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This is a list of women who have made noteworthy contributions to or achievements in mathematics.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]} These include mathematical research, mathematics education,^{[1]}^{: xii } the history and philosophy of mathematics, public outreach, and mathematics contests.

- Karen Aardal (born 1961), Norwegian and Dutch applied mathematician, theoretical computer scientist, and operations researcher
- Hanan Mohamed Abdelrahman, Egyptian and Norwegian mathematics educator
- Izabela Abramowicz (1889–1973), Polish mathematician and mathematics educator
- Louise Doris Adams (1889–1965), British mathematics reformer, president of the Mathematical Association
- Rachel Blodgett Adams (1894–1982), American mathematician, one of the earliest mathematics doctorates from Radcliffe College
- Tatyana Afanasyeva (1876–1964), Russian-Dutch researcher in statistical mechanics, randomness, and geometry education
- Amandine Aftalion (born 1973), French applied mathematician, studies superfluids and the mathematics of footracing
- Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718–1799), Italian mathematician and philosopher, possibly the first female mathematics professor
- Ilka Agricola (born 1973), German expert on differential geometry and its applications in mathematical physics
- Nkechi Agwu (born 1962), African American ethnomathematician
- Dorit Aharonov (born 1970), Israeli specialist in quantum computing
- Beatrice Aitchison (1908–1997), American topologist who became a transportation economist in the US civil service
- Noreen Sher Akbar, Pakistani fluid dynamicist
- Shabnam Akhtari, Iranian number theorist
- Asuman Aksoy, Turkish-American functional analyst
- Meike Akveld, Swiss knot theorist and mathematics educator
- Fatiha Alabau (born 1961), French expert in control of partial differential equations, president of French applied mathematics society
- Mara Alagic, Serbian mathematics educator, editor-in-chief of
*Journal of Mathematics and the Arts* - Lara Alcock, British mathematics educator and author
- Helen Popova Alderson (1924–1972), Russian and British mathematician and translator, wrote on quasigroups and reciprocity laws
- Grace Alele-Williams (born 1932), first woman to lead a Nigerian university
- Aldona Aleškevičienė-Statulevičienė (1936–2017), Lithuanian probability theorist
- Stephanie B. Alexander, American differential geometer
- Florence Eliza Allen (1876–1960), second female and fourth overall mathematics PhD from the University of Wisconsin
- Linda J. S. Allen, American mathematician and mathematical biologist
- Elizabeth S. Allman (born 1965), American mathematical biologist
- Ann S. Almgren, American applied mathematician who works on computational simulations of supernovae and white dwarfs
- Melania Alvarez, Mexican-Canadian mathematics educator, organizer of summer mathematics camps for indigenous students
- Yvette Amice (1936–1993), French expert on p-adic analysis who became president of the French mathematical society
- Divsha Amirà (1899–1966), Israeli geometer and mathematics educator
- T. A. Sarasvati Amma (1918–2000), Historian of ancient Indian mathematics
- Astrid an Huef, New Zealand expert on functional analysis, president of New Zealand Mathematical Society
- Nalini Anantharaman (born 1976), French mathematical physicist, winner of the Henri Poincaré Prize
- Beverly Anderson (born 1943), American mathematician, director of minority programs for Mathematical Sciences Education Board
- Kirsti Andersen (born 1941), Danish historian of mathematics
- Cabiria Andreian Cazacu (1928–2018), Romanian complex analyst
- Hajnal Andréka (born 1947), Hungarian researcher in algebraic logic
- Annie Dale Biddle Andrews (1885–1940), algebraic geometer, first female PhD from the University of California, Berkeley
- Grace Andrews (mathematician) (1869–1951), one of only two women listed in the first edition of
*American Men of Science* - Guacolda Antoine Lazzerini (1908–2015), Chilean mathematician and mathematics educator
- Kathleen Antonelli (1921–2006), Irish-American programmer of ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer
- Noriko H. Arai (born 1962), Japanese mathematical logician and artificial intelligence researcher
- Crista Arangala, American numerical analyst, textbook author, and international educator
- Carolina Araujo, Brazilian algebraic geometer
- Maria Angela Ardinghelli (1730–1825), Italian translator of Stephen Hales, mathematician, physicist and noble
- Esther Arkin, Israeli-American researcher in operations research and computational geometry
- Sandra Arlinghaus, founder of the Institute of Mathematical Geography
- Marie-Claude Arnaud, French expert in dynamical systems
- Elayne Arrington, American aerospace engineer, expert on Soviet aircraft
- Sharon Arroyo, American operations researcher in aircraft manufacture
- Michèle Artigue (born 1946), French expert in mathematics education
- Natascha Artin Brunswick (1909–2003), German-American mathematician, photographer, and journal editor
- Shiri Artstein (born 1978), Israeli mathematician specializing in convex geometry and asymptotic geometric analysis
- Marcia Ascher (1935–2013), American ethnomathematician
- Winifred Asprey (1917–2007), helped establish the first computer science lab at Vassar
- Michèle Audin (born 1954), French researcher in symplectic geometry
- Bonnie Averbach (1933–2019), American mathematics and actuarial educator and author
- Tamara Awerbuch-Friedlander, American biomathematician and public health scientist
- Hertha Ayrton (1854–1923), English engineer, mathematician, physicist, and inventor, winner of the Hughes Medal

- Ellen Baake (born 1961), German mathematical biologist
- Wealthy Babcock (1895–1990), American mathematician, namesake of Kansas University mathematics library
- Christine Bachoc (born 1964), French expert on coding theory and kissing numbers
- Clara Latimer Bacon (1866–1948), first woman to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics from Johns Hopkins University
- Jenny Baglivo (born 1948), American mathematician, statistician, and book author
- Hajer Bahouri (born 1958), Franco-Tunisian mathematician interested in partial differential equations
- Ann E. Bailie (born 1935), American mathematician and space scientist, discovered that the earth is pear-shaped
- Frances Ellen Baker (1902–1995), American mathematician and number theorist
- Kitty Baker (1912–2014), American mathematics educator, artist and weaver, and author
- Rose Baker, British physicist, mathematician, and statistician
- Ruth Baker, British mathematical biologist interested in pattern formation and morphogenesis
- Viviane Baladi (born 1963), Swiss-French expert on dynamical systems
- Jennifer Balakrishnan, American number theorist who solved the "cursed curve"
- Deborah Loewenberg Ball, American mathematics education researcher
- Catherine Bandle (born 1943), Swiss expert on differential equations and isoperimetric inequalities
- Selenne Bañuelos (born 1985), Mexican-American mathematician and mathematical biologist
- Hélène Barcelo (born 1954), mathematician from Québec, editor-in-chief of
*Journal of Combinatorial Theory*, Series A - Grace Marie Bareis (1875–1962), American group theorist, first mathematics Ph.D. at Ohio State, and founding member of the MAA
- Nina Bari (1901–1961), Soviet mathematician known for her work on trigonometric series
- Ruth Aaronson Bari (1917–2005), American mathematician known for her work in graph theory and homomorphisms
- Mildred Barnard (1908–2000), Australian biometrician, mathematician and statistician
- Janet Barnett, American mathematician known for integrating the history of mathematics into her teaching
- Ida Barney (1886–1982), American mathematics professor and astronomer
- Charlotte Barnum (1860–1934), mathematician and social activist, first female mathematics PhD from Yale
- Margaret Baron (1915–1996), British mathematics educator and historian of mathematics
- Lida Barrett (1927–2021), second female president of the MAA
- June Barrow-Green (born 1953), British historian of mathematics
- Jean Bartik (1924–2011), one of the original programmers for the ENIAC computer
- Estelle Basor (born 1947), American mathematician interested in operator theory and the theory of random matrices
- Marjorie Batchelor, American mathematician known for Batchelor's theorem on supermanifolds
- Grace Bates (1914–1996), one of few women in the United States to be granted a PhD in mathematics in the 1940s
- Lynn Batten (born 1948), Canadian immigrant to Australia, researcher in finite geometries and cryptography
- Helga Baum (born 1954), German differential geometer
- Patricia E. Bauman, studies the mathematics of liquid crystals and superconductors
- Karin Baur, Swiss combinatorial representation theorist
- Agnes Sime Baxter (1870–1917), second Canadian and fourth North American woman to earn a mathematics PhD
- Margaret Bayer, American mathematician working in polyhedral combinatorics
- Pilar Bayer (born 1946), Spanish number theorist
- Eva Bayer-Fluckiger (born 1951), Hungarian-Swiss mathematician, proved Serre's conjecture on Galois cohomology of classical groups
- Jillian Beardwood (1934–2019), British mathematician, contributed to the traveling salesperson problem
- Karine Beauchard (born 1978), French control theorist
- Miriam Becker (1909–2000), American mathematician whose career became a test case for unionization and academic tenure
- Astrid Beckmann (born 1957), German mathematician, mathematics educator, physicist, and academic administrator
- May Beenken (1901–1988), American mathematician
- Janet Beery, American mathematician and historian of mathematics
- Mary Beisiegel, American mathematics educator
- Marion Beiter (1907–1982), American mathematician, expert on cyclotomic polynomials
- sarah-marie belcastro, American algebraic geometer, editor of books on mathematics and fiber arts
- Hélène Bellosta (1946–2011), French historian of mathematics in medieval Islam
- Alexandra Bellow (born 1935), Romanian researcher in ergodic theory, probability and analysis
- Margherita Piazzola Beloch (1879–1976), Italian researcher in algebraic geometry, algebraic topology and photogrammetry
- Suzan Rose Benedict (1873–1942), first woman to earn a PhD from the University of Michigan
- Georgia Benkart (1947–2022), American mathematician, expert on Lie algebras
- Alona Ben-Tal, Israeli and New Zealand applied mathematician, models human and bird breathing
- Deborah J. Bennett (born 1950), American mathematics educator and popular mathematics book author
- Sylvie Benzoni (born 1967), French expert in fluid dynamics and partial differential equations, director of the Institut Henri Poincaré
- Bonnie Berger, American mathematician and computer scientist, researcher in computational molecular biology
- Marsha Berger (born 1953), American researcher in numerical analysis, computational fluid dynamics, and parallel computing
- Tanja Bergkvist (born 1974), Swedish mathematician and anti-feminist activist
- Julie Bergner, American expert on algebraic topology, homotopy theory, and higher category theory
- Nicole Berline (born 1944), French researcher on index theory of elliptic differential operators
- Natalia Berloff, professor of applied mathematics at the University of Cambridge
- Leah Berman (born 1976), American discrete geometer
- Christine Bernardi (1955–2018), French expert on numerical analysis of partial differential equations
- Dorothy Lewis Bernstein (1914–1988), applied mathematician, first female president of the MAA
- Inga Berre (born 1978), Norwegian applied mathematician, models porous media and geothermal systems
- Valérie Berthé (born 1968), French researcher in symbolic dynamics, combinatorics on words, and discrete geometry
- Andrea Bertozzi (born 1965), American researcher in partial differential equations, studies mathematics of urban crime
- Nadine Bezuk, American mathematics educator, president and executive director of Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators
- Vasanti N. Bhat-Nayak (1938–2009), professor of combinatorics and head of mathematics at the University of Mumbai
- Ushadevi Bhosle (born 1949), Indian expert on vector bundles
- Francesca Biagini (born 1973), Italian-German probability theorist and financial mathematician
- Ginestra Bianconi, Italian network scientist
- Lydia Bieri (born 1972), Swiss-American expert on general relativity, gravity waves, and the history of cosmology
- Anna Maria Bigatti, Italian algebraist, developer of CoCoA
- Miggy Biller, British mathematician and mathematics educator
- Sara Billey (born 1968), American algebraic combinatorialist
- Katalin Bimbó (born 1963), Canadian mathematical logician and proof theorist
- Christina Birkenhake (born 1961), German algebraic geometer
- Joan Birman (born 1927), American braid and knot theorist
- Laure Blanc-Féraud (born 1963), French applied mathematician and image processing researcher
- Gertrude Blanch (1897–1996), American numerical analyst
- Roswitha Blind, German convex geometer and politician
- Karen M. Bliss, American applied mathematician specializing in biomedical applications and materials science
- Lenore Blum (born 1942), distinguished professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon University
- Jo Boaler (born 1964), British-American promoter of mathematics education reform and equitable mathematics classrooms
- Mary L. Boas (1917–2010), author of
*Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences* - Christine Böckmann (born 1955), German numerical analyst, expert in atmospheric lidar
- Graciela Boente, Argentine mathematical statistician known for her research in robust statistics
- Neda Bokan (born 1947), Serbian differential geometer
- Natashia Boland (born 1967), Australian mathematician and operations researcher
- Sylvie Boldo, French expert in formal verification of numerical computation
- Aline Bonami, French mathematical analyst, president of the Société mathématique de France
- Petra Bonfert-Taylor, German-American complex analyst and engineering educator
- Virginie Bonnaillie-Noël (born 1976), French numerical analyst
- Alicia Boole Stott (1860–1940), Irish-English four-dimensional geometer
- Mary Everest Boole (1832–1916), self-taught author of didactic works on mathematics
- Kathleen Booth (born 1922), English mathematician and pioneer of assembly language computer programming
- Liliana Borcea, Romanian-American applied mathematician, expert on wave propagation
- Valentina Borok (1931–2004), Soviet Ukrainian mathematician who studied partial differential equations
- Celia Grillo Borromeo (1684–1777), Genovese mathematician and scientist, discovered Clélie curve
- Liouba Bortniker (1860 – after 1903), Russian-French mathematician, first woman agrégée in mathematics, first winner of Peccot prize
- Fernanda Botelho (born 1957), Portuguese-American functional analyst
- Mary Michel Boulus (1926–2012), American Catholic nun, mathematics teacher, and college president
- Anne Bourlioux, Canadian expert in turbulent combustion and world record holder in indoor rowing
- Élisabeth Bouscaren (born 1956), French mathematician who studies the connections between algebraic geometry and model theory
- Mireille Bousquet-Mélou (born 1967), French combinatorialist
- Anne Boutet de Monvel (born 1948), French applied mathematician and mathematical physicist
- Sylvia Bozeman (born 1947), African-American mathematician and academic administrator
- Lis Brack-Bernsen (born 1946), Danish and Swiss mathematician, historian of science, and historian of mathematics
- Mary Bradburn (1923–2000), British mathematics educator, president of the Mathematical Association
- Elizabeth Bradley (born 1961), American expert in nonlinear dynamical systems, competed in 1988 Olympics
- Lillian K. Bradley (1921–1995), first African-American woman to earn a doctorate in any subject at the University of Texas
- Dorothy Brady (1903–1977), American mathematician and economist
- Priscilla Braislin (1838–1888), first professor of mathematics at Vassar College
- Leila Bram (1927–1979), head of mathematics for Office of Naval Research
- Bodil Branner (born 1943), founder of European Women in Mathematics, chair of the Danish Mathematical Society
- Hel Braun (1914–1986), German number theorist
- Elena Braverman, Russian, Israeli, and Canadian researcher in delay differential equations and difference equations
- Loretta Braxton (1934–2019), American mathematician
- Marilyn Breen (born 1944), American geometer
- Tara E. Brendle, American low-dimensional topologist and combinatorial group theorist
- Susanne Brenner, expert in the numerical solution of differential equations
- Sonja Brentjes (born 1951), German historian of Islamic mathematics and cartography
- Diane Briars (born 1951), American mathematics educator, advocate for education reform, president of National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
- Kathrin Bringmann (born 1977), German number theorist, expert on mock theta functions, winner of SASTRA Ramanujan Prize
- Ruth Britto, American mathematical physicist
- Jill Britton (1944–2016), Canadian mathematics educator, author of educational books on mathematics
- Bárbara M. Brizuela, American researcher on mathematics education in early childhood and elementary school
- Anne Broadbent, Canadian researcher on quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and quantum information
- Tamara Broderick, American mathematician and computer scientist who works in machine learning and Bayesian inference
- Lia Bronsard (born 1963), Canadian expert on interface dynamics, president of Canadian Mathematical Society
- Margaret Brown, British mathematics educator
- Susan Brown (1937–2017), English fluid mechanics researcher, possibly second female mathematics professor in UK
- Marjorie Lee Browne (1914–1979), one of the first African-American women to receive a doctorate in mathematics
- Laurence Broze (born 1960), Belgian applied mathematician, statistician, and economist, president of l'association femmes et mathématiques
- Karen Brucks (1957–2017), American mathematician, expert on one-dimensional dynamical systems
- Maria Bruna (born 1984), Spanish applied mathematician known for stochastic modelling of multiscale phenomena
- Sophie Bryant (1850–1922), Anglo-Irish mathematician, educator, feminist and activist
- Ranee Brylinski (born 1957), American mathematician known for her research in representation theory and quantum logic gates
- Evelyn Buckwar, German-Austrian expert on stochastic differential equations
- Alina Bucur, American analytic number theorist and arithmetic statistician
- Lilya Budaghyan, Armenian-Norwegian cryptographer
- Annalisa Buffa (born 1973), Italian specialist in numerical analysis for partial differential equations
- Marta Bunge, Argentine-Canadian category theorist
- Angelika Bunse-Gerstner (born 1951), German expert on numerical linear algebra
- Regina S. Burachik, Argentine-Australian researcher in convex analysis, functional analysis and non-smooth analysis
- Marilyn Burns (born 1941), American mathematics educator and author of children's books on mathematics
- Ellen Burrell (1850–1938), American mathematician
- Gail F. Burrill, American mathematics educator, president of National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
- Leone Burton (1936–2007), British researcher in ethnomathematics, founded book series on women in mathematics
- Edith Bush (1882–1977), American mathematician, first female engineering professor at Tufts University
- Ida Busbridge (1908–1988), studied integral equations and radiative transfer, first female mathematics fellow at Oxford
- Marjorie V. Butcher (1925–2016), American actuarial mathematician, first woman mathematics instructor at Michigan, first woman professor at Trinity College Connecticut
- Lynne Butler (born 1955), American combinatorialist and mathematical statistician
- Margaret K. Butler (1924–2013), computer programmer, director of the National Energy Software Center at Argonne
- Helen Byrne, British applied mathematician and mathematical biologist

