List of transport megaprojects

Summary

This is a list of megaprojects. Care should be taken in comparing the cost of projects from different times, even a few years apart due to inflation; comparing nominal costs without taking this into account can be highly misleading.

According to the Oxford Handbook of Megaproject Management in 2017, "Megaprojects are large-scale, complex ventures that typically cost $1 billion or more, take many years to develop and build, involve multiple public and private stakeholders, are transformational, and impact millions of people".[1]

Completed projectsEdit

Project Description Country Location Approximate cost (in billions USD) Start of construction Year of completion Image Notes
Çanakkale 1915 Bridge Bridge   Turkey   Çanakkale, Turkey 4[2] 2017 2022   Spans two continents.
La Línea Tunnel Tunnel   Colombia   Cordillera Central, Colombia 0.27 2009 2020
Karachi-Lahore Motorway Motorway   Pakistan  Multan to Sukkur, Pakistan 11.5 2015 2019  
Otoyol 5 Highway   Turkey   Istanbul to İzmir, Turkey 7[3] 2013 2016(Phase I)
2019(Phase II)
 
Including Osman Gazi Bridge.[4]
Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel Road Tunnel   United States   Seattle, Washington, United States 3.1[5] 2013 2019
 
Confederation Line Rapid transit   Canada   Ottawa, Ontario, Canada 3.9 2013[6] 2019 (stage 1)
2024 (stage 2)
  $2.1 billion + $3.0 billion CA$[7]
Santiago Metro Line 3 Rapid Transit Line   Chile   Santiago, Chile 1.7 2012 2019
 
Crimean Bridge Rail/road bridge   Russia (one end is recognized internationally as being owned by Ukraine, but is de facto controlled by Russia) 3.7[8] 2015 2018 (road bridge)
2019 (rail bridge)
 
Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge Bridge–tunnel   Hong Kong,   Zhuhai and   Macau 17 2009 2018  
New Tappan Zee Bridge Bridge Replacement   United States   South Nyack to Tarrytown New York, USA 3.9 2013 2018  
Abuja Light Rail (phase 1 nearing completion)[9] Light Rail, Commuter Rail   Abuja, FCT, Nigeria 2.7[9][10] 2007 2018 (phases ongoing)  
Noord/Zuidlijn Rapid transit line   Netherlands   Amsterdam, Netherlands 4.4[11] 2002 2018   (€3.1bn)
Klang Valley MRT Line 1 Rapid Transit   Malaysia   Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 11.7[12] 2012 2017   (MYR36B)
Ionia Odos Freeway   Greece   Western Greece 1.8[13] 2007 2017   (€1.4bn)
German Unification Transport Projects (Verkehrsprojekt Deutsche Einheit) Transport project to achieve the German Unity   Germany   Germany 42[14] 1991 2016 – continues expansion until 2020  
AVE - Spain's high-speed railway network High-speed railway   Spain   Spain 44[15] 1992 2016 - continues expansion   40[15] billion euros
Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge Bridge   Turkey   Istanbul, Turkey 2[16] 2013 2016  
Evergreen Point Floating Bridge Road Bridge   United States   Seattle and Medina, Washington, United States 4.56[17] 2012 2016  
Eurasia Tunnel Undersea tunnel   Turkey   Istanbul, Turkey 1.3[18] 2011 2016
 
