List of voids

Summary

This is a list of voids in astronomy. Voids are particularly galaxy-poor regions of space between filaments, making up the large-scale structure of the universe. Some voids are known as supervoids.

A map of galaxy voids

In the tables, z is the cosmological redshift, c the speed of light, and h the dimensionless Hubble parameter, which has a value of approximately 0.7 (the Hubble constant H0 = h × 100 km s−1 Mpc−1). Mpc stands for megaparsec.

The co-ordinates (right ascension and declination) and distance given refer to the approximate center of the region.

Voids and supervoidsEdit

Largest voidsEdit

Named voidsEdit

Name Coordinates Distance Diameter Data Notes
Local Void 18h 38m +18° cz=2500 km/s 60 Mpc [1]
Northern Local Supervoid 61 Mpc 104 Mpc Virgo Supercluster, Coma Supercluster, Perseus-Pisces Supercluster, Ursa Major-Lynx Supercluster, Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster, Sculptor Supercluster, Pavo-Corona Australes Supercluster form a sheet between the Northern Local Supervoid and the Southern Local Supervoid.[2] The Hercules Supercluster separates the Northern Local Void from the Boötes Void.[2] The Perseus-Pisces Supercluster and Pegasus Supercluster form a sheet separating the Northern Local Void and Southern Local Void from the Pegasus Void.[2]
Southern Local Supervoid 96 Mpc 112 Mpc
Giant Void 13h 01m +38.7° z=0.116 300-400 Mpc "Giant Void in NGH" or "AR-Lp 36"; NGH stands for "Northern Galactic Hemisphere"; discovered in 1988.[3] It is the largest void in the NGH where z<0.14.[4]
KBC Void 600 Mpc Void containing the Milky Way and Local Group[5]

[6][7]

Voids designated by their constellationEdit

Name Coordinates Distance Diameter Data Notes
Boötes Void
(Great Void)
14h 20m 26° 150 Mpc 100 Mpc The Hercules Supercluster separates the Northern Local Void from the Boötes Void.[2] The Hercules Supercluster thus forms part of the near edge of the Boötes Void.[8]
Canis Major Void
Columba Void
Coma Void Discovered in 1975, along with the Coma Supercluster, it lies in front of the Coma Cluster.[9] It was the first void to be discovered and is approximately 1/3 as far away as the much larger Boötes Void.[10]
Corona Borealis Void
Eridanus Void This void is separated from the Sculptor void by a sheet of galaxies.[11]
Eridanus Supervoid
(Great Void)
03h 15m 05s −19° 35′ 02″ z=1 150 Mpc The claimed Eridanus Supervoid or "Great Void", reported on 24 August 2007 by the NRAO from Very Large Array Sky Survey data.[12] This void, if real, would be much larger than the others listed here (except the Giant Void), about 300 h−1
 
Mpc in diameter and 1800–3000 h−1
 
Mpc distant (where h is the dimensionless Hubble parameter). It would be associated with (and be the explanation of) a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background at the sky location.

The evidence for such a "Great Void" is disputed by Smith and Huterer.[13] They showed that the claims made of observational evidence for such a void from survey data neglected systematic effects and did not account for a posteriori choices made in analyzing data.