- Angelina Cabras (1898–1993), Italian mathematician, physicist, and theoretical mechanics professor
- Fioralba Cakoni, Albanian expert on inverse scattering theory
- Maria-Carme Calderer, Spanish-American researcher in applied mathematics
- Nora Calderwood (1896–1985), Scottish mathematician, namesake of Birmingham University's Calderwood Prize
- Daniela Calvetti, Italian-American mathematician whose work connects Bayesian statistics with numerical analysis
- Erika Tatiana Camacho (born 1974), Mexican-American mathematical biologist
- Lucy Campbell, geophysical fluid dynamics researcher from Barbados, Jamaica, Ghana, and Canada
- Jessie Forbes Cameron (1883–1968), British mathematician, first woman to complete her PhD in mathematics at the University of Marburg
- Naiomi Cameron, American combinatorist, vice president of National Association of Mathematicians
- Patricia Campbell, American mathematics educator
- María Antònia Canals (born 1930), Spanish mathematics educator and recreational mathematician
- Sunčica Čanić, Croatian-American expert in modeling the cardiovascular system and devices for treating it
- Ana Cannas da Silva (born 1968), Portuguese mathematician specializing in symplectic geometry and geometric topology
- Barbara Canright (1920–1997), American human computer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
- Yaiza Canzani, Spanish and Uruguayan mathematical analysis, known for work in spectral geometry and microlocal analysis
- Mireille Capitaine, French researcher on random matrices and free probability theory
- Lucia Caporaso, Italian algebraic geometer
- Marian Palmer Capps (1901–2001), American mathematician and leader of prominent African-American women's societies
- Ana Caraiani, Romanian-American IMO medalist, Putnam fellow, expert in algebraic number theory and the Langlands program
- Olivia Caramello (born 1984), Italian topos theorist
- Alessandra Carbone, Italian mathematician and computer scientist, studies protein interactions in muscular dystrophy
- Sally Elizabeth Carlson (1896–2000), first woman to obtain a doctorate in mathematics at the University of Minnesota
- Anna Cartan (1878–1923), French mathematician, teacher and textbook author, student of Marie Curie
- Coralia Cartis, Romanian expert on compressed sensing, numerical analysis, and regularization methods in optimization
- Mary Cartwright (1900–1998), British mathematician, one of the first to analyze a dynamical system with chaos
- María Andrea Casamayor (1700–1780), only 18th-century Spanish scientist whose work is still extant
- Bettye Anne Case, American mathematician and historian of mathematics
- Emma Castelnuovo (1913–2014), Italian mathematics educator and textbook author
- Catherine Cavagnaro (born 1965), American low-dimensional topologist and aerobatic aviator
- Beatrice Mabel Cave-Browne-Cave (1874–1947), English pioneer in the mathematics of aeronautics
- Frances Cave-Browne-Cave (1876–1965), English mathematician and computer, taught at Girton College, Cambridge
- Anny Cazenave (born 1944), French space geodesist, pioneer in satellite altimetry
- Zoia Ceaușescu (1949–2006), Romanian functional analyst, daughter of Communist leader
- Elena Celledoni (born 1967), Italian-Norwegian expert on numerical analysis, Lie groups, and structure-preserving algorithms
- Sue Chandler, author of English secondary-school mathematics textbooks
- Melody Chan, American expert in combinatorial commutative algebra, graph theory, and tropical geometry
- Sun-Yung Alice Chang (born 1948), Chinese-American mathematical analyst, member of National Academy of Sciences
- Josephine Chanler (1906–1992), American mathematician
- Mei-Chu Chang, Taiwanese-American expert in algebraic geometry and combinatorial number theory
- Vyjayanthi Chari (born 1958), Indian-American expert in quantum algebra
- Ruth Charney (born 1950), American expert on geometric group theory and Artin groups, president of the Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM)
- Marie Charpentier (1903–1994), first woman to earn a doctorate in pure mathematics in France and second to obtain a faculty position there
- Émilie du Châtelet (1706–1749), French translator and commentator of Isaac Newton's
*Principia Mathematica* - Zoé Chatzidakis, French researcher in model theory and differential algebra
- Madeleine Chaumont (1896–1973), French mathematician, one of first women at École normale supérieure
- Jennifer Tour Chayes (born 1956), expert on phase transitions in networks, founder of the theory group at Microsoft Research
- Karine Chemla (born 1958), French historian of Chinese mathematics
- Jacqueline Chen, American applied mathematician and mechanical engineer, applies massively parallel computing to simulate combustion
- Xiaojun Chen, Chinese applied mathematician, expert on nonconvex optimization
- Margaret Cheney (born 1955), American expert on inverse problems
- Leslie Cheng, American harmonic analyst
- Maggie Cheng, Chinese-American applied mathematician, computer scientist, and network scientist
- Miranda Cheng (born 1979), Taiwanese-Dutch mathematician and theoretical physicist, formulated umbral moonshine
- Eugenia Cheng, English category theorist and pianist, uses analogies with food and baking to teach mathematics to non-mathematicians
- Amanda Chetwynd, British combinatorist and spatial statistician
- Elaine Chew, Singaporean-American expert in the mathematics and visualization of concepts in music theory
- Tanya Christiansen, American expert on scattering theory and partial differential equations
- Graciela Chichilnisky (born 1944), Argentine-American mathematical economist and authority on climate change
- Phyllis Chinn (born 1941), American graph theorist and historian of mathematics
- Grace Chisholm Young (1868–1944), English mathematician, first woman to receive a German doctorate
- YoungJu Choie (born 1959), Korean number theorist
- Yvonne Choquet-Bruhat (born 1923), French mathematician and physicist, first woman elected to the French Academy
- Maria Chudnovsky (born 1977), Israeli-American graph theorist, MacArthur Fellow
- Fan Chung (born 1949), Taiwanese-American researcher in random graphs
- Julia Chuzhoy, Israeli expert in approximation algorithms and graph minor theory
- Monique Chyba, applied control theory to autonomous underwater vehicles
- Agata Ciabattoni, Italian non-classical mathematical logician
- Maria Cibrario (1905–1992), Italian specialist in partial differential equations
- Marta Civil, American mathematics educator
- Mónica Clapp, Mexican researcher in nonlinear partial differential equations and algebraic topology
- Joan Clarke (1917–1996), English code-breaker at Bletchley Park, numismatist
- Jeanne N. Clelland (born 1970), American expert on differential geometry and its applications to differential equations
- Mary Clem (1905–1979), American mathematician and human computer, invented zero check error detection
- Harriet Redfield Cobb (1866–1958), American mathematician
- Anne Cobbe (1920–1971), British algebraist
- Sally Cockburn (born 1960), Canadian-American mathematician
- Judita Cofman (1936–2001), Yugoslav-German finite geometer and mathematics educator, first mathematics doctorate from Novi Sad
- Doris Cohen, American mathematician, first female author in the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
- Elaine Cohen, American pioneer in the use of splines for geometric modeling
- Marion Cohen (born 1943), American poet and mathematician, teaches the relationship between art and mathematics
- Miriam Cohen (born 1941), Israeli researcher in Hopf algebras, quantum groups and non-commutative rings
- Amy Cohen-Corwin, American expert in the Korteweg–de Vries equation and cubic Schrödinger equation
- Alina Carmen Cojocaru, Romanian number theorist
- Nancy Cole (1902–1991), American mathematician, made pioneering contributions to Morse theory
- Caroline Colijn, Canadian mathematical epidemiologist
- Susan Jane Colley (born 1959), first female editor-in-chief of the
*American Mathematical Monthly* - Agnes Bell Collier (1860–1930), British mathematician
- Karen L. Collins, American graph theorist and combinatorist
- Coralie Colmez, French writer on legal mathematics
- Maria Colombo (born 1989), Italian mathematical analyst
- Caterina Consani (born 1963), Italian mathematician specializing in arithmetic geometry
- Pamela Cook, American expert in fluid dynamics, president of SIAM
- Frances Cope (1902–1983), American researcher on differential equations, namesake of the Thorndike nomogram
- Minerva Cordero, Puerto Rican expert on finite geometry
- Lesley Cormack (born 1957), Canadian historian of mathematics and historian of geography
- Sylvie Corteel, French combinatorialist, editor-in-chief of
*Journal of Combinatorial Theory*, Series A - Véronique Cortier, French mathematician and computer scientist, uses mathematical logic to verify cryptographic protocols
- Carla Cotwright-Williams (born 1973), African-American data scientist for the US government
- Pamela G. Coxson, American applied mathematician specializing in disease modeling
- Collette Coullard, American matroid theorist and operations researcher
- Judith Covington, American mathematics educator
- Lenore Cowen, American discrete mathematician, computer scientist, and computational biologist
- Elizabeth Buchanan Cowley (1874–1945), American mathematician, advocated high school teaching of solid geometry
- Annalisa Crannell, American expert on water waves and geometric perspective
- Alissa Crans, American mathematician specializing in higher-dimensional algebra
- Marie Crous, 17th-century mathematician who introduced the decimal system to France
- Ana Bela Cruzeiro (born 1957), Portuguese and Swiss stochastic analyst
- Marianna Csörnyei (born 1975), Hungarian researcher in real analysis, geometric measure theory, and functional analysis
- Helen F. Cullen (1919–2007), American topologist
- Jane Cullum (born 1938), American applied mathematician known for her work in numerical algorithms and control theory
- Louise Duffield Cummings (1870–1947), Canadian-American expert on Steiner triple systems
- Susan Jane Cunningham (1842–1921), founded the mathematics and astronomy departments at Swarthmore College
- Serafina Cuomo (born 1966), Italian historian of ancient mathematics
- Antonella Cupillari (born 1955), Italian-American mathematics educator, historian of mathematics, and biographer of Agnesi
- Ruth F. Curtain (1941–2018), Australian-Dutch expert in infinite-dimensional linear systems
- Carina Curto (born 1978), American mathematical neuroscientist
- Eleanor P. Cushing (1856–1925), American mathematician
- Elizabeth Cuthill (1923–2011), American applied mathematician and Navy researcher known for sparse matrix ordering
- Annie Cuyt (born 1956), Belgian expert on approximation

- Sophie Dabo-Niang, Senegalese-French mathematician and statistician
- Amy Dahan, French mathematician, historian of mathematics, and historian of the politics of climate change
- Karma Dajani, Lebanese-Dutch mathematician, applies ergodic theory to number theory
- Anne-Laure Dalibard, French mathematician, expert on fluid dynamics in oceanography
- Ewa Damek (born 1958), Polish mathematical analyst, namesake of Damek–Ricci spaces
- Pallavi Dani, Indian-American geometric group theorist
- Donatella Danielli (born 1966), Italian-American specialist in partial differential equations
- Sofia Danova (1879–1946), Bulgarian teacher and philanthropist, first Bulgarian woman to graduate in mathematics
- Christine Darden (born 1942), American aeronautical engineer who researches sonic booms
- Geraldine Claudette Darden (born 1936), one of the first African-American women to earn a PhD in mathematics
- Panagiota Daskalopoulos, Greek-American differential geometer
- Ingrid Daubechies (born 1954), Belgian physicist and mathematician, known for wavelets
- Monique Dauge (born 1956), French mathematician and numerical analyst
- Chantal David (born 1964), Canadian analytic number theorist and arithmetic statistician
- Giuliana Davidoff, American number theorist and expert on expander graphs
- Penny J. Davies, Scottish expert on wave scattering, president of Edinburgh Mathematical Society
- Nicole De Grande-De Kimpe (1936–2008), Belgian pioneer in -adic functional analysis
- Christine De Mol (born 1954), Belgian applied mathematician and mathematical physicist
- Ineke De Moortel, Belgian mathematician who studies the sun's corona; president of Edinburgh Mathematical Society
- Valeria de Paiva, Brazilian researcher in categorical logic
- Lisette de Pillis, American researcher on the mathematics of cancer growth
- Kaye A. de Ruiz, American mathematics educator
- Daniela De Silva, Italian mathematician known for her expertise in partial differential equations
- Gerda de Vries, Canadian mathematician who studies dynamical systems and mathematical physiology
- Winifred Margaret Deans (1901–1990), British translator of German mathematics and physics texts into English
- Mary Deconge (born 1933), one of the first African-American women to earn a PhD in mathematics
- Maria Deijfen (born 1975), Swedish graph theorist and probability theorist
- Huguette Delavault (1924–2003), French mathematical physicist, activist for women in mathematics
- Ermelinda DeLaViña, Hispanic American graph theorist
- Laura DeMarco, American researcher in dynamical systems and complex analysis
- Beryl May Dent (1900–1977), British mathematical physicist, researcher in molecular forces and computer-aided design
- Darinka Dentcheva, Bulgarian-American convex analyst
- Marjorie Devaney (1931–2007), mathematician, electrical engineer, and pioneering computer programmer
- Shakuntala Devi (1939–2013), Indian child prodigy, writer, and mental calculator
- Cécile DeWitt-Morette (1922–2017), French founder of l'École de physique des Houches
- Elena Deza (born 1961), French-Russian mathematician, author of books on figurate numbers and metric spaces
- Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini (born 1946), Italian expert on type theory, lambda calculus, and programming language semantics
- Eleonora Di Nezza, Italian Kahler geometer
- Giulia Di Nunno (born 1973), Italian expert in stochastic analysis and financial mathematics, promoter of mathematics in Africa
- Sandra Di Rocco (born 1967), Italian-Swedish algebraic geometer
- Carrie Diaz Eaton, American mathematical biologist
- Auguste Dick (1910–1993), Austrian historian of mathematics and biographer of Emmy Noether
- Alicia Dickenstein (born 1955), Argentine algebraic geometer, vice-president of the International Mathematical Union
- Caren Diefenderfer (1952–2017), American mathematician, president of National Numeracy Network
- Susanne Dierolf (1942–2009), German expert on topological vector spaces
- Ada Dietz (1882–1950), American weaver who used algebraic expressions to design textiles
- Ulla Dinger (born 1955), Swedish mathematical analyst, first female doctorate in mathematics at University of Gothenburg
- Irit Dinur, Israeli researcher in probabilistically checkable proofs and hardness of approximation
- Serena Dipierro, Italian expert on partial differential equations
- Susanne Ditlevsen, Danish mathematical biologist and biostatistician
- Mary P. Dolciani (1923–1985), developed modern method for teaching high school algebra in the United States
- Yvonne Dold-Samplonius (1937–2014), Dutch historian of Islamic mathematics
- Suzanne Dorée, American group theorist and mathematics educator
- Itala D'Ottaviano (born 1944), Brazilian logician
- Yael Dowker (1919–2016), Israeli researcher in measure theory and ergodic theory
- Agnes Meyer Driscoll (1889–1971), American cryptanalyst during both World War I and World War II
- Cornelia Druțu Romanian mathematician, won Whitehead Prize for research in geometric group theory
- Malgorzata Dubiel, Polish and Canadian mathematics educator
- Marie-Louise Dubreil-Jacotin (1905–1972), first woman full professor of mathematics in France, expert in fluid mechanics and abstract algebra
- Moon Duchin, American expert in geometric topology, geometric group theory, and Teichmüller theory
- Marie Duflo (1940–2019), French probability theorist, activist for foreigners in France
- Vida Dujmović (born 1972), Yugoslav-Canadian graph theorist
- Della Dumbaugh, American historian of mathematics, editor-in-chief of
*American Mathematical Monthly* - Ioana Dumitriu (born 1976), Romanian-American numerical analyst
- Julena Steinheider Duncombe (1911–2003), American mathematics teacher and astronomer
- Elizabeth B. Dussan V. (born 1946), American expert on the behavior of fluids
- Nira Dyn, Israeli expert on subdivision surfaces

- Annie Easley (1933–2011), African-American computer scientist, mathematician, and rocket scientist
- Sheila May Edmonds (1916–2002), British mathematician, Vice-Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge
- Josephine D. Edwards (1942–1985), Australian mathematician, founded Australian Mathematics Competition
- Mary Edwards (c. 1750–1815), human computer for the British Nautical Almanac
- Constance van Eeden (1927–2021), Dutch nonparameteric statistician who contributed to the development of statistics in Canada
- Hettie Belle Ege (1861–1942), American mathematician, acting president of Mills College
- Tatyana Pavlovna Ehrenfest (1905–1984), Dutch researcher in combinatorics and graph theory
- Andrée Ehresmann (born 1935), French category theorist
- Gertrude Ehrlich (born 1923), Austrian-American algebraist and number theorist
- Thyra Eibe (1866–1955), first woman to earn a mathematics degree from the University of Copenhagen, translator of Euclid
- Carolyn Eisele (1902–2000), American mathematician, historian of mathematics, expert on Charles Sanders Peirce
- Nathalie Eisenbaum, French probability theorist
- Kirsten Eisenträger, German-American researcher in computational number theory
- Tanja Eisner (born 1980), Ukrainian-German expert on operator theory
- Nicole El Karoui (born 1944), Tunisian-French pioneer in mathematical finance
- Amèle El Mahdi (born 1956), Algerian mathematics professor and writer
- Nerida Ellerton (born 1942), Australian mathematics educator and historian of mathematics education
- Joanne Elliott (born 1925), American mathematician specializing in potential theory
- Jo Ellis-Monaghan, American mathematician interested in graph polynomials and topological graph theory
- Maria Emelianenko, Russian-American expert on centroidal Voronoi tessellation
- Gisela Engeln-Müllges (born 1940), escapee from East Germany, expert in numerical algorithms, and abstract artist
- Susanna S. Epp (born 1943), American researcher in discrete mathematics and mathematical logic
- Karin Erdmann (born 1948), German researcher in modular representation theory and homological algebra
- Viveka Erlandsson, Swedish low-dimensional topologist and geometer
- Anna Erschler (born 1977), Russian-French expert on random walks on groups
- Hélène Esnault (born 1953), French algebraic geometer, winner of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize
- Maria J. Esteban (born 1956), Basque-French applied mathematician, president of International Council for Industrial and Applied Mathematics
- Alison Etheridge FRS (born 1964), English researcher in theoretical population genetics and mathematical ecology
- Christina Eubanks-Turner, American mathematics educator, graph theorist, and commutative algebraist