Gotthard Base Tunnel Railway tunnel    Switzerland   Swiss Alps, Switzerland 10.6[19] 1999 2016   (CHF 9.56 billion)
World Trade Center Transportation Hub Transit center and retail   United States   New York City, New York, USA 3.9[20] 2006 2016  
Blanka tunnel complex Road tunnel   Czech Republic   Prague, Czech Republic 1.75[21] 2006 2015  
AdlerKrasnaya Polyana road and railway Freeway and railway   Russia   Russia 9.4[22] 2014  
Budapest Metro Line 4 Rapid Transit line   Hungary   Budapest, Hungary 2.1[23][24] 2004 2014   (HUF 452bn)
Marina Coastal Expressway Highway   Singapore   Singapore 3.4[25][26] 2008 2013[27] (S$4.3 bn)
Marmaray Tunnel Undersea railway tunnel   Turkey   Istanbul, Turkey 4.5[28] 2004 2008(Phase I)
2013(Phase II)
  Deepest immersed tube tunnel in the world.
Eastern span replacement of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge Road bridge   United States   San Francisco, California 6.4 2002 2013  
Russky Bridge Road Bridge   Russia   Vladivostok (Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula) and Russky Island, Russia 1.1[29] 2008 2012  
Freeway Durango-Mazatlán and Baluarte Bridge Freeway and road bridge   Mexico   Durango-Sinaloa, Mexico 1.46[30][31] 2008 2012  
Jiaozhou Bay Bridge Bridge   China   Shandong, China 1.5[32] 2007 2011  
Beijing–Shanghai high-speed railway High-speed rail   China   Eastern China, PRC (Beijing to Shanghai, via Tianjin and Nanjing) 33.1[33] 2008 2011   (RMB 220.9bn)
Clem Jones Tunnel Road tunnel   Australia   Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 3.4[34] 2006 2010   (AUD3.2bn)
CBD and South East Light Rail Light Rail   Australia   Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 1.58 2015 2019
Wuhan–Guangzhou high-speed railway High-speed rail   China   China 18.5[35] 2005 2009   (RMB 116.6bn)
Egnatia Odos Freeway   Greece   Northern Greece 8.4[36] 1994 2009   (€5.9bn)
Incheon Bridge Bridge   South Korea   South Korea 1.4 2005 2009   (KRW 1.25tn)
Sound Transit Light rail, Commuter rail, Express bus service   United States   Seattle metropolitan area, Washington, USA 3.9 1997 2009 - continues expansion  
Bologna–Florence high-speed railway High-speed rail   Italy   Italy 6.9 1996 2009 (€5.2 billion)
Milan–Bologna high-speed railway High-speed rail   Italy   Italy 9.1 1993 2008   (€6.9 billion)
Beijing–Tianjin intercity railway High-speed rail   China   Beijing and Tianjin, China[37] 3.2 2005 2008   (RMB 20.42bn)
High Speed 1 High-speed rail   United Kingdom   South East England, United Kingdom 8.4[38][unreliable source?] 1998 2007 (GBP5.2bn)
Lötschberg Base Tunnel Railway tunnel    Switzerland   Swiss Alps, Switzerland 4.6 1999 2007   (CHF 4.3 billion)
Copenhagen Metro phase 1-3 Metro system   Denmark   Copenhagen, Denmark 1.47[39] 1996 2007   11,400,000,000 DKK
"Big Dig" Central Artery/Tunnel Project Road tunnel   United States   Boston, Massachusetts, United States 22[40] 1991 2007   14.6 billion USD
Colorado T-REX Project (TRansportation EXpansion) Highway & light rail upgrade   United States   Denver, Colorado 1.7[41] 2001 2006  
Shanghai Maglev Train Maglev   China   Shanghai, China 1.33 2001 2004   (RMB 10bn)
Red Line and Purple Line Rapid Transit   United States   Los Angeles, United States 4.5[42] 1986 2000   represents expenditure prior to the Purple Line Extension
Toei Ōedo Line Rapid Transit   Japan   Tokyo, Japan 18.4[43] 1988 2000   (¥1.400 billion)
Jubilee Line Extension Metro line   United Kingdom   London, United Kingdom 6.83 (2010USD)[44] 1993 1999   3.5 billion GBP
Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Project 17 bridges connecting the islands of Honshū and Shikoku   Japan   Japan 48[45] 1978 1999   4 trillion Yen
Øresund Bridge Rail/road bridge/tunnel   Denmark-  Sweden 5.7[46] 1995 1999   (DKK30.1bn)
Great Belt Fixed Link Rail/road bridge/tunnel   Denmark 3.5 1988 1998   (DKK21.4bn)
Vasco da Gama Bridge Road bridge   Lisbon, Portugal 1.3[47] 1995 1998   (€897m / 180bn PTE)
Akashi-Kaikyō Bridge Road bridge   Kobe, Japan 5[48] 1988 1998  
Channel Tunnel Continental railway tunnel Strait of Dover, English Channel between the   United Kingdom and   France 15.4[49] 1988 1994   (GBP9.5bn)
International Space Station Manufacturing of the International Space Station Low Earth Orbit,
  United Nations Outer Space Treaty
100-150[50] 1998 2000
Interstate Highway System Network of limited-access roadways   United States   United States 114[51] 1956 1992[52][53]   425 billion in 2006 dollars[54] 548 billion in 2021 dollars[55]
Baikal–Amur Mainline Railway   (Sovetskaya Gavan, Khabarovsk Krai) to (Tayshet Irkutsk Oblast), Russia 15[56] 1974 1984  
Bay Area Rapid Transit Rapid transit system   United States   San Francisco Bay Area 1.586[57] 1964 1976 - continues expansion   $10.3 billion adjusted for inflation
Saint Lawrence Seaway Canal system St Lawrence River and North American Great Lakes between the   United States and   Canada 0.470[58] 1954 1959  
Caracas-La Guaira highway Highway   Greater Caracas, Venezuela 0.06[59][60] 1950 1953  
Trans-Siberian Railway Railroad   Moscow to Russian Far East(Vladivostok) 0.770[61] 1891 1916  
Panama Canal Canal   Panama 0.375[62] 1881 1914  
First Transcontinental Railroad Railroad   United States   Omaha, Nebraska to Sacramento, California 0.1[63] 1863 1869   $2.04 billion adjusted for inflation
Suez Canal Canal   Sinai Peninsula, Egypt 0.082[64] 1859 1869  