Southern Eridanus Void The Southern Eridanus void is connected to the Eridanus void by a hole in the distribution of galaxies separating the two. A hole in the distribution of galaxies separating Sculptor and Southern Eridanus voids the size of (redshift) 1250 km/s appears to exist.[11]
Fornax Void
Hercules Void 15.5h +30° cz=7000 km/s 3100 km/s [14] Discovered in 1979[8][15]
Hydra Void The Hydra Void lies beyond the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster[16]
Leo Void 11h 30m cz=4000 km/s [16]
Microscopium Void A hole in the distribution of galaxies separating Sculptor and Microscopium voids the size of (redshift) 1250 km/s appears to exist. This is roughly 1/2 of Microscopium's diameter.[11]
Ophiuchus Void near 17h −25° < 5000 km/s (the outer limit) perhaps 0–5000 km/s 25% of average universe density is the void density of matter.
The far end of this void is defined by the Ophiuchus Supercluster.[17]
Pegasus Void 22h +15° cz=5500 km/s 40 Mpc [18] The Perseus-Pisces Supercluster and Pegasus Supercluster form a sheet separate the Northern Local Void and Southern Local Void from the Pegasus Void.[2]
Perseus-Pisces Void 1h +10° cz=8000 km/s 3000 km/s Discovered in 1980,[15] it is also called the Perseus Void
Sagittarius Void
Sculptor Void 23h 48m −24° 39′ 34.8 Mpc/h Corresponds to SRSS1 Void 3 and SRSS2 Void 5[19] This void is separated from the Eridanus Void by a sheet of galaxies. A hole in the distribution of galaxies separating Sculptor and Southern Eridanus Voids the size of 1250 km/s appears to exist.[11] The Sculptor Void lies next to the Southern Wall or Southern Great Wall.
Taurus Void 30 Mpc The Taurus Void appears large and circular, and has walls of galaxies surrounding it. It lies next to the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster, and is the most visually identifiable. Several galaxies have been found to reside in the void, such as UGC 2627 and UGC 2629, both approximately 185 million light years away.[20]
[6][7]

Other voidsEdit

Designation Location Coordinates Distance Diameter Dimensions Notes
Bahcall & Soneiro 1982 void z = 0.03 – 0.08
  • 150 h−1
     
    Mpc deep
  • 300 h−1
     
    Mpc wide
  • 60 h−1
     
    Mpc tall
[21] This suspected void ranged 100 degrees across the sky, and has shown up on other surveys as several separate voids.

Voids by search or surveyEdit

Tully listEdit

In 1985, Tully determined a local dominant supercluster plane, and found the Pisces-Cetus Supercluster Complex.[22]

# Coordinates Distance Diameter Notes
(h−1
 
Mpc)
1 17.0h 80° 90 140
2 21.0h −7° 100 136
3 8.6h +13° 150 150
4 21.5h +5° 170 173
5 14.3h +52° 180 158 Boötes Void
6 23.0h −16° 190 171
7 12.8h +14° 190 174
8 10.0h +35° 250 170
9 2.6h −11° 280 229
10 8.7h +58° 310 243
11 16.8h +5° 310 270

B&B Abell-derived listEdit

In a 1985 study of Abell clusters, 29 voids were determined, in the sphere z<0.1 around Earth.[23]

# Coordinates Distance Diameter Notes
(h−1
 
Mpc)
1 0.0h +20° 293 100
2 0.3h 276 100
3 0.7h +10° 284 100
4 2.0h −13° 275 150
5 8.0h +60° 300 100
6 9.0h +18° 220 100
7 9.0h +67° 180 120
8 9.2h +26° 137 140
9 9.5h +45° 262 200
10 9.8h 285 110
11 9.8h +35° 219 110
12 10.8h −10° 293 120
13 12.0h +14° 206 110
14 12.3h 276 100
15 12.4h −12° 272 150
16 12.5h +32° 237 100
17 12.9h +64° 105 110
18 13.6h +35° 154 200 Boötes Void
19 13.8h +20° 297 110
20 14.2h −4° 265 210
21 14.7h +70° 283 160
22 15.2h +42° 286 140
23 16.0h +7° 295 110
24 16.4h +41° 291 130
25 16.5h +59° 110 100
26 17.2h +58° 237 100
27 22.2h −2° 155 130
28 22.5h 284 160
29 23.5h −7° 203 120

SSRS1 listEdit

A redshift survey of galaxies in the southern sky in 1988, out to a distance of 120 Mpc/h, revealed some voids.[24]

# Coordinates Distance
(V)
Dimensions
W × H × D
(h−1
 
Mpc)
Constellation Notes
1 1.5h −50° 3000 km/s 30 × 30 × 40 Phoenix/Eridanus Located just behind the galaxy concentration in Eridanus-Fornax-Dorado
2 21h −25° 5000 km/s 30 × 30 × 30 Capricornus/Microscopium
3 23.5h −35° 6000 km/s 70 × 30 × 50 Sculptor/Grus
4 4h −40° 9000 km/s 50 × 100 × 50 Horologium/Eridanus