- Vera Faddeeva (1906–1983), Russian expert on numerical linear algebra
- Fariba Fahroo, Persian-American expert in pseudospectral optimal control, winner of AIAA Mechanics and Control of Flight Award
- Barbara Trader Faires (born 1943), American mathematician and textbook author, secretary of MAA
- Etta Zuber Falconer (1933–2002), one of the first African-American women to receive a PhD in mathematics
- Ruma Falk (1932–2020), Israeli psychologist and philosopher of mathematics specializing in human understanding of probability
- María Falk de Losada, American-born Colombian mathematician, co-founded Colombian Mathematical Olympiad, rector of Antonio Nariño University
- Mary Fama (1938–2021), New Zealand applied mathematician, expert on rock deformation in mining
- Martha Isabel Fandiño Pinilla (born 1956), Colombian and Italian mathematics educator
- Barbara Fantechi (born 1966), Italian algebraic geometer
- Marie Farge (born 1953), French mathematician and physicist known for her research on wavelets and turbulence in fluid mechanics
- Mary Celine Fasenmyer (1906–1996), Catholic nun whose research on hypergeometric functions prefigured WZ theory
- Heike Fassbender, German expert in numerical linear algebra, first woman to lead a German mathematical society
- Lisa Fauci (born 1960), American applied mathematician who applies computational fluid dynamics to biological processes
- Patricia Fauring, Argentine mathematician, coach of the Argentine mathematical olympiad team
- Odile Favaron (born 1938), French graph theorist
- Philippa Fawcett (1868–1948), English educationalist, first woman to obtain the top score in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos
- Anita Burdman Feferman (1927–2015), American historian of mathematics and mathematical biographer
- Nina Fefferman, American mathematical biologist
- Eva-Maria Feichtner (born 1972), German algebraic geometer
- Joan Feigenbaum (born 1958), theoretical computer scientist, co-inventor of trust management
- Genevieve Grotjan Feinstein (1912–2006), helped decipher Japanese Purple cryptography, worked on Venona counter-intelligence
- Käte Fenchel (1905–1983), Jewish German researcher on non-abelian groups
- Zhilan Feng (born 1959), Chinese-American applied mathematician, mathematical biologist, and epidemiologist
- Elizabeth Fennema (1928–2021), researched attitudes of young women towards mathematics and their classroom interactions
- Anuška Ferligoj (born 1947), Slovenian mathematical sociologist and researcher in network analysis
- Elena Fernández (born 1956), Spanish operations researcher, president of Association of European Operational Research Societies
- Marisa Fernández, Spanish differential geometer
- Jacqueline Ferrand (1918–2014), French researcher on conformal representation theory, potential theory, and Riemannian manifolds
- Antonia Ferrín Moreiras (1914–2009), Spanish mathematician and first Galician woman astronomer
- Joan Ferrini-Mundy (born 1954), American researcher in mathematics education
- Judith V. Field (born 1943), British historian of mathematics and art
- Anna Fino, Italian differential geometer
- Farideh Firoozbakht (1962–2019), Iranian number theorist
- Ilse Fischer (born 1975), Austrian combinatorialist
- Irene Fischer (1907–2009), Austrian-American geodesist for Mercury and Apollo spaceflights, member of National Academy of Engineering
- Vera Fischer, Austrian set theorist and mathematical logician
- Naomi Fisher, American mathematics educator, worked to bring together research mathematicians and educators
- Mary Flahive (born 1948), American mathematician, author of books on difference equations and diophantine approximation
- Sarah Flannery (born 1982), winner of the EU Young Scientist of the Year Award for her teenage research on cryptography
- Erica Flapan (born 1956), American researcher in low-dimensional topology and knot theory
- Jennifer Flegg, Australian applied mathematician
- Irmgard Flügge-Lotz (1903–1974), German aerodynamics researcher, first female engineering professor at Stanford
- Natasha Flyer (born 1969), American earth scientist and applied mathematician, expert on radial basis functions
- Anne Bosworth Focke (1868–1907), first mathematics professor at what is now University of Rhode Island; student of David Hilbert
- Amanda Folsom (born 1979), American number theorist
- Irene Fonseca (born 1956), Portuguese-American director of the Center for Nonlinear Analysis at Carnegie Mellon University
- Phyllis Fox (born 1923), American mathematician and computer scientist, collaborator on the first LISP interpreter
- Marguerite Frank (born 1927), French-American pioneer in convex optimization theory and mathematical programming
- Hélène Frankowska, Polish-French control theorist and set-valued analyst
- Ailana Fraser, Canadian researcher on geometric analysis and the theory of minimal surfaces
- Elena Freda (1890–1978), Italian mathematician, applied mathematical analysis to electromagnetics and biology
- Haya Freedman (1923–2005), Israeli-British mathematician who studied the Tamari lattice and ring theory
- Herta Freitag (1908–2000), Austrian-American expert on Fibonacci numbers
- Susan Friedlander (born 1946), English-American researcher in fluid dynamics, first female editor-in-chief of the
*Bulletin of the AMS* - Joyce Friedman (1928–2018), American mathematician, operations researcher, computer scientist, and computational linguist
- Aline Huke Frink (1904–2000), American mathematician and professor
- Charlotte Froese Fischer (born 1929), Canadian-American expert on atomic-structure calculations who predicted negative calcium ions
- Hannah Fry (born 1984), English complex systems theorist and public speaker
- Shirley M. Frye, American mathematics educator, president of National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
- Elza Furtado Gomide (1925–2013), Brazilian mathematician, first female doctorate in mathematics at University of São Paulo
- Cohl Furey, Canadian mathematical physicist
- Fumiko Futamura, Japanese-American mathematician, expert on graphical perspective

- Lisl Gaal (born 1924), Austrian-born American set theorist and Galois theorist
- Isabelle Gallagher (born 1973), French researcher in partial differential equations
- Eva Gallardo (born 1971), president of Spanish Mathematical Society
- Irene M. Gamba (born 1957), Argentine-American applied mathematician
- Svetlana Gannushkina (born 1942), Russian mathematician and human rights activist
- Nina Gantert, Swiss and German probability theorist
- Kseniya Garaschuk (born 1982), Soviet-born Canadian mathematics educator, editor of
*Crux Mathematicorum* - Pascale Garaud, French-American applied mathematician interested in fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, and their applications to astrophysics
- Annie Marie Watkins Garraway (born 1940), American mathematician who worked in telecommunications and electronic data transmission
- Adriana Garroni (born 1966), Italian mathematician, expert on modeling plasticity and fracture
- Mary Cleophas Garvin (1899–1990), American mathematician
- Geneviève Gauthier (born 1967), Canadian financial mathematician, statistician, and decision scientist
- Véronique Gayrard, French probability theorist
- Mai Gehrke (born 1964), Danish lattice theorist and mathematical logician
- Hilda Geiringer (1893–1973), Austrian researcher on Fourier series, statistics, probability, and plasticity, refugee from Nazi Germany
- Anne Gelb, American mathematician interested in numerical analysis, partial differential equations, and Fourier analysis of images
- Sue Geller, American mathematician with interdisciplinary interests in algebraic K-theory, bioinformatics, and biostatistics
- Hélyette Geman, French researcher in mathematical finance
- Ruth Gentry (1862–1917), American geometer
- Sommer Gentry, American mathematician, applies dance notation to haptic interaction and operations research to organ transplants
- Maria-Pia Geppert (1907–1997), German mathematician and biostatistician who founded the
*Biometrical Journal* - Sophie Germain (1776–1831), French number theorist, physicist, and philosopher, correspondent of Gauss
- Marie Gernet (1865–1924), first German woman to earn a doctorate in mathematics
- Nadeschda Gernet (1877–1943), Russian mathematician, student of David Hilbert, worked in the calculus of variations
- Judith Gersting (born 1940), American mathematician, computer scientist, and textbook author
- Ellen Gethner, American graph theorist
- Patrizia Gianni (born 1952), Italian expert in computer algebra
- Danuta Gierulanka (1909–1995), Polish mathematics educator and philosopher of mathematics
- Irène Gijbels, Belgian mathematical statistician and expert in nonparametric statistics
- Olga Gil Medrano (born 1956), Spanish geometric analyst, first female president of the Royal Spanish Mathematical Society
- Anna C. Gilbert (born 1972), American expert in streaming algorithms and matching pursuit
- Jane Piore Gilman (born 1945), topologist and group theorist, distinguished professor of mathematics at Rutgers University
- Gloria Ford Gilmer, American ethnomathematician
- Joella Gipson (1929–2012), American music educator and mathematics educator, first African-American student at Mt. St. Mary's College
- Vivette Girault (born 1943), French expert on numerical analysis, finite element methods, and computational fluid dynamics
- E. G. Glagoleva (1926–2015), Soviet and Russian mathematician, mathematics educator, and textbook author
- Josephine Burns Glasgow (1887–1969), American group theorist, active in American Association of University Women
- Muriel Glauert (1892–1949), British mathematician and aerodynamicist
- Sarah Glaz (born 1947), Romanian-Israeli-American commutative algebraist and mathematical poet
- Heide Gluesing-Luerssen (born 1961), German mathematician specializing in algebraic coding theory
- Julia Gog, English mathematical biologist, uses mathematics to study the spread of infectious diseases
- Linda Gojak, American mathematics educator, president of National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
- Nüzhet Gökdoğan (1910–2003), Turkish astronomer and mathematician, founder of Turkish Mathematical Society
- Bonnie Gold (born 1948), American mathematician, mathematical logician, philosopher of mathematics, and mathematics educator
- Lisa Goldberg, American mathematical finance scholar and statistician
- Rebecca Goldin, American expert in symplectic geometry
- Christina Goldschmidt, British probability theorist
- Catherine Goldstein (born 1958), French number theorist and historian of mathematics
- Gisèle Ruiz Goldstein (born 1958), American expert in partial differential equations, operator theory, and mathematical finance
- Susan Goldstine, American mathematician active in mathematics and fiber arts
- Shafi Goldwasser (born 1958), American-born Israeli theoretical cryptographer
- Concha Gómez, Italian and Cuban-American mathematician and advocate for diversity in STEM
- Sherry Gong, second American gold medal winner at International Mathematical Olympiad
- Enriqueta González Baz (1915–2002), first woman to earn a mathematics degree in Mexico, founder of the Mexican Mathematical Society
- Maria Gordina (born 1968), Russian-American mathematical analyst
- Carolyn S. Gordon (born 1950), isospectral geometer who proved that you can't hear the shape of a drum
- Julia Gordon, Canadian representation theorist, winner of Michler and Krieger–Nelson prizes
- Pamela Gorkin, American complex analyst and textbook author
- Sigal Gottlieb, American expert in numerical simulation of the partial differential equations used in aerodynamics
- Aline Gouget (born 1977), French cryptographer
- Mary de Lellis Gough (1892–1983), American mathematician
- Alice Bache Gould (1858–1953), American mathematician and historian
- Gene Grabeel (1920–2015), American mathematician and cryptanalyst who founded the Venona project
- Judith Grabiner (born 1938), American historian of 18th- and 19th-century mathematics
- Eva-Maria Graefe, German-English mathematical physicist, expert in ultracold atoms and Non-Hermitian quantum mechanics
- Christine Graffigne (born 1959), French expert on Markov random fields for image analysis
- Evelyn Boyd Granville (born 1924), one of the first African-American women to receive a PhD in mathematics
- Antonella Grassi, mathematician specializing in algebraic geometry and string theory
- Mary Graustein (1884–1972), American mathematician, first mathematical doctorate from Radcliffe College
- Marion Cameron Gray (1902–1979), Scottish telephone engineer, discoverer of the Gray graph
- Mary W. Gray (born 1939), author on mathematics, mathematics education, economic equity, discrimination law, and academic freedom
- Judy Green (born 1943), logician and historian of women in mathematics
- Anne Greenbaum (born 1951), American expert in theoretical and numerical linear algebra
- Catherine Greenhill, Australian graph theorist
- Sarah J. Greenwald, American mathematician, studies connections between mathematics and society
- Cindy Greenwood (born 1937), Canadian statistician, winner of Krieger-Nelson Prize
- Sina Greenwood, New Zealand topologist
- Ruth Gregory, British mathematical physicist specializing in general relativity and cosmology
- Margaret Greig (1922–1999), English applied mathematician, developed theory for worsted spinning
- Harriet Griffin (1903–1991), American mathematician, author of a textbook on number theory
- Lois Wilfred Griffiths (1899–1981), American expert on polygonal numbers
- Laura Grigori, French applied mathematician, known for communication-avoiding algorithms for numerical linear algebra
- Ellina Grigorieva, Russian expert on mathematical problem solving
- Elisenda Grigsby, American low-dimensional topologist
- Clara Grima (born 1971), Spanish computational geometer, co-discoverer of scutoids, mathematics popularizer
- Margaret Grimshaw (1905–1990), English mathematician at Cambridge and author on Hilbert spaces
- Birgit Grodal (1943–2004), Danish mathematical economist, studied atomless economies
- Ione Grogan (1891–1961), American schoolteacher, mathematics professor, and literary club leader
- Edna Grossman, German-born American designer of the Data Encryption Standard and of the slide attack in cryptography
- Marcia Groszek, American mathematician whose research concerns mathematical logic, set theory, forcing, and recursion theory
- Gerd Grubb (born 1939), Danish expert on pseudodifferential operators
- Helen G. Grundman, American number theorist
- Weiqing Gu, Chinese-American researcher on differential geometry and the mathematics of cancer growth
- Rebeca Guber (1926–2020), Argentine mathematician, founder of Argentine Calculation Society
- Christine Guenther, American expert on the Ricci flow
- Laura Guggenbühl (1901–1985), American mathematician known for her work in triangle geometry and the history of mathematics
- Colette Guillopé, French researcher in partial differential equations and fluid dynamics, former president of femmes et mathématiques
- Joséphine Guidy Wandja (born 1945), Ivorian mathematician
- Alice Guionnet (born 1969), French probability theorist
- Geneviève Guitel (1895–1982), French mathematician who studied natural-language numbering systems
- Kanta Gupta (1938–2016), Indian-Canadian researcher on abstract algebra and group theory
- Neena Gupta, Indian mathematician who solved the Zariski cancellation problem
- Rona Gurkewitz, American mathematician and computer scientist known for her work on modular origami
- Margaret Gurney (1908–2002), American mathematician, survey statistician, and pioneering computer programmer
- Rochelle Gutierrez, American education theorist who studies the impacts of race, class and language on mathematics education
- Simone Gutt (born 1956), Belgian differential geometer

