List of rulers of Wales

Summary

Before the Conquest of Wales was completed in 1282, Wales consisted of a number of independent kingdoms, the most important being Gwynedd, Powys, Deheubarth (originally Ceredigion, Seisyllwg and Dyfed), Gwent and Morgannwg. Boundary changes and the equal division of patrimony meant that few princes ever came close to ruling the whole of Wales.

The names of those known to have ruled over one or more of the kingdoms are listed below.

Medieval Wales.JPG

Deheubarth

In 909, Dyfed was merged with Seisyllwg (which included Ceredigion) to become Deheubarth. The following is a list of kings of the two former kingdoms, followed by the kings of the combined Deheubarth (beginning with Hywel Dda).

Ceredigion

  • Ceredig ap Cunedda (424–453)[1][2][3]
  • Usai (453–490)
  • Serwyl (490–525)
  • Boddw (525–560)
  • Arthfoddw (560–595)
  • Arthlwys (595–630)
  • Clydog I (630–665)

Dyfed

  • Anwn Ddu (c. 357) (Welsh rendering of Antonius the Black); according to Welsh legend, born in Greece, and later appointed to the rule of Demetia (ie. Dyfed) by Magnus Maximus. Also known as Anwn Dynod (rendering Antonius Donatus). Realm included Gwent and Brycheiniog.
  • Ednyfed (c. 373); realm also included the Caer-Went part of Gwent (his brother received the remainder).
  • Clotri (c. 405)
  • Triffyn Farfog (c. 385)
  • Aergol Lawhir (to c. 515)
  • Vortiporius (c. 540)
  • Arthur ap Pedr (c. 585)
  • Cloten (c. 630) married Ceindrech of Brycheiniog, uniting the two kingdoms
  • Rhain ap Cadwgan (c. 690-740) also king of Brycheiniog; on his death, his kingdoms were divided again by his sons
  • Tewdwr ap Rhain (c. 710)
  • Maredudd ap Tewdwr (c. 740–797)
  • Rhain ap Maredudd (c. 797–808)
  • Owain ap Maredudd (c. 808–811)
  • Triffyn ap Rhain (to c. 814)
  • Hyfaidd (born c. 830,[4] ruled ?-893)
  • Llywarch ap Hyfaidd (c. 893-904)
  • Rhodri ap Hyfaidd (c. 904-905)
  • Hywel Dda ("Hywel the Good") (c. 905-909), an invader from Seisllywg who conquered Dyfed (but later chronicles claim he acquired it by marrying Llywarch's daughter)

Seisyllwg

House Manaw

Deheubarth

Deheubarth was in the possession of the Normans from 1093 to 1155

From 1234 to 1283, Deheubarth was subject to the princes of Gwynedd

  • Rhys the Hoarse's son, Rhys Mechyll (1234–1244) ruled a portion of Deheubarth
  • his brother, Maredudd ap Rhys (1244–1271) ruled a portion of Deheubarth
  • his son, Rhys ap Maredudd (1271–1283) ruled a portion of Deheubarth

Gwynedd

Kings of Gwynedd

Prince of the Welsh

Princes of Aberffraw and Lords of Snowdon

Morgannwg

Glywysing

  • Eugenius, son of Magnus Maximus
  • Marius, son of Eugenius
  • Solar, son of Marius
  • Glywys, son of Solar (c. 470–c. 480), who gave his name to the kingdom.
    • Gwynllyw, son of Glywys, ruler of Gwynllwg (c. 480–523), cantref of Glywysing
    • Pawl, son of Glywys, ruler of Penychen (c. 480–540), cantref of Glywysing
    • Mechwyn, son of Glywys, ruler of Gorfynydd (c. 480–c.500), cantref of Glywysing
  • Cadoc, son of Gwynllyw, ruler of Gwynllwg (523–580) and Penychen (540–580), died without heirs
  • Glywysing is ruled by the Kings of Gwent until Rhys ap Ithel
  • Rhys ap Ithel/Rhys ab Idwal, son of the Kings of Gwent (c. 755–785), with brothers, Rhodri and Meurig
  • Arthfael Hen ap Rhys, (Hen the Old) (785–c. 825), with Brochfael ap Rhys
  • Rhys ap Arthfael, (c. 830–c. 840)
  • Hywel ap Rhys, (c. 840–886)
  • Owain ap Hywel (886–c. 930)
  • Morgan the Old (Morgan Hen or Morgan ab Owain or Moragn Hen Fawr) (930–974) united the former kingdoms of Gwent and Glywysing in 942 under the name of Morgannwg, but they were broken up again immediately after his death, remaining separate until about 1055
  • Morgan the Old's son, Owain ap Morgan (974–c. 983)
  • brothers of Owain ap Morgan (Idwallon, Hywel and Cadell) (dates unknown)
  • his son, Rhys ab Owain (c. 990–c. 1000) who ruled Glywysing jointly with his brothers,
  • Ithel the Black, son Idwallon (990)
    • Hywel ab Owain (c. 990–c. 1043) and
    • Iestyn ab Owain (c. 990–c. 1015)
  • his son, Rhydderch ap Iestyn (c. 1015–1033)
  • his son, Gruffydd ap Rhydderch (1033–1055)
  • Gwrgant ab Ithel the Black (1033 - 1070)
  • the invader, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, prince of Gwynedd (1055–1063)
  • Gruffydd ap Rhydderch's son, Caradog ap Gruffydd (1063–1081) who was a subject of the King of Gwent and King of Morgannwg Cadwgan ap Meurig before he deposed him and took the kingdom for himself
  • Iestyn ap Gwrgan(t) (1081–1091)

