deheubarth

Gwynedd

Kings of Gwynedd

Prince of the Welsh

Princes of Aberffraw and Lords of Snowdon

Morgannwg

Glywysing

Iestyn was the last ruler of an independent Morgannwg, which was thereafter in the possession of the Normans and became the lordship of Glamorgan

Gwent

  • Anwn Ddu (the same person as ruled Dyfed at this time); Welsh legend claims he was appointed by Magnus Maximus, who later became Roman Emperor (and hence referred to in Welsh as Macsen Wledig - Maximus the Emperor), and some genealogies claim him to be Magnus' son. Realm divided upon his death between his sons Edynfed and Tudwal.
in Caer-Went
in Caer-Leon

Iestyn was the last ruler of an independent Morgannwg, which was thereafter in the possession of the Normans and became the lordship of Glamorgan

  • Owain ap Caradog (1081-1113/1116)

Powys

Kings of Powys

House of Gwertherion

House of Manaw

Mathrafal Princes of Powys

From 1160 Powys was split into two parts. The southern part was later called Powys Wenwynwyn after Gwenwynwyn ab Owain "Cyfeiliog" ap Madog, while the northern part was called Powys Fadog after Madog ap Gruffydd "Maelor" ap Madog.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c A history of Wales
  2. ^ The Cambrian
  3. ^ a b c Encyclopaedia of Wales
  4. ^ Wolcott, Darrell. Ancient Wales Studies: "The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg". Accessed 1 Oct 2017.
  5. ^ a b Lloyd, John Edward (1912). A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest. Longmans, Green, and Co. p. 257 and note. Retrieved February 5, 2012.
  6. ^ Heritage Consulting. Millennium File [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.
  7. ^ Davies, John A History of Wales, the title Princeps Wallensium

References

  • Lives of the Cambro British saints, William Jenkins Rees, Thomas Wakeman, 1835
  • A history of Wales from the earliest times, John Edward Lloyd, 1911
  • The Cambrian, A Bi-Monthly Published in the interest of the Welsh people and their descendantsin the United States, 1881, Vol. 1, 1881
  • Biography from the Dictionary of Welsh Biography
  • The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, University of Wales Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6