- Ruth Haas, American mathematician known for mentorship of other women mathematicians
- Violet B. Haas (1926–1986), American control theorist
- Olga Hadžić (1946–1995), Serbian expert on fixed-point theorems
- Dörte Haftendorn (born 1948), German mathematician, mathematics educator, and textbook author
- Kari Hag (born 1941), Norwegian expert on quasiconformal mappings
- Marjorie Hahn (born 1948), American probability theorist and tennis player
- Deborah Tepper Haimo (1921–2007), Ukrainian-Palestinian-American classical analyst, third female president of the Mathematical Association of America
- Susie W. Håkansson (born 1940), mathematics educator, director of the California Mathematics Project
- Ursula Hamenstädt (born 1961), German differential geometry
- Christine Hamill (1923–1956), English mathematician specializing in group theory and finite geometry
- Mary-Elizabeth Hamstrom (1927–2009), American topologist
- Xiaoying Han, Chinese mathematician who studies random dynamical systems and stochastic differential equations
- Gila Hanna (born 1934), Canadian mathematics educator and philosopher of mathematics
- Anita Hansbo (born 1960), Swedish mathematician, rector of Jönköping University
- Megumi Harada, Canadian expert on equivariant symplectic and algebraic geometry
- Alison Harcourt (born 1929), Australian mathematician and statistician known for branch and bound algorithms and quantification of poverty in Australia
- Frances Hardcastle (1866–1941), group theorist, one of the founders of the American Mathematical Society
- Kathryn E. Hare (born 1959), Canadian expert in harmonic analysis
- Valentina Harizanov, Serbian-American researcher in computability and model theory
- Dorothee Haroske (born 1968), German expert on function spaces
- Heather Harrington (born 1984), applied mathematician and algebraic systems biologist
- Pamela E. Harris, Mexican combinatorist and mathematics blogger
- Jenny Harrison, American expert on generalized functions and minimal surfaces
- Frances Harshbarger (1902–1987), one of the first female American mathematicians to receive a doctorate
- Bertha Hart, American mathematician
- Sarah B. Hart, British group theorist
- Shelly Harvey, American researcher in knot theory, low-dimensional topology, and group theory
- Maria Hasse (1921–2014), German graph theorist, set theorist, and category theorist, first female professor in science at TU Dresden
- Rhonda Hatcher, American number theorist, winner of Haimo teaching award
- Deanna Haunsperger, American mathematician, former president of the Mathematical Association of America
- Jane M. Hawkins, American researcher in dynamic systems, complex dynamics, cellular automata, and Julia sets
- Louise Hay (1935–1989), founding member of the Association for Women in Mathematics
- Linda B. Hayden (born 1949), African-American mathematics educator and mathematical geoscientist known for mentorship of women and minorities
- Ellen Hayes (1851–1930), American mathematician, astronomer, and political radical
- Margaret Hayman (1923–1994), British mathematics educator, co-founder of British Mathematical Olympiad
- Euphemia Lofton Haynes (1890–1980), first African-American woman to earn a PhD in mathematics
- Sarah D. Allen Oren Haynes (1836–1907), first female state librarian of Indiana and first female faculty member at Purdue University
- Teresa W. Haynes (born 1953), American expert on domination in graphs
- Emilie Virginia Haynsworth (1916–1985), American linear algebraist known for Schur complements and Haynsworth inertia additivity formula
- Olive Hazlett (1890–1974), American algebraist at the University of Illinois
- Sandra Mitchell Hedetniemi (born 1949), American researcher in graph theory and graph algorithms
- Maria Heep-Altiner (born 1959), German mathematician and actuary
- Jane Heffernan, Canadian mathematician who studies mathematical models for the spread of infectious disease
- Katherine Heinrich (born 1954), Canadian combinatorialist, first female president of Canadian Mathematical Society
- Christine Heitsch, American expert on the mathematics of RNA structure
- Diane Henderson, American applied mathematician and experimental fluid dynamics researcher
- Nadia Heninger (born 1982), American cryptographer, computer security expert, and computational number theorist
- Cora Barbara Hennel (1888–1947), American mathematician, first woman to earn a doctorate in mathematics at the Indiana University
- Dagmar R. Henney (born 1931), German-American expert on additive set-values and Banach spaces
- Inge Henningsen (born 1941), statistician, writer and feminist
- Allison Henrich (born 1980), American knot theorist
- Shandelle Henson (born 1964), American mathematician and mathematical biologist, expert on population dynamics
- Rebecca A. Herb (born 1948), American researcher in abstract algebra and Lie groups
- Raphaèle Herbin, French expert on the finite volume method
- Grete Hermann (1901–1984), German mathematician and philosopher also noted for her work in physics and education
- Susan Hermiller, American group theorist
- Norma Hernández (born 1934), American mathematics educator, studied factors affecting Mexican-American mathematics students
- Constance Anne Herschel (1855–1939), British lecturer in natural sciences and mathematics
- Patricia Hersh (born 1973), American expert on algebraic and topological combinatorics
- Bobby Hersom (born 1929), British mathematician and computer scientist
- Kathryn Hess (born 1967), American mathematician who uses algebraic topology to understand structures in neurology and materials science
- Silvia Heubach, German-American mathematician specializing in enumerative combinatorics, combinatorial game theory, and bioinformatics
- Gloria Conyers Hewitt (born 1935), early African-American female mathematics PhD, MAA governor
- Laurie Heyer, American mathematician specializing in genomics and bioinformatics
- Patricia Hiddleston (1933–2017), Scottish and Rhodesian mathematician
- Aparna Higgins, Indian-American graph theorist known for encouraging undergraduate research
- Raegan Higgins, American mathematician, co-director of the EDGE program for Women
- Nancy Hingston, American differential geometer
- Wei Ho, American arithmetic geometer
- Hoàng Xuân Sính (born 1933), first female Vietnamese mathematician, student of Grothendieck, founder of Thang Long University
- Catherine Hobbs (born 1968), British singularity theorist, applies geometry to robotics
- Dorit S. Hochbaum (born 1949), American expert on approximation algorithms for facility location, covering and packing, and scheduling
- Marlis Hochbruck (born 1964), German expert on matrix exponentials and their applications to differential equations
- Maria Hoffmann-Ostenhof (born 1947), Austrian expert on the Schrödinger equation
- Leslie Hogben, American mathematician specializing in graph theory and linear algebra, known for graduate mentorship
- Nina Holden, Norwegian probability theorist
- Judy A. Holdener (born 1965), American number theorist who simplified the proof of Touchard's theorem on perfect numbers
- Barbara R. Holland (born 1976), New Zealand born Australian phylogeneticist
- Lotte Hollands (born 1981), Dutch mathematical physicist
- Tara S. Holm, American algebraic geometer and symplectic geometer
- Olga Holtz (born 1973), Russian numerical analyst, winner of the European Mathematical Society Prize
- Betty W. Holz (1919–2005), American mathematician and defense analyst
- Dorothy McFadden Hoover (1918–2000), American human computer involved in the design of swept-wing aircraft
- Grace Hopper (1906–1992), American computer scientist and United States Navy rear admiral
- Eleanor Mollie Horadam (1921–2002), English-Australian mathematician, studied generalized integers, mother of Kathy
- Kathy Horadam (born 1951), Australian mathematician, studies Hadamard matrices, daughter of Eleanor Mollie
- Annick Horiuchi, French historian of Japanese mathematics
- Anette Hosoi, American mechanical engineer, biophysicist, and mathematician, studies fluid dynamics, robotics, and bio-inspired design
- Victoria Howle, American expert in numerical linear algebra, founded AWM essay contest
- Susan Howson (born 1973), British mathematician known for work on algebraic number theory and arithmetic geometry
- Rebecca Hoyle, British applied mathematician, expert on pattern formation
- Celia Hoyles (born 1946), British mathematician, president of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications
- Christine Hrenya, American computational fluid dynamicist, expert in fluidization and multiphase flow
- Pao-sheng Hsu, Mathematics educator, founder of AWM Teacher Partnership Program
- Hu Hesheng (born 1928), differential geometer, president of Shanghai Mathematical Society, member of Chinese Academy of Science
- Katharina T. Huber (born 1965), German mathematical biologist, expert in the foundations and visualization of phylogeny
- Verena Huber-Dyson (1923–2016), Swiss-American group theorist and logician, expert on undecidability in group theory
- Annette Huber-Klawitter (born 1967), German algebraic geometer, expert in the Bloch–Kato conjectures
- Vera Huckel, American human computer at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
- Anne Lester Hudson, American expert in topological semigroups, mathematics educator, and mathematics competition coach
- Hilda Phoebe Hudson (1881–1965), English researcher on Cremona transformations in algebraic geometry
- Sabine Van Huffel (born 1958), Belgian applied mathematician, expert on total least squares and applications to medical diagnostics
- Rhonda Hughes (born 1947), American wavelet researcher, president of the Association for Women in Mathematics
- Deborah Hughes Hallett, mathematics education reformer
- Birge Huisgen-Zimmermann (born 1946), German-American representation theorist and ring theorist
- Dominique Hulin (born 1959), French differential geometer
- Mabel Gweneth Humphreys (1911–2006), Canadian-American number theorist and namesake of the M. Gweneth Humphreys Award
- Eugénie Hunsicker, American mathematician who works at the intersection of analysis, geometry and topology
- Fern Hunt (born 1948), American mathematician known for her work in applied mathematics and mathematical biology
- Bobbie Hunter, New Zealand educational theorist and mathematics educator
- Louise Stokes Hunter (died 1988), American mathematics educator, first African-American woman with a degree from the University of Virginia
- Joan Hutchinson (born 1945), American graph theorist who extended the planar separator theorem to graphs of higher genus
- Marie Hušková (born 1942), Czech mathematician who worked in theoretical statistics and change-point problems
- Hypatia (died 415), head of the Neoplatonic school at Alexandria, murdered by a Christian mob

- Milagros D. Ibe (born 1931), Filipino mathematics educator, vice chancellor of the University of the Philippines Diliman
- Mihaela Ignatova, Bulgarian mathematical analyst
- Annette Imhausen (born 1970), German historian of ancient Egyptian mathematics
- Tasha Inniss, first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. from the University of Maryland, director of education for INFORMS
- Eleny Ionel, Romanian-American symplectic geometer
- Alessandra Iozzi (born 1959), Italian-American-Swiss geometric group theorist
- Ilse Ipsen, German-American expert in numerical linear algebra
- Valerie Isham (born 1947), British applied probabilist, president of Royal Statistical Society
- Shihoko Ishii (born 1950), Japanese mathematician specializing in algebraic geometry
- Vanaja Iyengar ( –2001), founding vice chancellor of Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, a women's university in Andhra Pradesh, India

- Trachette Jackson (born 1972), researcher in mathematical oncology, second African-American woman to become a Sloan Fellow in mathematics
- Jessie Marie Jacobs (1890–1954), fired from mathematics instructorship for having a child, aided husband Hermann Muller's Nobel-winning genetic research
- Alex James, British and New Zealand applied mathematician, mathematical biologist, and epidemiologist
- Cathérine Jami (born 1961), French historian of Chinese mathematics
- Jeannette Janssen, Dutch and Canadian graph theorist
- Monique Jeanblanc (born 1947), French financial mathematician
- Lisa Jeffrey FRSC, Canadian expert in symplectic geometry and quantum field theory
- Erica Jen, American applied mathematician, studies mathematical analysis of chaotic and complex behavior
- Carrie Ichikawa Jenkins, Canadian philosopher of mathematics
- Jacqueline Jensen-Vallin, American low-dimensional topologist, editor of
*MAA FOCUS* - Svetlana Jitomirskaya (born 1966), Ukrainian mathematician working on dynamical systems and mathematical physics
- Naomi Jochnowitz, American algebraic number theorist known for her mentorship of women in mathematics
- Aimee Johnson, American expert on dynamical systems
- Katherine Johnson (1918–2020), calculated the trajectory for Project Mercury and the 1969 Apollo 11 flight to the Moon
- Marion Lee Johnson, African-American mathematician, helped calculate trajectories for the Apollo 11 moon landing
- Antonia J. Jones (1943–2010), British mathematician and computer scientist
- Eleanor Jones (1929–2021), one of the first African American women to receive a PhD in mathematics
- Shelly M. Jones, American mathematics educator
- Nataša Jonoska (born 1961), Macedonian-American expert in DNA computing
- Artishia Wilkerson Jordan (1901–1974), African-American mathematics educator and clubwoman
- Nalini Joshi, researcher in differential equations, Australian Laureate Fellow, Hardy Lecturer, president of Australian Mathematical Society
- Josephine Jue, Chinese-American mathematician, compiler, and programmer, first Asian-American woman at NASA

- Margarethe Kahn (1880–c. 1942), one of the first female German doctorates, contributed to Hilbert's sixteenth problem
- Suzan Kahramaner (1913–2006), one of the first female mathematicians in Turkish academia
- Gabriele Kaiser, German mathematics educator
- Efstratia Kalfagianni, Greek-American topologist
- Eva Kallin, American researcher in geometric axiom systems, functional algebra, and polynomial convexity
- Gudrun Kalmbach (born 1937), German quantum logician
- Anne-Sophie Kaloghiros, French algebraic geometer
- Barbara Kaltenbacher, Austrian applied analyst, president of Austrian Mathematical Society
- Hermine Agavni Kalustyan (1914–1989), Armenian-Turkish mathematician and politician
- Constance Kamii, Swiss-Japanese-American mathematics education scholar and psychologist
- Shoshana Kamin (born 1930), Soviet-Israeli mathematical physicist, wrote about parabolic partial differential equations
- Mihyun Kang, South Korean graph theorist
- Chiu-Yen Kao (born 1974), Taiwanese-American expert in image processing and mathematical biology
- Gizem Karaali, Turkish representation theorist, founding editor of
*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics* - Mary Cordia Karl (1893–1984), American geometer
- Carol Karp (1926–1972), American researcher on infinitary logic, viola player
- Yael Karshon (born 1964), Israeli-Canadian expert on symplectic geometry
- Elaine Kasimatis, American discrete geometer and mathematics educator
- Haya Kaspi (born 1948), Israeli probability theorist
- Fanny Kassel (born 1984), French expert on Lie groups
- Svetlana Katok (born 1947), Russian-American founder of
*Electronic Research Announcements of the AMS* - Yoshie Katsurada (1911–1980), Japanese differential geometer, first Japanese woman with a doctorate or professorship in mathematics
- Bruria Kaufman (1918–2010), Israeli theoretical physicist who collaborated with Einstein on general relativity
- Kathleen Kavanagh, American mathematician, applies simulation-based engineering to water quality and sustainability
- Elham Kazemi (born 1970), Iranian-American mathematics educator
- Ailsa Keating, French-British symplectic geometer
- Rinat Kedem (born 1965), American mathematician and mathematical physicist
- Linda Keen (born 1940), American mathematician and computer scientist, president of AWM
- Lyudmila Keldysh (1904–1976), Russian set theorist and geometric topologist
- Ruth Kellerhals (born 1957), Swiss expert on hyperbolic geometry, geometric group theory and polylogarithm identities
- Julia Kempe, French, German, and Israeli researcher in quantum computing
- Claribel Kendall (1889–1965), one of the founders of the Rocky Mountain Section of the MAA
- Juliette Kennedy, mathematical logician in Finland
- Patricia Clark Kenschaft (born 1940), American mathematician, prolific book author, and activist for equity and diversity
- Autumn Kent, American mathematician specializing in topology and geometry, promoter of transgender rights
- Leah Keshet, Israeli-Canadian mathematical biologist, first female president of the Society for Mathematical Biology
- Radha Kessar, Indian mathematician known for her research in the representation theory of finite groups
- Barbara Keyfitz (born 1944), Canadian-American researcher on nonlinear partial differential equations, president of AWM and ICIAM
- Lily Khadjavi, American mathematician, author on mathematics for social justice
- 'Mamphono Khaketla (born 1960), Lesotho mathematician, senator, and finance minister
- Olga Kharlampovich (born 1958), Russian-Canadian group theorist who solved the Tarski conjecture on first-order theories of free groups
- Carolyn Kieran, Canadian mathematics educator
- Anna Kiesenhofer (born 1991), Austrian cyclist and mathematical physicist
- Misha Kilmer, American applied mathematician known for research in numerical linear algebra and scientific computing
- Eun Jung Kim, South Korean researcher in parameterized complexity and graph width
- Ju-Lee Kim (born 1969), Korean-American expert on the representation theory of
*p*-adic groups - Chawne Kimber (born 1971), African-American mathematician and quilter, incorporates social justice into mathematics teaching
- Amy C. King (1928–2014), American mathematics educator
- Angie Turner King (1905–2004), American mathematics and chemistry educator
- Karen D. King (1971–2019), African-American mathematics educator and Falconer Lecturer
- L. Christine Kinsey, American topologist and textbook author
- Faina Mihajlovna Kirillova (born 1931), Belarusian optimal control theorist
- Vivien Kirk, New Zealand dynamical systems theorist, president of New Zealand Mathematical Society
- Ellen Kirkman, American algebraist
- Denise Kirschner, American mathematical biologist and immunologist
- Frances Kirwan (born 1959), British specialist in algebraic and symplectic geometry
- Virginia Kiryakova, Bulgarian mathematician, expert on fractional calculus and special functions
- Jane Kister, British-American mathematical logician, editor of
*Mathematical Reviews* - Tinne Hoff Kjeldsen, Danish researcher in mathematics education and the philosophy and history of mathematics
- Kathrin Klamroth (born 1968), German expert on combinatorial optimization and facility location
- Erica Klarreich (born 1972), American geometer and writer
- Maria Klawe (born 1951), Canadian-American theoretical computer scientist, president of Harvey Mudd College
- Caroline Klivans, American algebraic combinatorist, expert on chip-firing games
- Małgorzata Klimek (born 1957), Polish mathematician, expert on fractional calculus
- Genevieve M. Knight (1939–2021), African-American mathematics educator
- Julia F. Knight, American specialist in model theory and computability theory
- Eleanor Krawitz Kolchin (1927–2019), American mathematician, programmer, and astronomer, calculated orbits for the Apollo program
- Tamara G. Kolda, American applied mathematician at Sandia National Laboratories
- Natalia Komarova, Russian-American mathematician, studies cancer, language, gun control, pop music, and other complex systems
- Nancy Kopell (born 1942), American researcher in the dynamics of the nervous system
- Elaine Koppelman (1937–2019), American mathematician
- Maria Korovina (born 1962), Russian research on functional spaces and differential equations
- Yvette Kosmann-Schwarzbach (born 1941), French differential geometer, namesake of the Kosmann lift
- Ekaterina Kostina, Belarusian-German expert on nonlinear optimization
- Sofya Kovalevskaya (1850–1891), first major Russian female mathematician, worked in analysis, differential equations and mechanics
- Bryna Kra (born 1966), American mathematician who applies dynamical systems in number theory and combinatorics
- Edna Kramer (1902–1984), American mathematician and author of mathematics books
- Gunilla Kreiss (born 1958), Swedish numerical analyst
- Cecilia Krieger (1894–1974), third person and first woman to earn a Canadian mathematics PhD, translator of Sierpiński
- Holly Krieger, American dynamical systems theorist
- Anna Zofia Krygowska (1904–1988), Polish mathematician known for her work in mathematics education
- Ewa Kubicka, Polish-American graph theorist and actuarial scientist
- Vera Kublanovskaya (1920–2012), Russian inventor of the QR algorithm for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors
- Daniela Kühn (born 1973), German-English combinatorialist, expert on infinite graphs, winner of the Whitehead Prize
- Angela Kunoth (born 1963), German numerical analyst
- Frances Kuo, Taiwanese-Australian applied mathematician, expert on quasi-Monte Carlo methods
- Krystyna Kuperberg (born 1944), Polish-American topologist who found a smooth counterexample to the Seifert conjecture
- Věra Kůrková (born 1948), Czech expert in neural networks and approximation theory
- Rachel Kuske (born 1965), American-Canadian expert on stochastic and nonlinear dynamics, asymptotic methods, and industrial mathematics
- Klavdija Kutnar (born 1980), Slovenian algebraic graph theorist and academic administrator
- Gitta Kutyniok (born 1972), German researcher in harmonic analysis, compressed sensing, and image processing