Iestyn was the last ruler of an independent Morgannwg, which was thereafter in the possession of the Normans and became the lordship of Glamorgan

Gwent

  • Anwn Ddu (the same person as ruled Dyfed at this time); Welsh legend claims he was appointed by Magnus Maximus, who later became Roman Emperor (and hence referred to in Welsh as Macsen Wledig - Maximus the Emperor), and some genealogies claim him to be Magnus' son. Realm divided upon his death between his sons Edynfed and Tudwal.
in Caer-Went
  • Edynfed ap Anwn - also ruler of Dyfed
  • Ynyr ap Dyfnwal [cy] ap Ednyfed, and his wife - St Madrun ferch Gwerthefyr; Welsh rendering of Honorius
  • Iddon ap Ynyr (480 - 490)
  • Caradog (Strongarm) ap Ynyr
  • Meurig ap Caradog and his wife - Dyfwn ferch Glywys
  • Erbic ap Meurig ?
in Caer-Leon
  • Tudwal ap Anwn
  • Teithrin ap Tudwal
  • Teithfallt ap Teithrin (Welsh rendering of Theudebald)
  • Tewdrig, son of Teithfallt (490 – 493/517) (Welsh rendering of Theodoric). Traditionally, Tewdrig had a daughter - Marchell verch Tewdrig - for whom he carved out Brycheiniog as a dowry.
  • Meurig ap Tewdrig King of Gwent (493/517 – 530–540)
  • Athrwys ap Meurig King of Gwent (530–540 - 573)
  • Frioc ap Meurig, with Idnerth ap Meurig ?
  • Ithel ap Athrwys
  • Morgan the Great ?
  • Morgan the Courteous and Benefactor ? (-654)
  • Anthres ap Morcant ? (654-663)
  • Morgan the Generous (- 730)
  • Ithel ap Morgan (710/715 - 735/740/745/755)
  • Ffernfael ab Idwal (- 774/777)
  • Athrwys ap Ffernfael (774-810)
  • Idwallon ap Gwrgant (810-842)
  • Ithel ap Hywel or ap Athrwys?(842-848)
  • Meurig ap Hywel or ap Ithel? (848-849)
  • Meurig ap Arthfael Hen (849-874)
  • Ffernfael ap Meurig (874-880)
  • Brochfael ap Meurig (880-920)
  • Arthfael ap Hywel (-916/927)
  • Owain ap Hywel (920-930)
  • Cadell ap Arthfael (930-940/943)
  • Morgan the Old (Morgan Hen or Morgan ab Owain or Morgan Hen Fawr) (940/943–955) united the former kingdoms of Gwent and Glywysing in 942 under the name of Morgannwg, but they were broken up again immediately after his death, remaining separate until about 1055
    • Nowy ap Gwriad ap Brochfael ap Rhodri ap Arthfael Hen ruled Gwent (c. 950–c. 970) while Glywysing was ruled jointly by brothers of Owain ap Morgan (dates unknown), probably under Morgan the Old
  • his son, Arthfael ap Nowy (about 970–983)
  • his cousin, Rhodri ap Elisedd (983–c. 1015) who ruled jointly with his brother,
  • Gruffydd ap Elisedd (983–c. 1015)
  • his ?cousin, Edwyn ap Gwriad (1015–1045)
  • Hywel ab Owain's son, Meurig ap Hywel (1045–1055) who ruled jointly with
  • his son, Cadwgan ap Meurig (1045–1055)
  • the invader, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, prince of Gwynedd (1055–1063) who died and was replaced with his predecessor
  • Cadwgan ap Meurig (1063–1074), who was also King of Morgannwg, ruling Glywysing through
  • Gruffydd ap Rhydderch's son, Caradog ap Gruffydd (1075–1081) who seized Gwent and the Kingdom of Morgannwg,
  • Iestyn ap Gwrgan(t) (1081–1091)

Iestyn was the last ruler of an independent Morgannwg, which was thereafter in the possession of the Normans and became the lordship of Glamorgan

  • Owain ap Caradog (1081-1113/1116)

Powys

Kings of Powys

House of Gwertherion

House of Manaw

Mathrafal Princes of Powys

From 1160 Powys was split into two parts. The southern part was later called Powys Wenwynwyn after Gwenwynwyn ab Owain "Cyfeiliog" ap Madog, while the northern part was called Powys Fadog after Madog ap Gruffydd "Maelor" ap Madog.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c A history of Wales
  2. ^ The Cambrian
  3. ^ a b c Encyclopaedia of Wales
  4. ^ Wolcott, Darrell. Ancient Wales Studies: "The Legendary Kingdom of Seisyllwg". Accessed 1 Oct 2017.
  5. ^ a b Lloyd, John Edward (1912). A History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest. Longmans, Green, and Co. p. 257 and note. Retrieved 5 February 2012. Lloyd history of Wales.
  6. ^ Heritage Consulting. Millennium File [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2003.
  7. ^ Davies, John A History of Wales, the title Princeps Wallensium

References

  • Lives of the Cambro British saints, William Jenkins Rees, Thomas Wakeman, 1835
  • A history of Wales from the earliest times, John Edward Lloyd, 1911
  • The Cambrian, A Bi-Monthly Published in the interest of the Welsh people and their descendantsin the United States, 1881, Vol. 1, 1881
  • Biography from the Dictionary of Welsh Biography
  • The Welsh Academy Encyclopaedia of Wales, University of Wales Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-7083-1953-6