SSRS2 listEdit

In 1994, a redshift survey in the southern sky identified 18 voids, 11 of which are major voids.[19]

# Coordinates Distance
(r)
Diameter
(h−1
 
Mpc)
Constellation Notes
1 1h 33m −16° 45′ 85.7 54.3 Cetus major void
2 3h 34m −28° 50′ 99.7 56.2 Fornax major void SRSS1 Void 4
3 22h 25m −14° 46′ 107.2 60.8 Aquarius major void
4 21h 43m −14° 40′ 66.7 35.6 Capricornus major void
5 23h 48m −24° 39′ 53.0 34.8 Aquarius/Sculptor major void SRSS1 Void 3 (Sculptor Void)
6 3h 56m −20° 11′ 56.5 32.0 Eridanus major void
7 3h 17m −11° 40′ 77.2 25.5 Eridanus major void
8 23h 20m −12° 32′ 83.9 27.8 Aquarius major void
9 3h 06m −13° 47′ 114.6 39.0 Eridanus major void
10 0h 26m −9° 17′ 104.7 34.8 Cetus major void
11 0h 21m −29° 43′ 112.8 42.9 Sculptor major void
12 23h 03m −32° 35′ 74.8 25.0 Piscis Austrinus/Sculptor
13 1h 23m −19° 36′ 31.0 22.1 Cetus SRSS1 Void 1
14 21h 28m −29° 28′ 87.2 21.3 Piscis Austrinus/Microscopium
15 21h 24m −33° 17′ 116.1 27.3 Microscopium
16 21h 43m −18° 41′ 36.5 20.3 Capricornus
17 3h 42m −21° 21′ 32.1 19.0 Eridanus
18 4h 18m −8° 42′ 85.9 21.1 Eridanus

1994 EEDTA Whole Sky SurveyEdit

A 1994 census lists a total of 27 supervoids within a cube of 740 Mpc a side, centered on us (z=0.1 distant sphere).[25]

# Coordinates
(B1950.0)
Distance
(Mpc/h)
Diameter
(Mpc/h)
[Note 1]
Notes
1 19.0° −57.1° 134 88
2 28.2° −12.3° 207 96
3 34.8° −61.9° 216 72
4 36.6° −33.5° 241 86
5 37.8° −36.1° 129 92
6 46.0° −21.4° 236 72
7 62.0° −8.0° 248 100
8 71.2° −38.3° 201 76
9 121.7° −1.5° 96 112 Southern Local Supervoid
10 130.0° +49.3° 246 144
11 140.4° +10.5° 160 92
12 146.9° +27.4° 227 106
13 153.1° −11.4° 246 94
14 159.9° +1.2° 167 68
15 161.6° −32.2° 241 98
16 167.4° +22.8° 222 74
17 186.9° −15.6° 216 94
18 196.8° +9.5° 119 102
19 204.8° +35.7° 119 108
20 214.6° +13.6° 216 78 Boötes void
(Great Void)
21 216.7° +56.5° 143 116
22 219.8° +57.9° 246 96
23 220.2° +33.9° 219 72
24 256.1° −4.8° 61 104 Northern Local Supervoid
25 353.0° −59.4° 198 74
26 356.6° +22.2° 246 80
27 358.9° −33.1° 241 70

Galactic Anti-Center IRAS searchEdit

In a 1995 study of IRAS data looking for large-scale structure in the Galactic Anticenter in the Zone of Avoidance, four voids were discovered.[26]

# Coordinates
(B1950.0)
Distance
(km/s)
Dimensions Notes
V0 5.2h +18° 1000 96°×36°×2000 km/s
V1 3.5h +18° 3750 15°×36°×3500 km/s V1 and V2 are connected, and block the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster from traversing the Zone of Avoidance.
V2 3.5h +29° 8000 25°×14°×2000 km/s V1 and V2 are connected, and block the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster from traversing the Zone of Avoidance.
V3 8.0h +10° 7000 30°×20°×2000 km/s This void lies in front of the CfA2 Great Wall.