- Izabella Łaba (born 1966), Polish-Canadian specialist in harmonic analysis, geometric measure theory, and additive combinatorics
- Carole Lacampagne, American mathematician known for her work in mathematics education and gender equality
- Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847–1930), American psychologist, logician, and mathematician
- Jeanne LaDuke (born 1938), American child actress, mathematical analyst, and historian of mathematics
- Olga Ladyzhenskaya (1922–2004), Soviet mathematician, proved convergence of a finite difference method for Navier–Stokes
- V. Lakshmibai, Indian-American expert on flag varieties and Schubert varieties
- Matilde Lalín, Argentine-Canadian number theorist, expert on L-functions and Mahler measure
- Ailsa Land, British operations researcher known for developing branch and bound algorithms
- Susan Landau (born 1954), American mathematician and computer scientist, known for internet security and denesting radicals
- Mary Landers (1905–1991), American mathematician, activist for academic collective bargaining
- Kerry Landman, Australian applied mathematician
- Alicia Prieto Langarica, American applied mathematician
- Tanja Lange, German number theorist and cryptographer
- Amy Langville (born 1975), American college basketball star and expert on ranking systems
- Loredana Lanzani (born 1965), Italian-American harmonic analyst
- Glenda Lappan (born 1939), developed Connected Mathematics curriculum, led National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
- Gillie Larew (1882–1977), American mathematician, first alumna of Randolph–Macon Woman's College to become full professor there
- Jean Ann Larson, American set theorist and historian of mathematical logic
- Elisabeth Larsson (born 1971), Swedish researcher in scientific computing
- Irena Lasiecka (born 1948), Polish-American expert in control theory of partial differential equations
- Renu C. Laskar (born 1932), Indian-American graph theorist, specialist in domination numbers and circular arc graphs
- Klavdiya Latysheva (1897–1956), Soviet mathematician, contributed to differential equations, electrodynamics and probability
- Monique Laurent (born 1960), French-Dutch expert in mathematical optimization
- Kristin Lauter (born 1969), American researcher in elliptic curve cryptography, president of AWM
- Emille D. Lawrence, American topological graph theorist
- Ruth Lawrence (born 1971), child prodigy, British-Israeli researcher in knot theory and algebraic topology
- Snezana Lawrence, Yugoslav and British historian of mathematics
- Anneli Cahn Lax (1922–1999), American mathematician, winner of the George Pólya Award
- Anita Layton, Hong Kong-American applied mathematician who studies mathematical models of kidney function
- Katherine Puckett Layton, American mathematics educator and textbook author
- Lê Thị Thanh Nhàn (born 1970), Vietnamese mathematician, vice rector for Science at Thái Nguyên University, won Kovalevskaya Prize
- Alice Lee (1858–1939), helped discredit craniology
- Hollylynne Lee, American mathematics and statistics educator
- Joceline Lega, French applied mathematician interested in nonlinear dynamics
- Anne M. Leggett, American mathematical logician, editor of
*AWM Newsletter* - Emma Lehmer (1906–2007), Russian-American mathematician known for work on reciprocity laws in algebraic number theory
- Marguerite Lehr (1898–1987), pioneer in the use of television to teach mathematics
- Tanya Leise, American biomathematician, expert in circadian rhythms
- Joan Leitzel (born 1936), American mathematics educator and university administrator
- Miriam Leiva, Cuban-American mathematics educator
- Mary Leng, British philosopher of mathematics
- Frédérique Lenger (1921–2005), Belgian mathematics educator and leader of the New Math movement
- Suzanne Lenhart (born 1954), American researcher in partial differential equations, president of AWM
- Ulrike Leopold-Wildburger (born 1949), Austrian mathematical economist, applied mathematician, and operations researcher
- Katrin Leschke (born 1968), German differential geometer, quaternionic analyst, and minimal surface theorist
- Gail Letzter (born 1960), American quantum group representation theorist and intelligence agency executive
- Annie Leuch-Reineck (1880–1978), Swiss mathematician and women's rights activist
- Debbie Leung, Canadian expert in quantum communications
- Rachel Levy (born 1968), American applied mathematician, mathematics educator, and blogger
- Sophia Levy (1888–1963), American astronomer, numerical analyst, and mathematics educator
- Marta Lewicka (born 1972), Polish expert in nonlinear elasticity
- Florence Lewis (1877–1964), American mathematician and astronomer
- Jing-Rebecca Li, applied mathematician in France, studies magnetic resonance imaging and Lyapunov equations
- Sherry Li, Chinese-American developer of sparse parallel solvers for systems of linear equations
- Winnie Li (born 1948), Chinese-American researcher in number theory, coding theory, automorphic forms, and spectral graph theory
- Paulette Libermann (1919–2007), French specialist in differential geometry
- Pamela Liebeck (1930–2012), British mathematician and mathematics educator
- Lillian Rosanoff Lieber (1886–1986), American mathematics professor and author of popular books on science and mathematics
- Magnhild Lien, Norwegian mathematician specializing in knot theory
- Elizaveta Litvinova (1845–c. 1919), Russian mathematician and biographer, defied czar's order forbidding women to study abroad
- Bonnie Litwiller (1937–2012), American mathematics educator and textbook author
- Marie Litzinger (1899–1952), American number theorist
- Chiu-Chu Melissa Liu (born 1974), Taiwanese-American researcher in algebraic geometry and symplectic geometry
- Klara Löbenstein (1883–1968), German researcher in algebraic geometry
- Patti Frazer Lock (born 1953), American mathematics and statistics educator and textbook author
- Deborah Frank Lockhart, administrator at the National Science Foundation
- Susan Loepp (born 1967), American algebraist and cryptographer
- Marina Logares (born 1976), Spanish geometer and LGBT+ activist
- Mayme Logsdon (1881–1967), American algebraic geometer and mathematics educator
- Louise Zung-nyi Loh (1900–1981), Chinese mathematician, physicist, and educator
- Sara Lombardo, Italian mathematician, expert on rogue waves and integrable systems
- Ling Long (mathematician), Chinese-American expert on modular forms, elliptic surfaces, and dessins d'enfants
- Lynette Long, American psychologist, mathematics educator, and textbook author
- Carlotta Longo (1895- after 1959), Italian mathematical physicist and high school teacher
- Judith Q. Longyear (1938–1995), American researcher in graph theory and combinatorics
- Paola Loreti, Italian researcher in Fourier analysis, control theory, and non-integer bases
- Lisa Lorentzen, Norwegian mathematician and author, specializing in continued fractions
- Dawn Lott, African-American expert on numerical partial differential equations
- Ada Lovelace (1815–1852), wrote the first computer program as part of her work on Babbage's Analytical Engine
- María Teresa Lozano Imízcoz (born 1946), Spanish low-dimensional topologist
- Sylvia Chin-Pi Lu (1928–2014), Chinese-American commutative algebraist
- Katarzyna Lubnauer (born 1969), Polish probability theorist and politician
- Edith Hirsch Luchins (1921–2002), Polish-American mathematician, experimented on psychology of mathematical problem solving
- Maria Silvia Lucido (1963–2008), Italian mathematician, expert on the prime graphs of finite groups
- Malwina Łuczak, Polish-Australian probability theorist
- Monika Ludwig (born 1966), Austrian researcher in convex geometry, member of Austrian Academy of Sciences
- Alessandra Lunardi (born 1958), Italian mathematical analyst
- Xiaoyu Luo, Chinese and British applied mathematician, applies fluid dynamics and biomechanics to soft tissues
- Élisabeth Lutz (1914–2008), French student of Weil, showed how to compute torsion subgroups of elliptic curves
- Julie Lutz (born 1944), American astronomer and mathematician who studies planetary nebulae and symbiotic binary stars
- Sonja Lyttkens (1919–2014), Swedish mathematician, first Swedish woman to obtain a permanent academic position in mathematics

- Odile Macchi (born 1943), French mathematician and physicist
- Marta Macho Stadler (born 1962), Basque expert on foliations and mathematical blogger
- Barbara MacCluer, American expert on operator theory and author on functional analysis
- Brenda MacGibbon, Canadian mathematician, statistician, and decision scientist
- Sheila Scott Macintyre (1910–1960), Scottish researcher on the Whittaker constant, co-author of German–English mathematics dictionary
- Annie MacKinnon (1868–1940), Canadian-born American mathematician, third woman to earn a mathematics doctorate at an American university
- Diane Maclagan (born 1974), expert on toric varieties, Hilbert schemes, and tropical geometry
- Chrystal Macmillan (1872–1937), Scottish Liberal politician, barrister, feminist and pacifist, first female honours graduate in mathematics from University of Edinburgh
- Jessie MacWilliams (1917–1990), English researcher on error-correcting codes
- Kathleen Madden, American expert on dynamical systems
- Isabel Maddison (1869–1950), British mathematician known for her work on differential equations
- Penelope Maddy (born 1950), American philosopher of mathematics
- Urmila Mahadev, American quantum computing researcher
- Dorothy Maharam (1917–2014), American mathematician who made important contributions to measure theory
- Carolyn A. Maher, American expert in mathematics education
- Carolyn Mahoney (born 1946), African-American combinatorialist, president of Lincoln University of Missouri
- Apala Majumdar, British expert on liquid crystals
- Larisa Maksimova (born 1943), Russian mathematical logician
- Agnieszka Malinowska, Polish expert on fractional calculus and the calculus of variations
- Maryanthe Malliaris, American mathematician specializing in model theory
- Vivienne Malone-Mayes (1932–1995), fifth African-American woman to earn a PhD in mathematics, researcher in functional analysis
- Eugenia Malinnikova (born 1974), Russian-Norwegian expert in functional analysis and partial differential equations
- Claudia Malvenuto (born 1965), Italian mathematician known for her work on the Hopf algebra of permutations
- Cristina Manolache, British algebraic geometer
- Michelle Manes, American mathematician interested in number theory, algebraic geometry, and dynamical systems
- Kathryn Mann, geometric topologist and geometric group theorist
- Renata Mansini (born 1968), Italian applied mathematician, uses mathematical optimization for portfolio balancing
- Elizabeth Mansfield, Australian expert on moving frames and conservation laws
- Lisa Mantini, American mathematician
- María Manzano (born 1950), Spanish mathematical logician
- Elena Marchisotto (born 1945), American mathematician, mathematics educator, and historian of mathematics
- Anna Marciniak-Czochra (born 1974), Polish applied mathematician and mathematical biologist
- Matilde Marcolli (born 1969), Italian mathematical physicist
- Fotini Markopoulou-Kalamara (born 1971), Greek theoretical physicist interested in foundational mathematics and quantum mechanics
- Hannah Markwig (born 1980), German researcher in tropical geometry
- Alison Marr (born 1980), American graph theorist and advocate of inquiry-based learning
- Karen Marrongelle, American mathematics educator and academic administrator
- Bethany Rose Marsh, British expert in cluster algebras and tilting theory
- Susan H. Marshall, American number theorist
- Maia Martcheva, Bulgarian-American mathematical biologist
- Laura Martignon (born 1952), Colombian-Italian researcher in neuroscience and decision-making
- Emilie Martin (1869–1936), American group theorist
- Mireille Martin-Deschamps, French algebraic geometer, president of Société mathématique de France
- Consuelo Martínez (born 1955), Spanish algebraist
- María del Carmen Martínez Sancho (1901–1995), first woman in Spain to gain a PhD in Mathematics
- Katalin Marton (1941–2019), Hungarian information and probability theorist
- Susan Martonosi, American mathematician, applies operations research to counter-terrorism, epidemiology, and sports analytics
- Roswitha März (born 1940), German expert on differential-algebraic equations
- Verdiana Masanja (born 1954), first Tanzanian woman to earn a doctorate in mathematics
- Joanna Masingila (born 1960), American mathematics educator
- Vera Nikolaevna Maslennikova (1926–2000), Russian researcher on partial differential equations, hydrodynamics of rotating fluids, and function spaces
- Maura Mast, Irish-American differential geometer, mathematics educator, textbook author, and academic administrator
- Claire Mathieu (born 1965), French algorithms researcher
- Gordana Matic, Croatian-American low-dimensional topologist, expert on contact topology
- Kaisa Matomäki (born 1985), Finnish number theorist known for her work on multiplicative functions over short intervals
- Gretchen Matthews (born 1973), American algebraic coding theorist
- Laura Matusevich, Argentine commutative algebraist
- Galina Matvievskaya (born 1930), Soviet-Russian historian of mathematics
- Margaret Maxfield (1926–2016), American mathematician and mathematics book author
- Lola J. May (1923–2007), American mathematics educator and early proponent of new math
- Svitlana Mayboroda (born 1981), Ukrainian-American expert on boundary value problems for elliptic partial differential equations
- Ellen Maycock (born 1950), American functional analyst and mathematics educator
- Anna Mazzucato, American expert on fluid dynamics
- Shirley McBay (1935–2021), first African-American doctorate at the University of Georgia
- Mary McCammon (c. 1928 – 2008), first woman to complete a doctoral degree in mathematics at Imperial College London
- Maeve McCarthy, Irish mathematician interested in inverse problems and biological modeling
- Lynne McClure, British mathematics educator
- Dorothy McCoy (1903–2001), American mathematician, first female doctorate in mathematics at University of Iowa
- Janet McDonald (1905–2006), American geometer
- Dusa McDuff FRS (born 1945), English researcher on symplectic geometry, winner of Satter Prize, first female Hardy Lecturer
- Elizabeth McHarg (1923–1999), Scottish mathematician and translator, first female president of Edinburgh Mathematical Society
- Lois Curfman McInnes, American researcher on numerical solution of nonlinear partial differential equations for scientific applications
- Camille McKayle (born 1964), Afro-Jamaican-American mathematician and academic administrator
- Danica McKellar (born 1975), American actor, author, mathematician, and education advocate
- Joyce McLaughlin (1939–2017), American researcher in inverse problems
- Jeanette McLeod, New Zealand combinatorialist, popularizes mathematics through crochet and origami
- Jennifer McLoud-Mann, Cherokee mathematician who discovered the 15th and last class of convex pentagons that tile the plane
- Jenny McNulty, American matroid theorist and academic administrator
- Florence Marie Mears (1896–1995), American specialist in summation methods
- Catherine Meadows, American cryptographer who formally verifies cryptographic protocols
- Elizabeth Meckes (1980–2020), American probability theorist
- Nicole Megow, German discrete mathematician and theoretical computer scientist, researcher in scheduling algorithms
- Sylvie Méléard, French probability theorist
- Pauline Mellon, Irish functional analyst, president of Irish Mathematical Society
- Karin Melnick, American differential geometer
- Teresa Melo (born 1966), Portuguese mathematician and operations researcher
- Florence Merlevède, French probability theorist
- Helen Abbot Merrill (1864–1949), American mathematician, educator and textbook author
- Winifred Edgerton Merrill (1862–1951), first woman with a degree from Columbia University and first American female doctorate in mathematics
- Uta Merzbach (1933–2017), German-American historian of mathematics, first Smithsonian curator of mathematical instruments
- Vilma Mesa, Colombian-American mathematics educator
- Chikako Mese, American differential geometer
- Jill P. Mesirov, American mathematician, computer scientist, and computational biologist, president of AWM
- Jaqueline Mesquita (born 1985), Brazilian mathematician specializing in differential equations
- Dora Metcalf (1892–1982), British mathematician and data analysis entrepreneur
- Ida Martha Metcalf (1857–1952), second American female doctorate in mathematics
- Catherine Meusburger (born 1978), German mathematical physicist interested in string theory
- Ariane Mézard, French arithmetic geometer
- Marie-Louise Michelsohn (born 1941), American researcher on complex geometry, spin manifolds, the Dirac operator, and algebraic cycles
- Ruth I. Michler (1967–2000), American commutative algebraist and algebraic geometer
- Kaisa Miettinen (born 1965), Finnish industrial optimization researcher and academic administrator
- Alison Miller, first American female gold medalist in the International Mathematical Olympiad, three-time Elizabeth Lowell Putnam award winner
- Laura Miller, American mathematician, applies fluid dynamics to insect flight and jellyfish propulsion
- Maggie Miller, American low-dimensional topologist
- Mirka Miller (1949–2016), Czech-Australian graph theorist, data security expert
- Margaret Millington (1944–1973), English expert on modular forms
- Eva Miranda, Spanish expert on symplectic dynamics
- Rosa M. Miró-Roig (born 1960), Spanish algebraic geometer and commutative algebraist
- Maryam Mirzakhani (1977–2017), first female Fields medalist; researcher on the symmetry of curved surfaces
- Yuliya Mishura, Ukrainian probability theorist and mathematical finance expert
- Josephine M. Mitchell (1912–2000), Canadian-American mathematical analyst, victim of discriminative application of anti-nepotism rules
- Dorina Mitrea (born 1965), Romanian-American functional analyst and mathematics educator
- Irina Mitrea, Romanian-American researcher in partial differential equations known for outreach to women and minorities
- Atsuko Miyaji (born 1965), Japanese cryptographer and number theorist
- Reiko Miyaoka (born 1951), Japanese geometer known for her research on hypersurfaces
- Fatma Moalla (born 1939), first Tunisian woman to earn a French doctorate in mathematics
- Colette Moeglin (born 1953), French expert on automorphic forms
- Joanne Moldenhauer (1928–2016), American high school mathematics teacher
- Clemency Montelle (born 1977), New Zealand historian of Indian mathematics and astronomy
- Susan Montgomery (born 1943), American researcher in noncommutative algebra
- Helen Moore, American mathematician who applies control theory to combination therapy in the health industry
- Cathleen Synge Morawetz (1923–2017), Canadian-American researcher on the partial differential equations governing fluid flow
- Anne C. Morel, American logician, order theorist, and algebraist, first female full professor of mathematics at the University of Washington
- Sophie Morel (born 1979), French number theorist and contributor to the Langlands program, first female tenured mathematics professor at Harvard
- Eugenie Maria Morenus (1881–1966), American mathematician and professor
- Susan Morey, American mathematician specializing in commutative algebra
- Hélène Morlon (born 1978), French mathematical biologist, models biodiversity
- Irene Moroz, British applied mathematician
- Joy Morris (born 1970), Canadian researcher on groups and graphs
- Kirsten Morris (born 1960), Canadian control theorist
- Rosa M. Morris (1914–2011), Welsh applied mathematician and aerodynamicist
- Jennifer Morse, American algebraic combinatorialist
- Rose Morton (1925–1999), American expert in the mathematical modeling of bubbles
- Joan Moschovakis, American intuitionistic logician
- Ruth Moufang (1905–1977), German researcher on non-associative algebraic structures, namesake of Moufang loops
- Magdalena Mouján (1926–2005), Argentine mathematician of Basque descent, operations researcher, computing pioneer, and science fiction author
- Nežka Mramor–Kosta, Slovenian mathematician
- Jennifer Mueller, American applied mathematician, expert in inverse problems and electrical impedance tomography
- Edith Alice Müller (1918–1995), Swiss mathematician and astronomer, studied the group theory of Moorish tile designs
- Anna Mullikin (1893–1975), American mathematician, early investigator of point set theory
- Irene Mulvey, American mathematician, president of American Association of University Professors
- Anca Muscholl (born 1967), Romanian-German mathematical logician and theoretical computer scientist
- Kieka Mynhardt (born 1953), South African and Canadian expert on dominating sets in graph theory
- Emmy Murphy, American symplectic geometer
- Cecilia Wangechi Mwathi (1963–2011), Kenyan mathematician and union activist, first woman in Kenya to become a mathematics professor
- Valerie Myerscough (1942–1980), British mathematician and astrophysicist
- Vera Myller (1880–1970), Russian mathematician and student of David Hilbert, first female professor in Romania
- Wendy Myrvold, Canadian graph theorist, combinatorist, and algorithms researcher