Under constructionEdit

Project Description Country Location Approximate cost (in billions USD) Start of construction Planned year of completion Image Notes
Silver Line Commuter rail   United States   Dallas, TX 1.9[65] 2020 2024
 
Green Line Extension Light Rail   United States   Greater Boston 1[66] 2012 2021
Red-Purple Modernization Phase One Heavy Rail   United States   Chicago, IL 2.1[67] 2019 2025
Kınalı-Balıkesir Motorway Motorway   Turkey   Tekirdağ to Balıkesir, Turkey 2[68] 2017 2023
 
Thessaloniki Metro Rapid transit   Greece   Thessaloniki, Greece 1.83[69] 2006 2023
Crossrail 1 Railway, Commuter rail, Rapid transit   United Kingdom   Greater London, United Kingdom 23.0[70] 2007

2021

A new 73m (117 km) railway line in England, serving London, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire & Essex.
Sha Tin to Central Link Railway   Hong Kong, From Tai Wai, New Territories to Admiralty, Hong Kong Island 12 2012 2020-2021
 
Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link Undersea tunnel   Denmark   Denmark,   Germany 8.45[71] 2019[71] 2028[71]
Lagos-Kano Standard Gauge Railway (under construction, phase 1 completed) Railway   Nigeria From   Lagos, Lagos to Kano, Kano State in Nigeria 8.3[72] 2011 2020 (phase 2)
Lagos-Calabar Railway Railway   Nigeria   From Lagos, Lagos to Calabar, Cross River 11.9[73] 2020 (expected) TBA
Lagos Rail Mass Transit Rapid Transit, Commuter Rail   Nigeria   Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria 3.6[74][75] 2009 2022
Badagry Deep Sea Port Seaport   Nigeria   Badagry, Lagos State, Nigeria 2.3[76] 2016 2018 (phase 1)[77]
Fourth Mainland Bridge Bridge   Nigeria   Across the lagoon to connect Ikorodu and Lekki cities of Lagos State 4.2[78] 2018 (expected) TBA
Northern Latitudinal Railway railway   Russia   Labytnangi(Obskaya )- Korotchaevo, Russia 3.03[79] 2018 2023
Lekki Port Seaport   Nigeria   Lekki, Lagos State, Nigeria 1.6[80] 2015 2018 (phase 1)
Honolulu Rail Transit Railway   United States   Oahu, Hawaii 10 2011 2021 (Phase 1) 2022 (Phase 2)

