3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Melting point||462 °C (864 °F; 735 K)|
|Boiling point||924 °C (1,695 °F; 1,197 K) decomposes|
|Solubility in methanol|
|Solubility in ethanol|
|Solubility in isopropanol|
|Conjugate base||Lithium monoxide anion|
Refractive index (nD)
Heat capacity (C)
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||"ICSC 0913".|
"ICSC 0914". (monohydrate)
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|210 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(what is ?)|
Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH.(H2O)n. Both the anhydrous and hydrated forms are white hygroscopic solids. They are soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol. Both are available commercially. While classified as a strong base, lithium hydroxide is the weakest known alkali metal hydroxide.
The initially produced hydrate is dehydrated by heating under vacuum up to 180 °C.
The main by-products are gypsum and sodium sulphate, which have some market value.
According to Bloomberg, Ganfeng Lithium Co. Ltd. (GFL or Ganfeng) and Albemarle were the largest producers in 2020 with around 25kt/y, followed by Livent Corporation (FMC) and SQM. Significant new capacity is planned, to keep pace with demand driven by vehicle electrification. Ganfeng are to expand lithium chemical capacity to 85,000 tons, adding the capacity leased from Jiangte, Ganfeng will become the largest lithium hydroxide producer globally in 2021.
in 2023 AVZ Minerals, an Australian company, are planning to produce the battery-grade high-purity Primary Lithium Sulphate (PLS) containing over 80% Lithium. PLS is a lithium chemical new to the market in the production of lithium hydroxide (a precursor to lithium-ion battery).
Lithium hydroxide is mainly consumed in the production of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries such as lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and lithium iron phosphate. It is preferred over lithium carbonate as a precursor for lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxides.
The latter, anhydrous hydroxide, is preferred for its lower mass and lesser water production for respirator systems in spacecraft. One gram of anhydrous lithium hydroxide can remove 450 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas. The monohydrate loses its water at 100–110 °C.
It is also used in ceramics and some Portland cement formulations. Lithium hydroxide (isotopically enriched in lithium-7) is used to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control. It is good radiation protection against free neutrons.
In 2012, the price of lithium hydroxide was about $5-6/kg.
In December 2020 it had risen to $9/kg
On 18 March 2021 the price has risen to US$11.50/kg
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