- Anna Nagurney, Ukrainian-American mathematician, economist, educator and author in operations management
- Hasibun Naher, Pakistani applied mathematician who studies tsunamis
- Andrea R. Nahmod (born 1964), American expert in nonlinear Fourier analysis, harmonic analysis, and partial differential equations
- Pia Nalli (1884–1964), Italian researcher in functional analysis and tensor calculus
- Seema Nanda, Indian researcher in applications of mathematics to biology, engineering and finance
- Mangala Narlikar, Indian number theorist, author of Marathi-language mathematics books for schoolchildren
- Sonia Natale (born 1972), Argentine expert in abstract algebra
- Caryn Navy (born 1953), blind American researcher in set-theoretic topology and Braille technology
- Lyudmyla Nazarova, Ukrainian representation theorist
- Vicky Neale, British number theorist and mathematics popularizer
- Gabriele Nebe (born 1967), German researcher on sphere packings, lattices, and codes
- Deanna Needell, American applied mathematician, won 2016 IMA Prize in Mathematics and Applications
- Sara Negri (born 1967), Italian-Finnish proof theorist
- Evelyn Nelson (1943–1987), Canadian researcher in universal algebra with applications to theoretical computer science
- Gail S. Nelson (born 1959), American mathematician, textbook author, and editor-in-chief of the MAA "Problem Books"
- Nancy Neudauer, American matroid theorist known for her work in mathematical outreach in Africa and South America
- Claudia Neuhauser (born 1962), German-American mathematical biologist whose research concerns spatial ecology
- Hanna Neumann (1914–1971), German-born mathematician who worked on group theory
- Adriana Neumann de Oliveira, Brazilian expert in interacting particle systems
- Mara Neusel (1964–2014), German-American invariant theorist and advocate for women in mathematics
- Monica Nevins (born 1973), Canadian algebraist
- Virginia Newell (born 1917), American mathematics educator, author, politician, and centenarian
- Mary Frances Winston Newson (1869–1959), first female American to receive a PhD in mathematics from a European university
- Sylvia de Neymet (1939–2013), First Mexican woman to earn a doctorate in mathematics in Mexico
- Purity Ngina, Kenyan biomathematician
- Giang Nguyen (born 1985), Vietnamese-Australian applied mathematician and chess master
- Aoibhinn Ní Shúilleabháin (born 1983), Irish celebrity and mathematics lecturer
- Nancy K. Nichols, British applied mathematician and numerical analyst
- Olympia Nicodemi, American mathematician and mathematics educator interested in wavelets and the history of mathematics
- Phyllis Nicolson (1917–1968), British developer of the Crank–Nicolson method for solving partial differential equations
- Barbara Niethammer (born 1963), German expert on the growth of particles in liquids
- Stanisława Nikodym (1897–1988), first Polish woman to earn PhD in mathematics, known for research in continuum theory
- Mila Nikolova (1962–2018), Bulgarian researcher in image processing, inverse problems, and compressed sensing
- Kumiko Nishioka (born 1954), Japanese specialist on transcendental numbers and Mahler functions
- Wiesława Nizioł, Polish researcher in arithmetic algebraic geometry
- Emmy Noether (1882–1935), German researcher in abstract algebra and theoretical physics, named "the greatest woman mathematician of all time"
^{[5]} - Margarita Nolasco Santiago, Mathematics textbook author, member of Puerto Rico Senate
- Khalida Inayat Noor, Pakistani mathematical analyst
- Dorothée Normand-Cyrot, French control theorist
- Isabella Novik (born 1971), Israeli-American expert on algebraic and geometric combinatorics
- Frieda Nugel (1884–1966), one of the first German women to obtain a doctorate in mathematics
- Helena J. Nussenzveig Lopes, Brazilian mathematician known for her research on incompressible Euler equations
- Kaisa Nyberg (born 1948), Finnish cryptographer

- Katharine Elizabeth O'Brien (1901–1986), American mathematician, musician and poet
- Vivian O'Brien (1924–2010), American applied mathematician and physicist, expert in fluid dynamics and visual perception
- Hilary Ockendon, British applied mathematician, expert in fluid dynamics
- Ortrud Oellermann, South African and Canadian graph theorist
- Frédérique Oggier, Swiss and Singaporean coding theorist
- Hee Oh (born 1969), Korean-American dynamical systems theorist, expert on equidistribution in fractal structures
- Eve Oja (1948–2019), Estonian functional analyst
- Christine O'Keefe, Australian researcher in finite geometry and information security
- Kathleen Adebola Okikiolu (born 1965), British-American researcher on differential operators, developed curricula for inner-city children
- Dianne P. O'Leary (born 1951), American expert on scientific computing, computational linear algebra, and the history of scientific computing
- Olga Oleinik (1925–2001), Soviet researcher on partial differential equations, elastic media, and boundary layers
- Dorte Olesen (born 1948), first Danish mathematician to be appointed full professor
- Gloria Olive (1923–2006), American-born New Zealand mathematician
- Kathleen Ollerenshaw (1912–2014), British mathematician and politician, mayor of Manchester, educational advisor to Margaret Thatcher
- Yewande Olubummo (born 1960), Nigerian-American functional analyst
- Rebecca Walo Omana (born 1951), first female mathematics professor in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Cathy O'Neil, American arithmetic algebraic geometer and author on the social hazards of machine learning
- Rosa Orellana, American mathematician specializing in algebraic combinatorics and representation theory
- Ewa Orłowska (born 1935), Polish logician
- Omayra Ortega, American mathematical epidemiologist
- Hinke Osinga (born 1969), Dutch expert in dynamical systems, crocheted the Lorenz manifold
- Barbara L. Osofsky (born 1937), American algebraist, first woman in 50 years to address a national AMS meeting, first female AMS journal editor
- Mina Ossiander, American probability theorist
- Sofiya Ostrovska (born 1958), Ukrainian probability theorist and approximation theorist
- Marie Françoise Ouedraogo (born 1967), Burkinabé expert on pseudodifferential operators and superalgebras, president of African Women in Mathematics Association
- Helen Brewster Owens (1881–1968), American suffragette, associate editor of the
*American Mathematical Monthly* - Robyn Owens, Australian applied mathematician, studies computer vision including face recognition and the imaging of lactation

- Ietje Paalman-de Miranda (1936–2020), Surinamese–Dutch mathematician, first female mathematics professor at University of Amsterdam
- Harriet Padberg (1922–2014), mathematician, music therapist, and pioneer of algorithmic music composition
- Mariolina Padula (died 2012), Italian expert on fluid dynamics
- Christina Pagel, British German operations researcher, applies data analysis and mathematical modelling to health care
- Eleanor Pairman (1896–1973), Scottish mathematician, developed methods to teach mathematics to blind students
- Ilona Palásti (1924–1991), Hungarian researcher in discrete geometry, geometric probability, and random graphs
- Pandrosion (4th century AD), ancient Greek mathematician predating Hypatia, developed an approximation for cube roots
- Erika Pannwitz (1904–1975), German geometric topologist who proved that every knot has a quadrisecant
- Anna Panorska, Polish-American expert on extreme events in stochastic processes and on the effect of weather on baseball
- Greta Panova (born 1983), Bulgarian-American algebraic combinatorist
- Theoni Pappas (born 1944), American mathematics teacher and author of books on popular mathematics
- Raman Parimala (born 1948), Indian mathematician known for her contributions to algebra
- Clare Parnell (born 1970), British astrophysicist and applied mathematician, studies the mathematics of the sun and of magnetic fields
- Haesun Park, Korean-American researcher in numerical analysis and the data sciences
- Jinyoung Park, South Korean combinatorist
- Karen Parshall (born 1955), American historian of mathematics
- Bozenna Pasik-Duncan, Polish-American control theorist and mathematics educator
- Maria Pastori (1895–1975), Italian mathematician, specialist in rational mechanics
- Christine Paulin-Mohring (born 1962), French mathematical logician and computer scientist, developer of Coq theorem prover
- Barbara Paulson (born 1928), American human computer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory
- Nataša Pavlović, Serbian–American expert in fluid dynamics and nonlinear dispersive equations
- Sylvie Paycha (born 1960), French mathematician working in operator theory
- Sandrine Péché (born 1977), French expert on random matrices
- Jean Pedersen (1934–2016), American mathematician and author, expert on mathematical paper folding
- Irena Peeva, American researcher in commutative algebra and its applications
- Jeanne Peiffer (born 1948), Luxembourgian historian of mathematics
- Magda Peligrad, Romanian probability theorist known for her work on stochastic processes
- Beatrice Pelloni (born 1962), Italian expert on partial differential equations
- Rose Peltesohn (1913–1998), German-Israeli researcher in additive combinatorics
- Kirsi Peltonen, Finnish mathematician whose interests include differential geometry and the connections between mathematics and art
- Charlotte Elvira Pengra (1875–1916), Sixth American woman to receive a doctorate in mathematics
- Cristina Pereyra (born 1964), Venezuelan mathematician, author of several books on wavelets and harmonic analysis
- Teri Perl (born 1926), American mathematics educator, educational software designer, and author
- Bernadette Perrin-Riou (born 1955), French number theorist, winner of the Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize
- Mary Perry Smith (1926–2015), American mathematics educator, founder of MESA program for under-privileged students
- Hazel Perfect (died 2015), British combinatorialist, author, and translator, inventor of gammoids
- Laura Person, American low-dimensional topologist
- Adriana Pesci, Argentine fluid dynamicist, expert on flagellar motion, soap films, and the Leidenfrost effect
- Małgorzata Peszyńska (born 1962), Polish-American applied mathematician, models geological flow in porous media
- Rózsa Péter (1905–1977), recursion theorist, first woman elected to the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
- Stefanie Petermichl (born 1971), German-French mathematical analyst, first female winner of the Salem Prize
- Louise Petrén-Overton (1880–1977), first Swedish woman with a doctorate in mathematics
- Guergana Petrova, Bulgarian applied mathematician, uses numerical methods to solve differential equations
- Sonja Petrović, American mathematical statistician
- Linda Petzold (born 1954), researcher in differential algebraic equations and simulation, member of National Academy of Engineering
- Julia Pevtsova, Russian-American representation theorist
- Mamokgethi Phakeng (born 1966), first black female South African to earn a PhD in mathematics education
- Flora Philip (1865–1943), first female member of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society
- Cynthia A. Phillips, American expert on combinatorial optimization
- Dominique Picard (born 1953), French expert on the statistical applications of wavelets
- Sophie Piccard (1904–1990), Russian-Swiss mathematician, first female full professor in Switzerland
- Lisa Piccirillo, American low-dimensional topologist
- Ragni Piene (born 1947), Norwegian algebraic geometer, member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
- Lillian Pierce, American mathematician whose research connects number theory with harmonic analysis
- Johanna Piesch (1898–1992), Austrian pioneer in switching algebra
- Marie Anne Victoire Pigeon (1724–1767), French mathematician, writer, and teacher
- Faustina Pignatelli (d. 1785), princess of Colubrano, second woman elected to the Academy of Sciences of Bologna
- Gabriella Pinzari, Italian expert on the n-body problem
- Jill Pipher (born 1955), researcher in harmonic analysis, Fourier analysis, differential equations, and cryptography, president of AWM
- Laura Pisati (died 1908), Italian mathematician, first woman invited to speak at International Congress of Mathematicians
- Elena Cornaro Piscopia (1646–1684), Italian philosopher, musician, and mathematics lecturer, first woman to earn a doctorate
- Toniann Pitassi, American-Canadian computational complexity theorist, expert on proof complexity
- Tina Pizzardo (1903 – 1989), Italian mathematics teacher and anti-fascist
- Shirley Pledger, New Zealand mathematician and statistician known for her work on mark and recapture methods
- Vera Pless (1931–2020), American mathematician specializing in combinatorics and coding theory
- Kim Plofker (born 1964), American historian of Indian mathematics, winner of the Brouwer Medal
- Gerlind Plonka, German mathematician known for her work on refinable functions and curvelets
- Eileen Poiani, American mathematician, first woman to teach mathematics at Saint Peter's University, first female president of Pi Mu Epsilon
- Claudia Polini, Italian expert on commutative algebra
- Harriet Pollatsek (born 1942), Lie theorist who has applied difference sets to error correcting codes and coding theory
- Pelageya Polubarinova-Kochina (1899–1999), Soviet researcher in fluid mechanics, hydrodynamics, and history of mathematics
- Elena Moldovan Popoviciu (1924–2009), Romanian functional analyst
- Freda Porter (born 1957), American applied mathematician, groundwater consultant, and Native American leader
- Yvonne Pothier (born 1937), Canadian mathematics educator, Catholic nun, and activist for refugees
- Marian Pour-El (1928–2009), American mathematical logician and computable analyst
- Victoria Powers, American real algebraic geometer and social choice theorist
- Maria Assunta Pozio (died 2018), Italian expert on partial differential equations
- Cheryl Praeger (born 1948), Australian researcher in group theory, algebraic graph theory and combinatorial designs
- Malabika Pramanik, Indian-Canadian harmonic analyst
- Eleanor C. Pressly (1918–2003), American mathematician and sounding rocket engineer
- Emma Previato (born 1952), researcher in algebraic geometry and partial differential equations
- Candice Renee Price, American mathematician, advocate for greater representation of women and people of color in STEM
- Rachel Justine Pries, American arithmetic geometer and Galois theorist
- Hilary Priestley, British mathematician who used topological methods to study distributive lattices
- Christine Proust (born 1953), French expert on Babylonian mathematics
- Mileva Prvanović (1929–2016), Serbian differential geometer, first to earn a doctorate in geometry in Serbia
- Mary Pugh, American-Canadian expert on thin films
- Amber L. Puha, American probability theorist
- Jessica Purcell, American and Australian low-dimensional topologist
- Ulla Pursiheimo (born 1944), Finnish control theorist who became the first female mathematics professor in Finland
- Helena Pycior (born 1947), American historian of mathematics and expert on Marie Curie and human-animal relations

- Martine Queffélec (born 1949), French expert in substitution dynamical systems and Diophantine approximation
- Jennifer Quinn, American combinatorialist
- Peregrina Quintela Estévez (born 1960), Spanish applied mathematician

- Ami Radunskaya, American mathematician, specializes in dynamical systems and applications to medical problems, president of AWM
- Virginia Ragsdale (1870–1945), American specialist in algebraic curves, formulated the Ragsdale conjecture
- Alison Ramage, British expert in preconditioning methods for numerical linear algebra
- Kavita Ramanan, Indian-American probability theorist
- Mythily Ramaswamy (born 1954), Indian functional analyst and control theorist
- Susan Miller Rambo (1883–1977), second woman awarded a PhD from the University of Michigan, delegate to 1928 ICM
- Sujatha Ramdorai (born 1962), Indian-Canadian algebraic number theorist, expert on Iwasawa theory
- Saly Ruth Ramler (1894–1993), first woman to earn a mathematics doctorate from Charles University
- Jacqui Ramagge, Australian mathematician and academic administrator, president of Australian Mathematical Society
- Asha Rao, Indian-Australian mathematician and expert in cybersecurity
- Annie Raoult (born 1951), French applied mathematician, models cell membranes and other thin nanostructures
- Helena Rasiowa (1917–1994), Polish researcher in the foundations of mathematics and algebraic logic
- Marina Ratner (1938–2017), Russian-American ergodic theorist, member of National Academy of Sciences
- Cora Ratto de Sadosky (1912–1981), Argentine mathematician and human rights activist
- Geneviève Raugel (1951–2019), French numerical analyst and dynamical systems theorist
- Ethel Raybould (1899–1987), Australian mathematician and mathematics benefactor
- Michèle Raynaud (born 1938), French algebraic geometer
- Margaret Rayner (1929–2019), British expert on isoperimetric inequalities, president of Mathematical Association
- Michela Redivo-Zaglia, Italian numerical analyst
- Mary Lynn Reed (born 1967), American mathematician, intelligence researcher, and short fiction writer
- Mary Rees (born 1953), British specialist in complex dynamical systems
- Mina Rees (1902–1997), first female President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
- Sarah Rees (born 1957), British group theorist
- Karin Reich (born 1941), German historian of mathematics and biographer of mathematicians
- Anna Barbara Reinhart (1730–1796), Swiss mathematician, wrote commentary on Newton's
*Principia* - Kristina Reiss (born 1952), German mathematics educator
- Idun Reiten (born 1942), Norwegian representation theorist, member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters
- Yuriko Renardy, Australian-American expert in fluid dynamics
- Rosemary Renaut, British and American computational mathematician
- Barbara Reys (born 1953), American mathematics educator known for her research in number sense and mental calculation
- Karen Rhea, American calculus educator and proponent of flipped classrooms
- Ida Rhodes (1900–1986), American pioneer in computer programming, designed the first computer used for Social Security
- Pilar Ribeiro (1911–2011), Portuguese mathematician, founded Portuguese Mathematical Society and
*Gazeta de Matemática* - Marjorie Rice (1923–2017), American amateur mathematician who discovered new pentagon tilings
- Joan L. Richards (born 1948), American historian of mathematics
- Mary Rickett (1861–1925), British mathematician and educator
- Cicely Ridley (1927–2008), British-American applied mathematician, developed codes for quantum chemistry and climate models
- Christine Riedtmann (born 1952), Swiss algebraist, president of Swiss Mathematical Society
- Eleanor Rieffel (born 1965), American applied mathematician interested in quantum computing, computer vision, and cryptography
- Carol Jane Anger Rieke (1908–1999), American astronomer and mathematics educator
- Beatrice Rivière (born 1974), French expert on numerical simulation of fluid flow through porous media
- Catherine A. Roberts (born 1965), American applied mathematician and executive director of the American Mathematical Society
- Rachel Roberts, American low-dimensional topologist
- Siobhan Roberts, Canadian mathematical biographer
- Vanessa Robins, Australian computational topologist
- Julia Robinson (1919–1985), American researcher on diophantine equations, contributed to solution of Hilbert's Tenth Problem
- Margaret M. Robinson, American number theorist and expert on zeta functions
- Alvany Rocha, American specialist in Lie groups, computed characters of the Virasoro algebra
- Jana Rodriguez Hertz (born 1970), Argentine and Uruguayan mathematician
- Rosana Rodríguez-López, Spanish expert on the application of fixed-point theorems to differential equations
- Rubí Rodríguez, Chilean complex geometer, president of Chilean Mathematical Society
- Sylvie Roelly (born 1960), French probability theorist
- Alice Rogers, English expert on supermanifolds
- Marie Rognes (born 1982), Norwegian researcher in scientific computing and numerical methods
- Judith Roitman (born 1945), American specialist in set theory, topology, Boolean algebra, and mathematics education
- Anna Romanowska, Polish abstract algebraist, first convenor of European Women in Mathematics
- Dolores Romero Morales (born 1971), Spanish operations researcher
- Colva Roney-Dougal, British computational group theorist
- Anna Rönström (1847–1920), Swedish educator, school founder, and mathematician
- Marian P. Roque, Filipina expert on partial differential equations, president of the Mathematical Society of the Philippines
- Frances A. Rosamond (born 1943), Australian researcher in parameterized complexity, advocate for women in computer science and mathematics
- Margit Rösler, German expert on harmonic analysis, special functions, and Dunkl operators
- Mary G. Ross (1908–2008), first Native American female engineer, studied mathematics for aeronautics and celestial mechanics
- Alida Rossander (1843–1909) and Jenny Rossander (1837–1887), Swedish mathematics teachers and women's rights activists
- Corinna Rossi (born 1968), Italian Egyptologist and historian of Egyptian mathematics and architecture
- Alice Roth (1905–1977), Swiss mathematician known for her invention of Swiss cheese spaces
- Hildegard Rothe-Ille (1899–1942), German mathematician specializing in Ramsey theory
- Linda Preiss Rothschild (born 1945), president of AWM, vice-president of AMS, co-editor-in-chief of
*Mathematical Research Letters* - Christel Rotthaus, German-American researcher in commutative algebra
- Svetlana Roudenko, Russian-American functional analyst
- Christiane Rousseau (born 1954), French-Canadian mathematician, president of the Canadian Mathematical Society
- Marie-Françoise Roy (born 1950), French expert in real algebraic geometry, co-founder of two organizations for women in mathematics
- Julia Rozanska, Soviet topologist
- Maria Aparecida Soares Ruas (born 1948), Brazilian singularity theorist
- Jean E. Rubin (1926–2002), American expert on the axiom of choice
- Mary Ellen Rudin (1924–2013), constructed many counterexamples in topology
- Adela Ruiz de Royo (1943–2019), first lady of Panama
- Mari-Jo P. Ruiz, Filipina graph theorist and operations researcher
- Iris Runge (1888–1966), German applied mathematician, translator and biographer
- Mary Beth Ruskai (born 1944), proved subadditivity of quantum entropy, bounded the electrons in an atom, advocate for women in mathematics
- Beulah Russell (1878-1940), American mathematician
- Barbara Falkenbach Ryan, American mathematician, computer scientist, statistician and business executive