IRAS listEdit

Analysis of the IRAS redshift survey in 1997 revealed 24 voids, 12 of which were termed "significant"[27]

# Supergalactic Coordinates
(r,X,Y,Z)
Diameter
(h−1
 
Mpc)
Data Notes
1 (55.2,-10.4,-53.8,6.1) 51.0 significant void
2 (49.6,-25.3,31.4,-28.9) 43.8 significant void
3 (46.0,-24.8,26.7,28.1) 44.5 significant void
4 (46.5,8.7,24.7,38.4) 45.0 significant void Local Void
5 (32.0,-13.0,-23.9,-16.9) 36.0 significant void
6 (51.5,17.0,-32.2,36.4) 41.4 significant void
7 (57.1,31.2,44.9,16.5) 43.5 significant void
8 (60.4,-25.8,-22.7,-49.7) 39.5 significant void
9 (49.8,35.9,-25.6,-23.0) 36.0 significant void
10 (63.3,-48.0,-40.9,6.0) 33.6 significant void Sculptor Void
11 (48.6,11.8,46.6,-6.9) 32.0 significant void
12 (49.9,-15.6,-35.7,31.3) 31.5 significant void
13 (62.8,14.2,29.3,-53.7) 40.3
14 (19.0,0.7,-16.4,9.6) 28.8
15 (37.6,32.4,-17.0,8.6) 30.4 Perseus-Pisces Void