2025 (Phase 3)

California High-Speed Rail High-speed railway   United States   California 80.3[81] 2015 2033
(Phase I)
 
 
class=notpageimage|
Locations of planned California High-Speed Rail route. Phase I: black; Phase II: dark blue. (The separate Brightline West system is shown in light blue.) Route is approximate in some places.
China Pakistan Economic Corridor Economic corridor   Gwadar, Pakistan to   Kashgar, China 46 2015 2020  
Barcelona Metro line 9

(under construction)

Rapid transit line   Spain   Barcelona, Spain 26.3[82][83] 2009 2026   (€19bn)
Santiago Metro Line 7 Rapid transit line   Chile   Santiago, Chile 2.9 2017 2025
Cross River Rail (under construction) Rapid transit   Australia   Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 4.3[84][85] 2017 2024[84] AUD $5.4 billion
Sydney Metro Rapid transit   Australia   Sydney, New South Wales, Australia 13 2013 Northwest: 2019

City and Southwest: 2024

AUD $20.3 billion (Stage 1 and 2)
Second Avenue Subway Phase 2

(under construction)

Rapid transit line   United States   New York City, New York, United States 6[86] 2021 (expected) 2026 Phase 2  
Orange Line (Lahore Metro) (Under Construction) Rapid Transit   Pakistan   Lahore, Pakistan 1.6 2015 2020
Thameslink Programme Commuter rail upgrade   United Kingdom   Southeast England, UK 8.9-9.7[87] 2009 2021 (GBP5.5-6.0bn)
NHDP Highway upgrade   India   India 71[88] 2000 2018
 
NH 47 between Coimbatore and Salem in Tamil Nadu, India.
(INR 4.5 trillion).This project will be completed by early 2018 and will be supersized by Bharatmala project.
Highway Vespucio Oriente Road tunnel   Chile   Santiago, Chile 1.1 2017 2022
 
Highway Costanera Central Road tunnel   Chile   Santiago, Chile 1.2 2017 2024
Tel Aviv–Jerusalem railway Railway   Jerusalem, Israel 2 2001 2018
Tunnel Agua Negra Pass Road tunnel   San Juan, Argentina,   Coquimbo Region, Chile 1.5 2018 2025
 
WestConnex Road tunnel   Australia   Sydney, Australia 11.3 ($15 billion AUD) 2015 Stage 1 & 2- 2019 (expected)

Stage 3- 2023 (expected)

 
Fastracks Light Rail, Commuter Rail   United States   Denver, Colorado 6.5[89] 2006 2044 (expected)
City Rail Link Commuter rail   New Zealand   Auckland, New Zealand 2.4[90] 2015 2024

(expected)

(NZD$3.5bn)
Eglinton Crosstown Light rail   Canada   Toronto, Ontario, Canada 5.230[91] 2010 2022
Bar-Boljare highway Highway   Montenegro   Montenegro 3.7[92][93] 2015[94] 2019   (2.77 billion €)
Grand Paris Express Automated rapid transit   France   Paris, Ile de France, France 27 2014 from 2020 to 2030   4 new lines, 200 km, 72 new stations
Scarborough Subway Extension Rapid transit   Canada   Toronto, Ontario, Canada 3[95] 2022 2029-2030 CA$3.982 billion, 3 stops, 7.8 km [96]
Ohio River Bridges Project Road bridges and interchange reconfiguration   Louisville metropolitan area, Kentucky and Indiana, United States 2.3[97] 2014 2024
Tehran-Shomal Freeway, 121 km Freeway   Tehran and Mazandaran Province, Iran 1.7[98] 2017   (HUF 452bn)
Stuttgart 21 Railway & Urban Development   Stuttgart, Germany 7.4 2010 2025   estimates up to 6.8 bn €
Birmingham Northern Beltline (I-422) Highway   Birmingham, Alabama, United States 5.445 2014 2047
Brenner Base Tunnel Railway tunnel   Innsbruck, Austria to   Franzensfeste, Italy 10.7 2008 2026 (€8.7 bn)
Koralm Tunnel Railway tunnel   Styria / Carinthia, Austria 6.6 2009 2022-26 (€5.4 bn, est. 10+ bn[99])
Semmering Base Tunnel Railway tunnel   Lower Austria / Styria, Austria 4.0 2012 2024 (€3.3 bn)
Mumbai–Ahmedabad high-speed rail corridor High Speed Railway   From Ahmedabad, Gujarat to Mumbai, Maharashtra 16 2019 2022
Bharatmala Highway building and upgradation   India 100 2017 2022
Sagarmala Port   Coastal areas of India 120 2017 2025
Réseau express métropolitain Light Metro   Montreal, Quebec, Canada 4.8 2018 2023
 