- Irene Sabadini, Italian hypercomplex analyst
- Flora Sadler (1912–2000), Scottish mathematician and astronomer
- Cora Sadosky (1940–2010), Argentine-American analyst, president of the Association for Women in Mathematics
- Claudia Sagastizábal, Argentine-Brazilian researcher in convex optimization and energy management
- Ayşe Şahin, Turkish-American expert on dynamical systems
- Laure Saint-Raymond (born 1975), French specialist in partial differential equations, member of the French Academy of Sciences
- Reiko Sakamoto (born 1939), Japanese expert in hyperbolic boundary value problems
- Graciela Salicrup (1935–1982), Mexican pioneer in categorical topology
- Judith D. Sally (born 1937), American researcher in commutative algebra, Noether lecturer
- Sema Salur, Turkish-American differential geometer
- Jean E. Sammet (1928–2017), supervised the first scientific programming group, helped develop COBOL
- Mildred Sanderson (1889–1914), American mathematician, established a correspondence between modular and formal invariants
- Marta Sanz-Solé (born 1952), Catalan researcher on stochastic processes, president of the European Mathematical Society
- Winifred Sargent (1905–1979), English researcher on integration theory and BK-spaces
- Ruth Lyttle Satter (1923–1989), American researcher on circadian rhythms, namesake of Ruth Lyttle Satter Prize in Mathematics
- Linda Gilbert Saucier (born 1948), American mathematician, prolific textbook author
- Lisa Sauermann (born 1992), German mathematician ranked third in the International Mathematical Olympiad Hall of Fame
- Bonita V. Saunders, American expert on mathematical visualization
- Carla Savage, American researcher on parallel algorithms and combinatorial generation, secretary of AMS
- Cami Sawyer, American and New Zealand expert on distance learning in mathematics
- Karen Saxe, American expert on functional analysis and social choice theory
- Jacquelien Scherpen, Dutch nonlinear control theorist
- Carol Schumacher (born 1960), Bolivian-born American mathematician, author of inquiry-based learning textbooks
- Jane Cronin Scanlon (1922–2018), American researcher in partial differential equations and mathematical biology
- Alice T. Schafer (1915–2009), American differential geometer, founding member of the Association for Women in Mathematics
- Sakura Schafer-Nameki, German mathematical physicist
- Mary Schaps (born 1948), Israeli mathematician and academic administrator, researcher in deformation theory, group theory, and representation theory
- Doris Schattschneider (born 1939), American mathematician known for writing about tessellations and the art of M. C. Escher
- Michelle Schatzman (1949–2010), French numerical analyst
- Katya Scheinberg, Russian-American expert on derivative-free continuous optimization
- Anne Schilling, American algebraic combinatorialist, representation theorist, and mathematical physicist
- Tamar Schlick, American applied mathematician who develops and applies tools for biomolecule modeling and simulation
- Karin Schnass (born 1980), Austrian expert on sparse dictionary learning
- Leila Schneps (born 1961), American-French analytic number theorist and arithmetic geometer, archivist of Grothendieck's works
- Anita Schöbel (born 1969), German operations researcher, expert on optimization for public transportation
- Maria E. Schonbek (born 1979), Argentine-American researcher in fluid dynamics and associated partial differential equations
- Carola-Bibiane Schönlieb (born 1979), Austrian mathematician known for her research in image analysis
- Lynn Schreyer, American applied mathematician, models porous media
- Mary Leontius Schulte (1901–2000), American nun, mathematics educator, and historian of mathematics
- Jennifer Schultens (born 1965), American low-dimensional topologist and knot theorist
- Marie-Hélène Schwartz (1913–2013), French mathematician known for her work on characteristic numbers of spaces with singularities
- Irene Sciriha, Maltese graph theorist
- Jeanette Scissum, American mathematician known for her work on sunspot prediction
- Charlotte Scott (1858–1931), British mathematician who promoted mathematical education of American women
- Jennifer Scott (born 1960), British numerical analyst
- Ruthmae Sears, Bahamian-American mathematics educator
- Jennifer Seberry (born 1944), Australian cryptographer, mathematician, and computer scientist, one of the founders of Asiacrypt
- Rose Whelan Sedgewick (c. 1904–2000), first person to earn a PhD in mathematics from Brown University
- Esther Seiden (1908–2014), Polish-Israeli-American mathematical statistician known for her research on design of experiments and combinatorial design
- Anna Seigal, British applied algebraic geometer
- Annie Selden, American mathematics educator, one of the founders of the Association for Women in Mathematics
- Svetlana Selezneva (born 1963), Russian expert on discrete functions
- Helaine Selin (born 1946), American librarian, historian of science, and ethnomathematician
- Muriel Seltman (1927–2019), British left-wing activist, mathematics educator, historian of mathematics, and author
- Marjorie Senechal (born 1939), American expert on quasicrystals, author on history of science, editor-in-chief of
*The Mathematical Intelligencer* - Adélia Sequeira, Portuguese applied mathematician specializing in modeling blood flow
- Sylvia Serfaty (born 1975), French expert on superconductivity, winner of the European Mathematical Society Prize
- Vera Serganova, Russian-American researcher on superalgebras and their representations
- Caroline Series (born 1951), English specialist in hyperbolic geometry, Kleinian groups and dynamical systems
- Lily Serna (born 1986), Israeli-Australian arithmetical guru of the SBS game show
*Letters and Numbers* - Cristina Sernadas (born 1951), Portuguese mathematical logician
- Brigitte Servatius (born 1954), Austrian-American expert on matroids and structural rigidity
- Nataša Šešum, expert in geometric flows
- Jeanette Shakalli (born 1985), promoter of mathematics in Panama
- Betty Shannon (1922–2017), mathematician and human computer, collaborator with husband Claude Shannon
- Zorya Shapiro (1914–2013), Soviet mathematician, educator and translator
- Tatyana Shaposhnikova (born 1946), Russian-Swedish researcher on multipliers in function spaces, partial differential operators, and history of mathematics
- Mei-Chi Shaw (born 1955), Taiwanese-American researcher on partial differential equations
- Mariya Shcherbina (born 1958), Ukrainian expert on random matrices
- Amy Shell-Gellasch, American historian of mathematics and book author
- Diana Shelstad (born 1947), Australian-American mathematician, formulated the fundamental lemma of the Langlands Program
- Wenxian Shen, Chinese-American dynamical systems theorist
- Irina Shevtsova (born 1983), Russian probability theorist
- Brooke Shipley, American expert in homotopy theory and homological algebra
- Rebecca Shipley, British applied mathematician and healthcare engineer
- Tatiana Shubin, Soviet-American mathematician, founder of several mathematics circles
- Patricia D. Shure, American mathematics educator and calculus reformer
- Lesley Sibner (1934–2013), American differential geometer and Hodge theorist, produced a constructive proof of the Riemann–Roch theorem
- Martha Siegel, American probability theorist and mathematics educator
- Anna Sierpińska (born 1947), Polish-Canadian scholar of understanding and epistemology in mathematics education
- Mary Silber, American expert in bifurcation theory and pattern formation
- Alice Silverberg (born 1958), American number theorist and cryptographer
- Ruth Silverman (c. 1936–2011), American computational geometer, founder of Association for Women in Mathematics
- Evelyn Silvia (1948–2006), American functional analyst and mathematics educator
- Rodica Simion (1955–2000), Romanian-American pioneer in the study of permutation patterns
- Valeria Simoncini (born 1966), Italian numerical analyst
- Lao Genevra Simons (1870–1949), American mathematician and historian of mathematics
- Hourya Benis Sinaceur (born 1940), Moroccan expert in the theory and history of mathematics
- Mary Emily Sinclair (1878–1955), American mathematician, first woman to earn a doctorate in mathematics at the University of Chicago
- Nathalie Sinclair (born 1970), Canadian researcher in mathematics education
- Stephanie Singer, American mathematician and politician, author of books on symmetry
- Sue Singer, British mathematics educator, president of Girls' Schools Association and Mathematical Association
- Ajit Iqbal Singh (born 1943), Indian researcher in functional analysis and harmonic analysis
- Sylvia Skan (1897–1972), British applied mathematician known for the Falkner–Skan boundary layer in fluid mechanics
- Jessica Sklar (born 1973), American mathematician interested in abstract algebra, recreational mathematics, and the popularization of mathematics
- Anna Skripka, Ukrainian-American noncommutative analyst
- Lucy Joan Slater (1922–2008), British expert on hypergeometric functions and the Rogers–Ramanujan identities
- Angela Slavova, Bulgarian expert on waves and cellular neural networks, chair of SIAM
- Alice Slotsky, American historian of mathematics and Assyriologist
- Marian Small (born 1948), Canadian proponent of constructivist mathematical instruction
- Ionica Smeets (born 1979), Dutch number theorist and science communicator
- Deirdre Smeltzer (born 1964), American mathematician, mathematics educator, academic administrator, and textbook author
- Sonja Smets, Belgian and Dutch mathematical logician, works on quantum logic and belief revision
- Adelaide Smith (1878–1938), American mathematician, studied and taught internationally
- Clara Eliza Smith (1865–1943), American mathematician specializing in complex analysis
- Daphne L. Smith, first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology
- Karen E. Smith (born 1965), American specialist in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry, MAA Hedrick Lecturer, AWM-AMS Noether Lecturer
- Kate Smith-Miles, Australian applied mathematician, president of Australian Mathematical Society
- Leslie M. Smith (born 1961), American applied mathematician and engineering physicist working in turbulence
- Martha K. Smith, American mathematics educator and non-commutative algebraist
- Agata Smoktunowicz (born 1973), Polish-Scottish researcher in abstract algebra, constructed noncommutative nil rings
- Nina Snaith (born 1974), British researcher in random matrix theory, quantum chaos, and zeta functions
- Vera Šnajder (1904–1976), Bosnian mathematician, first Bosnian to publish in mathematics, first female dean in Yugoslavia
- Priyanshi Somani (born 1998), Indian mental calculator
- Mary Somerville (1780–1872), Scottish science writer and polymath, one of two first female members of the Royal Astronomical Society
- Christina Sormani, American researcher on Riemannian geometry, metric geometry, and Ricci curvature
- Vera T. Sós (born 1930), Hungarian number theorist and combinatorialist
- Chris Soteros, Canadian applied mathematician, studies biomolecules and the knot theory of random space curves
- Marilda Sotomayor (born 1944), Brazilian mathematician, economist, and game theorist
- Laila Soueif (born 1956), Egyptian mathematics professor and women's rights activist
- Diane Souvaine (born 1954), American computational geometer, advocate for women and minorities in mathematics and gender neutrality in teaching
- Hortensia Soto, Mexican-American mathematics educator
- Ayşe Soysal (born 1948), Turkish mathematician, president of Boğaziçi University
- Angela Spalsbury (born 1967), American functional analyst and academic administrator
- Birgit Speh (born 1949), American expert in Lie groups, namesake of Speh representations
- Domina Eberle Spencer (born 1920), researcher on electrodynamics and field theory, founded fringe science organization Natural Philosophy Alliance
- M. Grazia Speranza, Italian operations researcher, president of EURO and IFORS
- Pauline Sperry (1885–1967), mathematician, musician, and astronomer, unconstitutionally fired from UC Berkeley for refusing to sign a loyalty oath
- Dolores Richard Spikes (1936–2015), African-American mathematician, first female university chancellor and first female president of a university system in the US
- Nicole Spillane (born 1988), French and Irish applied mathematician
- Vera W. de Spinadel (1929–2017), Argentine-Austrian researcher on metallic means
- Jean Springer (1939–2007), Jamaican-Canadian specialist in abstract algebra and academic administrator
- Jane Squire (bap. 1686 – 1743), English mathematician studied solutions to finding longitude at sea
- Bhama Srinivasan (born 1935), representation theorist, president of the Association for Women in Mathematics
- Hema Srinivasan (born 1959), Indian-American mathematician specializing in abstract algebra and algebraic geometry
- Kaye Stacey (born 1948), Australian mathematics educator
- Tanja Stadler (born 1981), German mathematician, expert in phylogenetics
- Gigliola Staffilani (born 1966), Italian-American researcher on harmonic analysis and partial differential equations
- Anna Stafford (1905–2004), one of the first postdoctoral researchers at the Institute for Advanced Study
- Helene Stähelin (1891–1970), Swiss mathematician, editor of Bernoulli family letters, and pacifist
- Gwyneth Stallard, British expert on complex dynamics and the iteration of meromorphic functions
- Katherine E. Stange, Canadian-American number theorist
- Zvezdelina Stankova (born 1969), Bulgarian-American expert on permutation patterns, founder of the Berkeley Math Circle
- Nancy K. Stanton, American researcher on complex analysis, partial differential equations, and differential geometry
- Marion Elizabeth Stark (1894—1982), one of the first female American mathematicians to receive a doctorate
- Anastasia Stavrova, Russian expert in algebraic groups, non-associative algebra, and algebraic K-theory
- Jackie Stedall (1950–2014), British historian of mathematics
- Angelika Steger (born 1962), German-Swiss expert on graph theory, randomized algorithms, and approximation algorithms
- Irene Stegun (1919–2008), American mathematician who edited a classic book of mathematical tables
- Gabriele Steidl (born 1963), German researcher in computational harmonic analysis, convex optimization, and image processing
- Mary Kay Stein, American mathematics educator
- Berit Stensønes (born 1956), Norwegian mathematician specializing in complex analysis and complex dynamics
- Elizabeth Stephansen (1872–1961), first Norwegian woman to receive a mathematics doctorate
- Edith Stern (born 1952), child prodigy in mathematics and IBM engineer
- Chris Stevens, American researcher on topological groups, history of mathematics, and mathematics education, associate executive director of AMS
- Alice Christine Stickland (1906–1987), British applied mathematician, expert on radio propagation
- Angeline Stickney (1830–1892), American suffragist, abolitionist, and mathematician, namesake of the largest crater on Phobos
- Doris Stockton (1924–2018), American mathematician and textbook author
- Ruth Stokes (1890–1968), American mathematician, astronomer, and cryptologer, pioneer of linear programming, and founder of Pi Mu Epsilon journal
- Yvonne Stokes, Australian expert on fluid mechanics, mathematical biology, and industrial applications of mathematics
- Emily Stone, American mathematician, works in fluid mechanics and dynamical systems
- Betsy Stovall, American harmonic analyst
- Anita Straker, British mathematics educator, president of the Mathematical Association
- Dona Strauss (born 1934), British mathematician, founder of pointless topology and European Women in Mathematics
- Anne Penfold Street (1932–2016), Australian combinatorialist, third woman mathematics professor in Australia
- Ileana Streinu, Romanian-American computational geometer, expert on kinematics and structural rigidity
- Catharina Stroppel (born 1971), German researcher on representation theory, low-dimensional topology, and category theory
- Marilyn Strutchens (born 1962), African-American mathematics educator
- Tatjana Stykel, Russian-German expert on numerical linear algebra, control theory, and differential-algebraic equations
- Dorothy Geneva Styles (1922–1984), American organist, choir director, composer, poet, and mathematician
- Bella Subbotovskaya (1938–1982), Soviet founder of the Jewish People's University
- Indulata Sukla (born 1944), Indian researcher on Fourier series, author of textbook on number theory and cryptography
- Agnès Sulem (born 1959), French applied mathematician, control theorist, and mathematical finance expert
- Catherine Sulem (born 1957), Algerian-born Canadian mathematician and violinist, expert on singularities in wave propagation
- Nike Sun, American probability theorist studying phase transitions and counting complexity
- Rosamund Sutherland (1947–2019), British mathematics educator
- Louise Nixon Sutton (1925–2006), first African-American woman to earn a mathematics PhD at New York University
- Thyrsa Frazier Svager (1930–1999), African-American mathematician, donated entire salary to support African-American women in mathematics
- Márta Svéd (–2005), Hungarian-Australian mathematician, wrote about non-Euclidean geometry
- Marcia P. Sward (1939–2008), executive director of the Mathematical Association of America
- Lorna Swain (1891–1936), British fluid dynamics researcher, early female lecturer at Cambridge
- Irena Swanson, Yugoslav-born American commutative algebraist and mathematical quilter
- Henda Swart (1939–2016), South African geometer and graph theorist, editor-in-chief of
*Utilitas Mathematica* - Jennifer Switkes, American mathematics educator and volunteer prison mathematics instructor
- Polly Sy, Filipino functional analyst
- Ágnes Szendrei, Hungarian-American expert on universal algebra
- Esther Szekeres (1910–2005), Hungarian-Australian mathematician posed the happy ending problem in discrete geometry
- Wanda Szmielew (1918–1976), Polish logician who proved the decidability of the first-order theory of abelian groups
- Zofia Szmydt (1923–2010), Polish researcher on differential equations, potential theory and distributions