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ This is the diameter of the largest sphere one can describe inside the void that contains no superclusters. Some voids have an elongated shape, so this diameter may underrepresent the size of some voids.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Nakanishi, Kouichiro; et al. (October 1997). "Search and Redshift Survey for IRAS Galaxies behind the Milky Way and Structure of the Local Void". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 112 (2): 245–270. Bibcode:1997ApJS..112..245N. doi:10.1086/313039.
  2. ^ a b c d e Einasto, Jaan; Einasto, Maret; Gramann, Mirt (May 1989). "Structure and formation of superclusters – IX - Self-similarity of voids". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 238: 155–177. Bibcode:1989MNRAS.238..155E. doi:10.1093/mnras/238.1.155.
  3. ^ "The Northern Cone of Metagalaxy" (Kopylov et al. 1988)
  4. ^ Kopylov, A. I.; Kopylova, F. G. (February 2002). "Search for streaming motion of galaxy clusters around the Giant Void" (PDF). Astronomy & Astrophysics. 382 (2): 389–396. Bibcode:2002A&A...382..389K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20011500. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 July 2018.
  5. ^ Keenan, Ryan C.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L. (20 September 2013). "Evidence for a ~300 Mpc Scale Under-density in the Local Galaxy Distribution". The Astrophysical Journal. 775 (1): 62. arXiv:1304.2884. Bibcode:2013ApJ...775...62K. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/775/1/62. S2CID 118433293.
  6. ^ a b SIMBAD, "list of objects in '*void' wildcard search" (accessed 15 September 2009)
  7. ^ a b SIMBAD, "list of objects of type 'vid'" (accessed 15 September 2009)
  8. ^ a b Freudling, Wolfram; Martel, Hugo; Haynes, Martha P. (20 August 1991). "The Peculiar Velocity Field in the Hercules Region". The Astrophysical Journal. 377: 349–364. Bibcode:1991ApJ...377..349F. doi:10.1086/170366.
  9. ^ Rood, Herbert J. (September 1988). "Supplemental Topics on Voids". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 100 (631): 1071–1075. Bibcode:1988PASP..100.1071R. doi:10.1086/132272. JSTOR 40679326.
  10. ^ Gregory, Stephen A. (November 1988). "VII. Redshift Surveys of Emission-Line Galaxies". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 100 (633): 1340–1342. Bibcode:1988PASP..100.1340G. doi:10.1086/132330. JSTOR 40679225.
  11. ^ a b c d Maurellis, A.; Fairall, Anthony P.; Matravers, David R.; Ellis, George F. R. (March 1990). "A two-dimensional sheet of galaxies between two southern voids". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 229: 75–79. Bibcode:1990A&A...229...75M.
  12. ^ "Astronomers Find Enormous Hole in the Universe" (Press release). National Radio Astronomy Observatory. 23 August 2007. Archived from the original on 16 May 2017.
  13. ^ Smith, Kendrick M.; Huterer, Dragan (8 March 2010). "No evidence for the cold spot in the NVSS radio survey". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 403 (1): 2–8. arXiv:0805.2751. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.403....2S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15732.x.
  14. ^ Freudling, Wolfram (September 1989). "An Upper Limit on Streaming Motion Around the Hercules Void". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 21: 1140. Bibcode:1989BAAS...21.1140F.
  15. ^ a b Krumm, Nathan Allyn; Brosch, Noah (October 1984). "Neutral Hydrogen in Cosmic Voids". The Astronomical Journal. 89 (10): 1461–1463. Bibcode:1984AJ.....89.1461K. doi:10.1086/113647.
  16. ^ a b Willmer, Christopher N. A.; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; Pellegrini, Paulo S.; Fairall, Anthony Patrick; Latham, David W.; Freudling, Wolfram (January 1995). "The Hydra-Centaurus region and the nearby universe". The Astronomical Journal. 109 (1669): 61–72. Bibcode:1995AJ....109...61W. doi:10.1086/117256.
  17. ^ Hasegawa, Takashi; et al. (August 2000). "Large-scale structure of galaxies in the Ophiuchus region". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 316 (2): 326–344. Bibcode:2000MNRAS.316..326H. doi:10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03531.x.
  18. ^ Pustilnik, Simon A.; et al. (April 2006). "HS 2134+0400—a new very metal-poor galaxy, a representative of the void population?". Astronomy Letters. 32 (4): 228–235. arXiv:astro-ph/0508255. Bibcode:2006AstL...32..228P. doi:10.1134/S1063773706040025. S2CID 6215394.
  19. ^ a b El-Ad, Hagai; Piran, Tsvi (20 December 1997). "Voids in the Large-Scale Structure". The Astrophysical Journal. 491 (2): 421–435. arXiv:astro-ph/9702135. Bibcode:1997ApJ...491..421E. doi:10.1086/304973.
  20. ^ NASA, "Cosmic Distance Scale"
  21. ^ Bahcall, Neta A.; Soneira, Raymond M. (15 November 1982). "A ~ 300 MPC Void of Rich Clusters of Galaxies?". The Astrophysical Journal. 262: 419–423. Bibcode:1982ApJ...262..419B. doi:10.1086/160436.
  22. ^ Tully, R. Brent (1 April 1986). "Alignment of Clusters and Galaxies on Scales Up To 0.1c". The Astrophysical Journal. 303: 25–38. Bibcode:1986ApJ...303...25T. doi:10.1086/164049.
  23. ^ Batuskivol, David J.; Burns, Jack O. (August 1985). "Finding Lists of Candidate Superclusters and Voids of Abell Clusters". The Astronomical Journal. 90 (8): 1413–1424. Bibcode:1985AJ.....90.1413B. doi:10.1086/113849.
  24. ^ da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci; et al. (15 April 1988). "The Southern Sky Redshift Survey". The Astrophysical Journal. 327: 544–560. Bibcode:1988ApJ...327..544D. doi:10.1086/166215.
  25. ^ Einasto, Maret; Einasto, Jaan; Tago, Erik; Dalton, Gavin B.; Andernach, Heinz (15 July 1994). "The Structure of the Universe Traced by Rich Clusters of Galaxies". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 269 (2): 301–322. Bibcode:1994MNRAS.269..301E. doi:10.1093/mnras/269.2.301.
  26. ^ Lu, Nanyao Y.; Freudling, Wolfram (20 August 1995). "Large-Scale Structures in the Zone of Avoidance: The Galactic Anticenter Region". The Astrophysical Journal. 449: 527–549. Bibcode:1995ApJ...449..527L. doi:10.1086/176077.
  27. ^ El-Ad, Hagai; Piran, Tsvi; da Costa, Luiz Nicolaci (June 1997). "A catalogue of the voids in the IRAS 1.2-Jy survey" (PDF). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 287 (4): 790–798. arXiv:astro-ph/9608022. Bibcode:1997MNRAS.287..790E. doi:10.1093/mnras/287.4.790. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 May 2020.