67 km of rails, 26 stations, automated light metro at $CDN 6.4bn
Metro: All Change Rapid transit   Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom 1.3 2010[100] 2024
High Speed 2 High Speed Railway   England, United Kingdom 106.4[101] 2017[102] 2033   330 mi/530 km of High Speed track,[103] 5 stations and West Coast Mainline integration
Northern Powerhouse Rail Railway & Urban renewal   United Kingdom 39[104] 2018[105] 2026[106]   Links Liverpool, Sheffield, Kingston-upon-Hull & Newcastle-upon-Tyne to High Speed 2.
Link light rail Blue Line Light rail line   Eastside King County, Washington, USA 3.7 2016 2023-4  
Regional Connector Light rail tunnel   Downtown Los Angeles, California, USA 1.245 2014 2022  
Bogotá Metro Rapid Transit  Bogotá D.C, Colombia 3.7 2020 2028
 
Brussels Metro line 3 Rapid Transit  Brussels, Belgium 1.86[107] 2020[108][109] 2030
 

ProposedEdit

Project Description Location Approximate cost (in billions USD) Proposed start of construction Proposed year of completion Notes
Great Istanbul Tunnel Railway, Undersea tunnel   Istanbul $3.5bn[110] TBD TBD After Marmaray and Eurasia Tunnel's, it will be the third tunnel to connect Istanbul's sides.
Arctic Railway Railway   Finland,   Norway 3.31[111] TBD TBD A connecting line between Kirkenes port and the Finnish railway network.
Bridge of the Horns Bridge   Djibouti,   Yemen 20 TBD TBD A bridge across the Red Sea.
Crossrail 2 Railway, Commuter rail, Rapid transit   Greater London, United Kingdom 31.2[112] 2023 2030s[112] A new railway line in England, serving London, Surrey & Hertfordshire to interlink with Crossrail (above).
Helsinki City Rail Loop Railway tunnel   Finland 1.71[113] TBD TBD An underground rail loop in Helsinki.
Helsinki–Tallinn Tunnel Railway, Undersea tunnel   Finland,   Estonia 17.13[114] 2020 2024[115]
Irish Sea Bridge Bridge   United Kingdom 19.15[116] TBD TBD A proposed bridge between Scotland and Northern Ireland, supported by the Johnson ministry.[117]
Lentorata Railway tunnel   Finland 6.28[118] TBD TBD An airport rail link for Helsinki Airport.
Malacca Strait Bridge Bridge   Indonesia,   Malaysia 14[119] TBD TBD A proposed 48 kilometer bridge over the Strait of Malacca.
Saudi–Egypt Causeway Causeway   Saudi Arabia,   Egypt 4 TBD TBD
Strait of Messina Bridge Bridge   Italy 6.6 TBD TBD
Sunda Strait Bridge Bridge   Indonesia 18.87[120] TBD TBD The project has been indefinitely postponed.[121]
Singapore Strait crossing Undersea tunnel   Singapore,   Indonesia TBD TBD TBD A proposed tunnel between Singapore and Indonesia.
Suburban Rail Loop Mass transit   Australia 35.76-71.52[122] 2022 2050 A proposed extension of the Melbourne rail system.
Qatar–Bahrain Causeway Causeway   Qatar,   Bahrain 5 TBD TBD
Brightline West High-speed rail   USA 8[123] 2020 2024
Texas Central Railway High-speed rail   USA 5.9 2021 2026
Ontario Line Rapid transit   Canada 7.3-8.7[124] TBD TBD 16 km, 15 stop line with at-grade, elevated and underground sections operated with driverless trains.[125]

