List of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America

Summary

South America (orthographic projection).svg

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America. It includes both fully recognized states and dependent territories of both South American and non-South American states. It lists 12 sovereign states and 4 non-sovereign territories.

South America is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean. North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. South America has an area of approximately 17,840,000 square kilometres (6,890,000 sq mi), or almost 3.5% of Earth's surface. As of 2018, its population is more than 430 million, according to estimates of population in The World Factbook. South America ranks fourth among all continents in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America).[1]

The border between North and South America is at some point in the Isthmus of Panama. The most common demarcation in atlases and other sources follows the Darién Mountains watershed that divides along the Colombia–Panama border where the isthmus meets the South American continent (see Darién Gap). Virtually all atlases list Panama as a state falling entirely within North America and/or Central America.[2]

Sovereign states

A sovereign state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest.[3] According to the Montevideo Convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.[4] The following states are all members of the United Nations[5] and current or former members of the Union of South American Nations.[6]

Flag Map English short and formal names, and ISO code[7][8][9] Domestic short and formal names
[7][8]
Capital
[9][10][11]
Population
[12]
Area
[13]
Flag of Argentina
Map showing Argentina
Argentina 

Argentine Republic

ARG 
Spanish: Argentina — República Argentina Buenos Aires

Spanish: Ciudad de Buenos Aires
44,361,150 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,518 sq mi)
Flag of Bolivia
Map showing Bolivia
Bolivia 

Plurinational State of Bolivia

BOL 
Spanish: Bolivia — Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia

Quechua: Buliwya

Aymara: Wuliwya
Sucre (official)
and La Paz (seat of government)

Spanish: Sucre[n 1]
11,353,142 1,098,581 km2 (424,164 sq mi)
Flag of Brazil
Map showing Brazil
Brazil 

Federative Republic of Brazil

BRA 
Portuguese: Brasil — República Federativa do Brasil Brasília

Portuguese: Brasília
209,469,323 8,514,877 km2 (3,287,612 sq mi)
Flag of Chile
Map showing Chile
Chile [n 2]

Republic of Chile

CHL 
Spanish: Chile — República de Chile Santiago[n 3]

Spanish: Santiago
18,729,160 756,102 km2 (291,933 sq mi)
Flag of Colombia
Map showing Colombia
Colombia 

Republic of Colombia

COL 
Spanish: Colombia — República de Colombia Bogotá / Santa Fe de Bogotá

Spanish: Bogotá
49,661,048 1,138,910 km2 (439,736 sq mi)
Flag of Ecuador
Map showing Ecuador
Ecuador 

Republic of Ecuador

ECU 
Spanish: Ecuador — República del Ecuador

Quechua: Ikwadur
Quito

Spanish: Quito
17,084,358 283,561 km2 (109,484 sq mi)
Flag of Guyana
Map showing Guyana
Guyana 

Co-operative Republic of Guyana

GUY 
English: Guyana — Co-operative Republic of Guyana Georgetown

English: Georgetown
779,006 214,969 km2 (83,000 sq mi)
Flag of Paraguay
Map showing Paraguay
Paraguay 

Republic of Paraguay

PRY 
Spanish: Paraguay — República del Paraguay

Guarani: Paraguai — Tetã Paraguai
Asunción

Spanish: Asunción
6,956,066 406,752 km2 (157,048 sq mi)
Flag of Peru
Map showing Peru
Peru 

Republic of Peru

PER 
Spanish: Perú — República del Perú

Quechua: Piruw

Aymara: Piruw
Lima

Spanish: Lima
31,989,260 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi)
Flag of Suriname
Map showing Suriname
Suriname 

Republic of Suriname

SUR 
Dutch: Suriname — Republiek Suriname Paramaribo

Dutch: Paramaribo
575,990 163,820 km2 (63,251 sq mi)
Flag of Uruguay
Map showing Uruguay
Uruguay 

Eastern Republic of Uruguay[n 4]

URY 
Spanish: Uruguay — República Oriental del Uruguay Montevideo

Spanish: Montevideo
3,449,285 176,215 km2 (68,037 sq mi)
Flag of Venezuela
Map showing Venezuela
Venezuela 

Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

VEN 
Spanish: Venezuela — República Bolivariana de Venezuela Caracas

Spanish: Caracas
28,887,118 912,050 km2 (352,144 sq mi)

Non-sovereign territories

External territories

Flag Map English name[7][9] Legal status Domestic name Capital[10] Population[12] Area[13]
Flag of Norway
Map showing Bouvet Island
Bouvet Island [n 5]

BVT 
Dependency of Norway Norwegian: Bouvetøya N/A No permanent population 49 km2 (19 sq mi)
Flag of the Falkland Islands
Map showing the Falkland Islands
Falkland Islands 

FLK 
British overseas territory English: Falkland Islands
Spanish: Islas Malvinas
Stanley

English: Stanley
3,398[14] 12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Map showing South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands [n 5]

SGS 
British overseas territory English: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands King Edward Point