- Laura Taalman, American mathematician known for work on the mathematics of Sudoku and mathematical 3D printing
- Daina Taimiņa (born 1954), Latvian-American mathematician, crochets objects to illustrate hyperbolic space
- Christiane Tammer, German expert in set-valued optimization
- Tan Lei (1963–2016), Chinese-French specialist in complex dynamics and functions of complex numbers
- Betül Tanbay (born 1960), first female president of the Turkish Mathematical Society
- Rosalind Tanner (1900–1992), English mathematician and a historian of mathematics
- Anne Taormina, Belgian mathematical physicist interested in string theory, moonshine, and the symmetry of virus capsids
- Gabriella Tarantello (born 1958), Italian mathematician specializing in partial differential equations, differential geometry, and gauge theory
- Éva Tardos (born 1957), Hungarian-American researcher in combinatorial optimization algorithms
- Olga Taussky-Todd (1906–1995), Austrian and later Czech-American advocate of matrix theory
- Jean Taylor (born 1944), American mathematician known for her work on soap bubbles and crystals
- Aretha Teckentrup, British mathematician, data scientist, and numerical analyst
- Mina Teicher, Israeli algebraic geometer
- Monique Teillaud, French computational geometer
- Montserrat Teixidor i Bigas, Spanish-American expert on moduli of vector bundles on curves
- Keti Tenenblat (born 1944), Turkish-Brazilian differential geometer
- Katrin Tent (born 1963), German mathematician, expert in group theory, the symmetries of groups, algebraic model theory, and finite geometry
- M. B. W. Tent, American mathematics educator, mathematical biographer
- Chuu-Lian Terng (born 1949), Taiwanese-American differential geometer
- Susanna Terracini (born 1963), Italian mathematician known for her research on chaos in Hamiltonian dynamical systems
- Audrey Terras (born 1942), American number theorist specializing in quantum chaos and zeta functions
- Susanne Teschl (born 1971), Austrian expert on mathematical modeling of breath analysis
- Donna Testerman (born 1960), expert in the representation theory of algebraic groups
- Ngamta Thamwattana, Thai-Australian expert in granular materials and nanotechnology
- Theano (6th century BC), one or possibly two different Pythagorean philosophers
- Diana Thomas, American mathematician who studies nutrition and body weight
- Doreen Thomas, South African and Australian mathematician and engineer
- Janet Thomas, founder of the Australian Mathematical Sciences Institute
- Rekha R. Thomas, American mathematician and operations researcher
- Abigail Thompson (born 1958), American low-dimensional topologist, educational reformer
- Frances McBroom Thompson (1942–2014), American mathematics educator and textbook author
- Gillian Thornley (born 1940), New Zealand differential geometer, first woman president of the New Zealand Mathematical Society
- Heidi Thornquist, American applied mathematician, expert on numerical linear algebra and circuit simulation
- Mary Domitilla Thuener (1880–1977), American mathematician, founder of Thomas More College, Kentucky
- Ene-Margit Tiit (born 1934), Estonian mathematician and statistician, founding president of Estonian Statistical Society
- Mary Tiles (born 1946), writer on the philosophy and history of set theory
- Ulrike Tillmann FRS (born 1962), German-English algebraic topologist
- Sheila Tinney (1918–2010), Irish mathematical physicist, first Irishwoman with a mathematical doctorate
- Maryanne Tipler, New Zealand mathematics textbook author
- Françoise Tisseur, French-English numerical analyst
- Jacqueline Naze Tjøtta (1935–2017), French-Norwegian researcher in kinetics, magnetohydrodynamics and theoretical acoustics
- Renate Tobies (born 1947), German historian of mathematics
- Gordana Todorov (born 1949), American representation theorist and noncommutative algebraist
- Susan Tolman, American symplectic geometer
- Nicole Tomczak-Jaegermann FRSC, Polish-Canadian geometric functional analyst
- Virginia Torczon, American applied mathematician, computer scientist, and expert in nonlinear optimization
- Antoinette Tordesillas, Australian applied mathematician
- Anna-Karin Tornberg, Swedish computational mathematician
- Eve Torrence (born 1963), American mathematician, president of Pi Mu Epsilon
- Laura Toti Rigatelli (born 1941), Italian historian of mathematics and biographer of Galois
- Paula Tretkoff, Australian-American researcher in number theory, noncommutative geometry, and hypergeometric functions
- Christiane Tretter (born 1964), German expert in spectral theory and differential operators
- Věra Trnková (1934–2018) Czech category theorist
- Konstantina Trivisa, Greek-American expert in fluid dynamics and flocking
- Mary Esther Trueblood (1872–1939), American mathematician, studied with Felix Klein
- Olga Tsuberbiller (1885–1975), Russian analytical geometer and textbook author
- Virginia Tucker (1909–1985), American human computer at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
- Laurette Tuckerman (born 1956), American and French researcher in computational fluid dynamics
- Annita Tuller (1910–1994), American geometer and textbook author
- Reidun Twarock, German-born mathematical biologist
- Julianna Tymoczko (born 1975), American algebraic geometer and algebraic combinatorist
- Regina Tyshkevich (1929–2019), Belarussian graph theorist, co-invented split graphs
- Galina Tyurina (1938–1970), Soviet algebraic geometer

- Olabisi Ugbebor (born 1951), first female mathematics professor in Nigeria
- Karen Uhlenbeck (born 1942), American mathematician, MacArthur Fellow, National Medal of Science, Leroy P. Steele Prize, Abel Prize
- Corinna Ulcigrai (born 1980), Italian researcher on dynamical systems, won European Mathematical Society Prize and Whitehead Prize
- Kristin Umland, American mathematics educator
- Nina Uraltseva (born 1935), Russian mathematical physicist, specialist in nonlinear partial differential equations
- Arantza Urkaregi (born 1954), Spanish mathematician and Basque separatist and feminist politician

- Brigitte Vallée (born 1950), French mathematician and computer scientist, expert in lattice basis reduction algorithms
- Clàudia Valls, Spanish and Portuguese mathematician specializing in dynamical systems
- Pauline van den Driessche (born 1941), British-Canadian pioneer in combinatorial matrix theory and mathematical biology
- Monica VanDieren, American model theorist and academic administrator
- Olena Vaneeva (born 1982), Ukrainian mathematician specializing in group analysis of differential equations
- Michela Varagnolo, Italian-French representation theorist
- Maria Eulália Vares, Brazilian expert in stochastic processes
- Dorothy Vaughan (1910–2008), African-American mathematician at NASA
- Elena Vázquez Cendón, Spanish expert in modeling waves and shallow water, and numerical solution of hyperbolic problems
- Mariel Vázquez, Mexican mathematical biologist specializing in DNA topology
- Eva Vedel Jensen (born 1951), Danish spatial statistician, stereologist, and stochastic geometer
- Argelia Velez-Rodriguez (born 1936), Black Cuban-American differential geometer
- Tatyana Velikanova (1932–2002), Soviet mathematician, computer programmer, dissident, and political prisoner
- Luitgard Veraart, German financial mathematician
- Michèle Vergne (born 1943), French specialist in analysis and representation theory, member of French Academy of Sciences
- Siobhán Vernon (1932–2002), first Irish-born woman to get a PhD in pure mathematics in Ireland
- Luminița Vese, Romanian specialist in image processing
- Katalin Vesztergombi (born 1948), Hungarian graph theorist and discrete geometer
- Maryna Viazovska (born 1984), Ukrainian mathematician, solved the sphere packing problems in dimensions 8 and 24
- Eva Viehmann (born 1980), German arithmetic geometer
- Marie-France Vignéras (born 1946), French mathematician who proved that one cannot hear the shape of a hyperbolic drum
- Maria Cristina Villalobos, American applied mathematician recognized for her mentorship
- Bianca Viray, American arithmetic geometer
- Nina Virchenko (born 1930), Ukrainian mathematician and anti-Soviet activist
- Monica Vișan (born 1979), Romanian expert on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation
- Marie A. Vitulli, American algebraic geometer, union organizer, and proponent for women in mathematics on Wikipedia
- Roxana Vivian (1871–1961), first female mathematics doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania
- Karen Vogtmann (born 1949), American geometric group theorist, namesake of Culler–Vogtmann outer space
- Margit Voigt, German expert on graph coloring
- Claire Voisin (born 1962), French expert on Hodge structures and mirror symmetry, member of French Academy of Sciences
- Elisabeth Vreede (1879–1943), Dutch mathematician, astronomer and Anthroposophist
- Kristina Vušković (born 1967), Serbian graph theorist

- Michelle L. Wachs, American specialist in algebraic combinatorics
- Aissa Wade (born 1967), Senegalese symplectic geometer, president of African Institute for Mathematical Sciences
- Grace Wahba (born 1934), American pioneer in methods for smoothing noisy data, member of National Academy of Sciences
- Nathalie Wahl (born 1976), Belgian topologist
- Rebecca Waldecker (born 1979), German group theorist
- Irène Waldspurger, French mathematician, expert on phase retrieval
- Erica N. Walker, American mathematician, studies racial and gender equity in mathematics education
- Muriel Kennett Wales (1913–2009), Irish-Canadian mathematician
- Judy L. Walker, American algebraic coding theorist
- Mary Shore Walker (1882–1952), American mathematician, first woman faculty member at the University of Missouri
- Dorothy Wallace, American number theorist, mathematical biologist, and mathematics educator
- Lynne H. Walling, British number theorist
- Joan E. Walsh (1932–2017), British numerical analyst, founder of the Numerical Algorithms Group, possibly first female mathematics professor in UK
- Marion Walter (1928–2021), German-born mathematician who wrote about using mirrors to explore symmetry
- Andrea Walther (born 1970), German expert in automatic differentiation
- Chelsea Walton (born 1983), African-American researcher in noncommutative algebra
- Yusu Wang, Chinese computational geometer and computational topologist
- Wang Zhenyi (1768–1797), Qing dynasty mathematician and astronomer
- Lesley Ward, Australian harmonic and complex analyst
- Rachel Ward, American applied mathematician who researches machine learning and signal processing
- Virginia Warfield, American mathematics educator
- Mary Wynne Warner (1932–1998), British pioneer in fuzzy topology
- Simone Warzel (born 1973), German mathematical physicist, expert on the many-body problem
- Talitha Washington (born 1974), American applied mathematician and mathematics educator
- Sarah L. Waters, British expert in fluid mechanics and tissue engineering
- Ann E. Watkins, American statistics educator, president of the Mathematical Association of America
- Anne Watson, British mathematics educator
- Charlotte Watts (born 1962), British mathematical epidemiologist
- Johanna Weber (1910–2014), German-British mathematician and aerodynamicist, contributed to supersonic aircraft design
- Charlotte Wedell (1862–1953), one of four women at the first International Congress of Mathematicians
- Suzanne Weekes, American mathematician, cofounder of the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute Undergraduate Program
- Katrin Wehrheim (born 1974), American symplectic topologist and gauge theorist
- Guofang Wei (born 1965), Chinese-American differential geometer, found new positively-curved manifolds
- Tilla Weinstein (1934–2002), American differential geometer
- Marie Johanna Weiss (1903–1952), American mathematics researcher and textbook author
- Katrin Wendland (born 1970), German mathematical physicist, expert on singularities in quantum field theories
- Annette Werner (born 1966), German expert on diophantine geometry and non-Archimedean algebraic geometry
- Elisabeth M. Werner, researcher on convex geometry, functional analysis, and probability theory
- Eléna Wexler-Kreindler (1931–2002), Romanian-French algebraist
- Anna Johnson Pell Wheeler (1883–1966), American researcher on infinite-dimensional linear algebra
- Mary Wheeler (born 1931), American expert on domain decomposition methods for partial differential equations
- Sue Whitesides, Canadian mathematician and computer scientist, expert in computational geometry and graph drawing
- Alice S. Whittemore, American group theorist, biostatistician, and epidemiologist who studies the effects of genetics and lifestyle on cancer
- Margaret Wiecek, Polish-American operations researcher, expert on multi-objective optimization
- Sylvia Wiegand (born 1945), American algebraist, president of the Association for Women in Mathematics
- Anna Wienhard (born 1977), German differential geometer
- Lynda Wiest, American mathematics education researcher
- Marie S. Wilcox (died 1995), American high school mathematics teacher, textbook author, and president of National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
- Trena Wilkerson, American mathematics educator, president of National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
- Amie Wilkinson (born 1968), American researcher in ergodic theory and smooth dynamical systems
- Emily Willbanks (1930–2007), American mathematician who contributed to defense weapons applications and high performance storage
- Margaret Willerding (1919–2003), American mathematician and textbook author
- Karen Willcox, New Zealand applied mathematician, expert on reduced-order modeling and multi-fidelity methods
- Elizabeth Williams (1895–1986), British mathematician and educationist
- Emily Coddington Williams (1873–1952), American historian of mathematics, translator, novelist, playwright, and biographer
- Kim Williams, scholar of connections between mathematics and architecture
- Lauren Williams, American expert on cluster algebras and tropical geometry
- Roselyn E. Williams, American mathematician, founder of National Math Alliance
- Ruth J. Williams, American probability theorist, president of Institute of Mathematical Statistics, member of National Academy of Sciences
- Ruth Margaret Williams (born 1945), British mathematical physicist, researches discrete gravity
- Sheila Oates Williams (born 1939), British and Australian abstract algebraist
- Talithia Williams, American statistician and mathematician who researches the spatiotemporal structure of data
- Virginia Vassilevska Williams, Bulgarian-American researcher on graph algorithms and fast matrix multiplication
- Stephanie van Willigenburg, Canadian researcher in algebraic combinatorics and quasisymmetric functions
- Elizabeth Wilmer, American expert on Markov chain mixing times
- Helen Wilson (mathematician) (born 1973), British expert on non-Newtonian fluids, president of British Society of Rheology
- Ulrica Wilson, African-American mathematician specializing in noncommutative rings and the combinatorics of matrices
- Helen Wily (1921–2009), New Zealand mathematician and statistician
- Sarah Witherspoon, American mathematician interested in abstract algebra
- Emily E. Witt, American commutative algebraist and representation theorist
- Barbara Wohlmuth, German expert on the numerical solution of partial differential equations
- Julia Wolf, British mathematician specialising in arithmetic combinatorics
- Gail Wolkowicz, Canadian mathematical biologist known for her work on the competitive exclusion principle
- Maria Wonenburger (1927–2014), Galician-American group theorist, first Spanish Fulbright scholar in mathematics
- Carol Wood (born 1945), American expert in model-theoretic algebra, president of AWM
- Melanie Wood (born 1981), first female American to compete in the International Mathematical Olympiad
- Ruth Goulding Wood (1875–1935), American non-Euclidean geometer
- Sarah Woodhead (1851–1912), first woman to pass the Cambridge University mathematical Tripos examination
- Mary Lee Woods (1924–2017), British mathematician and computer programmer
- Carol S. Woodward, American expert in numerical algorithms and software
- Margaret H. Wright (born 1944), American researcher in optimization, linear algebra, and scientific computing
- Dorothy Maud Wrinch (1894–1976), Argentine-English mathematician and biochemical theorist, expert in protein structure
- Jang-Mei Wu, Taiwanese-American complex analyst
- Sijue Wu (born 1964), Chinese-American expert in the mathematics of water waves
- Emily Kathryn Wyant (1897–1942), American mathematician, founder of honor society Kappa Mu Epsilon
- Lucy R. Wyatt, British mathematician and oceanographer, studies high frequency radar oceanography and ocean surface waves
- Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska (born 1940), Polish logician
- Cynthia Wyels, American mathematician known for her mentorship of Latino students

- Dianna Xu, American mathematician and computer scientist who studies computational problems on curves and surfaces

- Carolyn Yackel, American commutative algebraist and mathematical fiber artist
- Catherine Yan, Chinese-American mathematician interested in algebraic combinatorics
- Grace Yang, Chinese-American expert on stochastic processes in the physical sciences, asymptotic theory, and survival analysis
- Elena Yanovskaya (born 1938), Soviet and Russian game theorist
- Sofya Yanovskaya (1896–1966), restored mathematical logic research in Soviet Union, edited mathematical works of Karl Marx
- Jane Ye, Chinese-Canadian researcher in variational analysis
- Karen Yeats (born 1980), Canadian mathematician whose research connects combinatorics to quantum field theory
- Florence Yeldham (1877–1945), British school teacher and historian of arithmetic
- Yiqun Lisa Yin, Chinese-American cryptographer, broke the SHA-1 hash scheme and helped develop the RC6 block cipher
- Ruriko Yoshida, Japanese-American combinatorist, statistician, phylogeneticist, and operations researcher
- Anna Irwin Young (1873–1920), charter member of the Mathematical Association of America
- Lai-Sang Young (born 1952), Hong Kong born dynamical systems theorist
- Mabel Minerva Young (1872–1963), American geometer
- Virginia R. Young, American expert on the mathematics of insurance
- Noriko Yui, Japanese-Canadian researcher on arithmetic geometry, mathematical physics, and mirror symmetry
- Mariette Yvinec, French computational geometer

- Sara Zahedi (born 1981), Iranian-Swedish researcher in computational fluid dynamics, former child refugee, and winner of EMS Prize
- Martina Zähle (born 1950), German stochastic geometer and geometric measure theorist
- Frieda Zames (1932–2005), American mathematician and disability rights activist
- Antonella Zanna, Italian-Norwegian numerical analyst
- Thaleia Zariphopoulou (born 1962), Greek-American expert in mathematical finance
- Claudia Zaslavsky (1917–2006), American mathematics educator and ethnomathematician
- Anna Zdunik, Polish researcher on dynamical systems
- Mary Lou Zeeman, British expert on dynamical systems and their application to mathematical biology
- Sarah Zerbes (born 1978), German and British algebraic number theorist
- Ping Zhang, graph theorist and textbook author
- Rozetta Zhilina (1933–2003), Soviet expert in computational problems for nuclear weapons
- Tamar Ziegler (born 1971), Israeli researcher in ergodic theory and arithmetic combinatorics, won Erdős Prize
- Magdolna Zimányi (1934–2016), pioneer of Hungarian computing

- ^
^{a}^{b}Morrow, Charlene; Perl, Teri, eds. (1998).*Notable women in mathematics: A biographical dictionary*. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. pp. 98–101. ISBN 978-0-313-29131-9. **^**"Profiles of Women in Mathematics".*Web Archive of The Emmy Noether Lectures*. Association for Women in Mathematics. Archived from the original on 4 April 2004. Retrieved 19 March 2019.**^**Grinstein, Louise S.; Schafer, Paul J. Campbell, eds. (1987).*Women of mathematics : a biobibliographic sourcebook*. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-24849-8.**^**"Maria Gaetana Agnesi". Retrieved 19 August 2015.- ^
^{a}^{b}Alexandrov, Pavel S. (1981). "In Memory of Emmy Noether". In Brewer, James W; Smith, Martha K (eds.).*Emmy Noether: A Tribute to Her Life and Work*. New York: Marcel Dekker. pp. 99–111. ISBN 0-8247-1550-0..

- Chronological Index of Women Mathematicians
- Alphabetical Index of Women Mathematicians
- List of Noether Lecturers
- Famous Female Mathematicians
- MacTutor index of female mathematicians
- Mathematical Women in the British Isles, 1878–1940 (Davis Archive)
- Biographies of Women Mathematicians on the Women in Math Project
- Green, Judy; LaDuke, Jeanne (2009).
*Pioneering Women in American Mathematics — The Pre-1940 PhD's*. History of Mathematics. Vol. 34. American Mathematical Society, The London Mathematical Society. ISBN 978-0-8218-4376-5. Biographies available in the Supplementary Material at AMS