Airport projectsEdit

Airport Location IATA Code Passengers (total) Year completed Cost (in US Dollars)
Abu Dhabi International Airport   Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates AUH 20,000,000 1982 6.8 billion
Adolfo Suarez Madrid-Barajas International Airport Terminals 4 and 4S   Madrid, Spain MAD 57,891,340 2006 8.7 billion
Al Maktoum International Airport   Jebel Ali, UAE DWC 410,278 (expected: 260 million) 2010 32 billion
Athens International Airport   Athens, Greece ATH 16,225,885 2001 3 billion
Bandung Majalengka International Airport   Majalengka Regency, West Java, Indonesia KJT 29,000,000 (expected) 2018 15 billion
Barcelona–El Prat Airport   Barcelona, Spain BCN 50,172,457 4 billion
Berlin-Brandenburg International Airport   Berlin, Germany BER 28,000,000 (expected)[126] 2020 10 billion (as of 2018)[127]
Changi Airport Terminal 3   Singapore SIN 22,000,000 2008 1.4 billion[128]
Changi Airport Terminal 4   Singapore SIN 65,628,000 2017 1 billion[129]
Ciudad Real Central Airport   Ciudad Real, Spain CQM Ceased operations in 2012 (expected: 10 million) 2009 1.41 billion
Clark International Airport   Angeles City, Philippines CRK 2,664,378 10 billion
Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport   Santiago, Chile SCL 30,000,000 2021 (expected) 1 billion
Denver International Airport   Denver, Colorado, United States DEN 50,167,485 1995 4.8 billion
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport   Guangzhou, China CAN 59,732,147 2004 3 billion
Hong Kong International Airport   Chek Lap Kok, Hong Kong HKG 70,502,000 1998 20 billion[130][unreliable source?]
Incheon International Airport   Incheon, South Korea ICN 28,677,161 2001 5 billion (Phase 1)

2.6 billion (Phase 2)

Istanbul New Airport   Istanbul, Turkey IST 52,578,008[131] 2018 29 billion (including side projects)[132]
Kansai International Airport   Greater Osaka Area, Japan KIX 27,987,564 1994 20 billion
King Abdulaziz International Airport   Jeddah, Saudi Arabia JED 18,000,000 1981 7.2 billion[133]
King Shaka International Airport   Durban, South Africa DUR 7,500,000 2010 1 billion
Kuala Lumpur International Airport   Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia KUL 52,643,511 1998 3.5 billion
Kuala Namu International Airport   Medan, Indonesia KNO 12,245,116 2013 4.4 billion[134]
Long Thanh International Airport   Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam N/A 100,000,000 (expected) 2020 (expected) 10 billion
Navi Mumbai International Airport   Mumbai, India NMU 60,000,000 (expected) 2023 (expected) 2 billion
New Chennai International Airport   Chennai, India N/A 35,000,000 (expected) 2021 (expected) 1 billion
Newark Liberty International Airport Terminal C   Newark, New Jersey, United States EWR 33,399,207 2003 1.2 billion
New Islamabad International Airport   Islamabad, Pakistan IBD 5,140,585 2018 3.91 billion
New Lisbon Airport   Lisbon, Portugal N/A 50,000,000 (expected) 2022 (expected) 4.5 billion
New Mexico City International Airport   Mexico City, Mexico MEX Ceased operations in 2018 (expected: 125 million) 2018 13 billion
Suvarnabhumi Airport   Bangkok, Thailand BKK 55,892,428 2006 3.8 billion
Central Transport Hub   Baranów, Poland N/A ~ 45,000,000 (expected) 2027 (expected) 4.2-5.0 billion (expected, without rail component and road component)
Western Sydney Airport   Sydney, New South Wales, Australia SWZ 10,000,000 (initially) 82,000,000 (by 2036) 2026 (expected) 3.3 billion

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