English: King Edward Point
No permanent population[n 6] 3,903 km2 (1,507 sq mi)

Internal territory

Flag Map English name and ISO code[7][9] Legal status Domestic name Capital[10] Population[12] Area[13]
The flag of the France, as used in French Guiana
Map showing French Guiana
French Guiana


GUF
French overseas department and region[n 7] French: Guyane Cayenne

French: Cayenne
294,071[15] 83,534 km2 (32,253 sq mi)

Economic statistics

Country/Territory Currency GDP (PPP) per capita[n 8]
(2008 est. in U.S. dollars)
Notes
Argentina Argentine peso 14,200 [16]
Bolivia Boliviano 4,500 [17]
Bouvet Island (Norway) Norwegian Krone 0
Brazil Brazilian real 10,100 [18]
Chile Chilean peso 14,900 [19]
Colombia Colombian peso 8,900 [20]
Ecuador United States dollar 7,500 [21]
Falkland Islands (United Kingdom) Falkland Islands pound 35,400 (2002 est.) [22]
French Guiana (France) Euro 6,000 (2001 est.) [23][24]
Guyana Guyanese dollar 3,900 [25]
Paraguay Paraguayan guaraní 4,200 [26]
Peru Peruvian sol 8,400 [27]
South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom)
Falkland Islands Pound 0
Suriname Surinamese dollar 8,900 [28]
Uruguay Uruguayan peso 12,200 [29]
Venezuela Venezuelan bolívar 13,500 [30]

Geographically associated with Antarctica, but due to geopolitical reasons, the United Nations geoscheme has included Bouvet Island and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in South America instead.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While Sucre is the constitutional capital, La Paz is the seat of the government.
  2. ^ Includes Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, a Chilean territory frequently reckoned in Oceania.
  3. ^ While Santiago is the constitutional capital of Chile, Valparaíso is the site of legislative meetings.
  4. ^ Also translated as "Oriental Republic of Uruguay".
  5. ^ a b Sometimes grouped with Antarctica rather than South America.
  6. ^ Present inhabitants are the British Government officer, deputy postmaster, scientists, and support staff from the British Antarctic Survey who maintain scientific bases on Bird Island and in the capital, King Edward Point, as well as museum staff at Grytviken.
  7. ^ The territory has been fully integrated into the French central state.
  8. ^ The CIA's estimate for GDP per capita (PPP) is used in the article. For the World Bank and International Monetary Fund's estimates, see List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita.

References

  1. ^ The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge: A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind (2nd ed.), New York: St. Martin's Press, 2007, p. 598, ISBN 978-0-312-37659-8, OCLC 173243876
  2. ^ "National Geographic Education". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
    National Geographic Atlas (list). National Geographic Society. 2010. p. 4.
    Webster's New Geographical Dictionary (list and map). Merriam-Webster Inc. 1984. pp. 856, 859.
    "Americas" Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics Division
    "North America" Archived 3 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine Atlas of Canada
    North America Atlas National Geographic
  3. ^ Ashley, Richard K (1 June 1988). "Untying the Sovereign State: A Double Reading of the Anarchy Problematique". Millennium - Journal of International Studies. Sage Journals Online. 4 (2): 227–262. doi:10.1177/03058298880170020901. S2CID 145130222. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  4. ^ "Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States". Council on Foreign Relations. 26 December 1933. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  5. ^ "United Nations Member States". United Nations. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  6. ^ "Estados Miembros" (in Spanish). Secretaria General de UNASUR. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d "Field Listing :: Names". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  8. ^ a b "UNGEGN List of Country Names" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2007. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  9. ^ a b c d "List of countries, territories and currencies". Europa. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  10. ^ a b c "Field Listing :: Capital". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  11. ^ "UNGEGN World Geographical Names". United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  12. ^ a b c "Country Comparison :: Population". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  13. ^ a b c "Field Listing :: Area". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  14. ^ "2016 Census Report". Policy and Economic Development Unit, Falkland Islands Government. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2018.
  15. ^ INSEE. "Estimation de population par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Années 1975 à 2021" (in French). Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  16. ^ "The World Factbook: Argentina". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  17. ^ "The World Factbook: Bolivia". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  18. ^ "The World Factbook: Brazil". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  19. ^ "The World Factbook: Chile". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  20. ^ "The World Factbook: Colombia". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  21. ^ "The World Factbook: Ecuador". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  22. ^ "The World Factbook: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  23. ^ Americas Review 2003/2004: Economic and Business Report (21st ed.). London: Kogan Page. 2003. p. 79. ISBN 0-7494-4064-3. ISSN 1351-4571.
  24. ^ "Résultats régionaux des enquêtes de recensement de 2004 à 2007" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  25. ^ "The World Factbook: Guyana". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  26. ^ "The World Factbook: Paraguay". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  27. ^ "The World Factbook: Peru". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  28. ^ "The World Factbook: Suriname". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  29. ^ "The World Factbook: Uruguay". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  30. ^ "The World Factbook: Venezuela". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.