Constellation
C-69.jpg
A USAF C-69, the military version of the Constellation
Role Airliner and transport
Manufacturer Lockheed
First flight January 9, 1943
Introduction 1943 with USAAF
1945 with TWA
Retired 1990s, airline service
1978, military
Status In very limited service
Primary users Trans World Airlines
Eastern Air Lines
Pan American World Airways
Air France
Produced 1943–1958
Number built 856
Developed from L-044 Excalibur
Variants L-049 Constellation
C-69 Constellation
L-649 Constellation
L-749 Constellation
L-1049 Super Constellation
C-121/R7V Constellation
R7V-2/YC-121F Constellation
EC-121 Warning Star
L-1649A Starliner
Developed into Lockheed XB-30 (Unbuilt)

The Lockheed Constellation ("Connie") is a propeller-driven, four-engine airliner built by Lockheed Corporation between 1943 and 1958 at Burbank, California. Lockheed built 856 in numerous models—all with the same triple-tail design and dolphin-shaped fuselage. Most were powered by four 18-cylinder Wright R-3350 Duplex-Cyclones. The Constellation was used as a civil airliner and as a military and civilian air transport, seeing service in the Berlin and the Biafran airlifts. The Constellation series was the first pressurized-cabin civil airliner series to go into widespread use. Its pressurized cabin enabled large numbers of commercial passengers to fly well above most bad weather for the first time, thus significantly improving the general safety and ease of air travel.[1] Three of them served as the presidential aircraft for Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Design and development

Initial studies

Lockheed had been working on the L-044 Excalibur, a four-engine, pressurized airliner, since 1937. In 1939, Trans World Airlines (TWA), at the instigation of major stockholder Howard Hughes, requested a 40-passenger transcontinental airliner with a range of 3,500 mi (5,600 km)[2]—well beyond the capabilities of the Excalibur design. TWA's requirements led to the L-049 Constellation, designed by Lockheed engineers including Kelly Johnson and Hall Hibbard.[3] Willis Hawkins, another Lockheed engineer, maintains that the Excalibur program was purely a cover for the Constellation.[4]

A preserved C-121C Super Constellation, registration N73544, in flight in 2004

Development of the Constellation

The Constellation's wing design was close to that of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, differing mostly in size.[5] The triple tail kept the aircraft's height low enough to fit in existing hangars,[4] while features included hydraulically boosted controls and a de-icing system used on wing and tail leading edges.[2] The aircraft had a maximum speed of over 375 mph (600 km/h), faster than that of a Japanese Zero fighter, a cruise speed of 340 mph (550 km/h), and a service ceiling of 24,000 ft (7,300 m).[6]

According to Anthony Sampson in Empires of the Sky, Lockheed may have undertaken the intricate design, but Hughes' intercession in the design process drove the concept, shape, capabilities, appearance, and ethos.[7] These rumors were discredited by Johnson. Howard Hughes and Jack Frye confirmed that the rumors were not true in a letter in November 1941.[8]

Operational history

World War II

The first Lockheed Constellation on January 9, 1943

With the onset of World War II, the TWA aircraft entering production were converted to an order for C-69 Constellation military transport aircraft, with 202 aircraft intended for the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). The first prototype (civil registration NX25600) flew on January 9, 1943, a short ferry hop from Burbank to Muroc Field for testing.[2] Edmund T. "Eddie" Allen, on loan from Boeing, flew left seat, with Lockheed's own Milo Burcham as copilot. Rudy Thoren and Kelly Johnson were also on board.

Lockheed proposed the model L-249 as a long-range bomber. It received the military designation XB-30, but the aircraft was not developed. A plan for a very long-range troop transport, the C-69B (L-349, ordered by Pan Am in 1940 as the L-149),[9] was canceled. A single C-69C (L-549), a 43-seat VIP transport, was built in 1945 at the Lockheed-Burbank plant.

The C-69 was mostly used as a high-speed, long-distance troop transport during the war.[10] A total of 22 C-69s were completed before the end of hostilities, but not all of these entered military service. The USAAF cancelled the remainder of the order in 1945. However, some aircraft remained in USAF service into the 1960s, serving as passenger ferries for the airline that relocated military personnel, wearing the livery of the Military Air Transport Service. At least one of these airplanes had rear-facing passenger seats.

Postwar use

TWA L-749A Constellation at Heathrow in 1954 with an under fuselage "Speedpack" freight container
Super Constellation (C-121C) during pilot training in Epinal — Mirecourt, France

After World War II, the Constellation came into its own as a fast civilian airliner. Aircraft already in production for the USAAF as C-69 transports were finished as civilian airliners, with TWA receiving the first on 1 October 1945. TWA's first transatlantic proving flight departed Washington, D.C., on December 3, 1945, arriving in Paris on December 4 via Gander and Shannon.[2]

TWA transatlantic service started on February 6, 1946 with a New York-Paris flight in a Constellation. On June 17, 1947, Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) opened the first-ever scheduled round-the-world service with their L-749 Clipper America. The famous flight "Pan Am 1" operated until 1982.[citation needed]

As the first pressurized airliner in widespread use, the Constellation helped to usher in affordable and comfortable air travel. Operators of Constellations included TWA, Eastern Air Lines, Pan Am, Air France, BOAC, KLM, Qantas, Lufthansa, Iberia Airlines, Panair do Brasil, TAP Portugal, Trans-Canada Air Lines (later renamed Air Canada), Aer Lingus, VARIG, Cubana de Aviación, and Línea Aeropostal Venezolana, also Avianca the national airline of Colombia.

Records

Sleek and powerful, Constellations set a number of records. On April 17, 1944, the second production C-69, piloted by Howard Hughes and TWA president Jack Frye, flew from Burbank, California, to Washington, D.C., in 6 hours and 57 minutes (about 2,300 miles (3,700 km) at an average 331 miles per hour (533 km/h). On the return trip, the aircraft stopped at Wright Field in Ohio to give Orville Wright his last flight, more than 40 years after his historic first flight near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. He commented that the Constellation's wingspan was longer than the distance of his first flight.[3]

On September 29, 1957, a TWA L-1649A flew from Los Angeles to London in 18 hours and 32 minutes (about 5,420 miles (8,720 km) at 292 miles per hour (470 km/h). The L-1649A holds the record for the longest-duration, non-stop passenger flight aboard a piston-powered airliner. On TWA's first London-to-San Francisco flight on October 1–2, 1957, the aircraft stayed aloft for 23 hours and 19 minutes (about 5,350 miles (8,610 km) at 229 miles per hour (369 km/h).[citation needed]

Obsolescence

L-1049H freighter of Nordair Canada at Manchester Airport in 1966
A Lockheed Constellation L-049 preserved at TAM Museum

Jet airliners such as the de Havilland Comet, Boeing 707, Douglas DC-8, Convair 880, and Sud Aviation Caravelle rendered the Constellation obsolete. The first routes lost to jets were the long overseas routes, but Constellations continued to fly domestic routes. The last scheduled passenger flight of a Constellation in the lower 48 states was made by a TWA L749 on May 11, 1967, from Philadelphia to Kansas City, Missouri;[11] the last passenger flight in Alaska was by Western's N86525, Anchorage to Yakutat to Juneau on 26 November 1968.

Constellations carried freight in later years, and were used on backup sections of Eastern Airlines' shuttle service between New York, Washington, D.C., and Boston until 1968. Prop airliners were used on overnight freight runs into the 1990s, as their low speed was not an impediment. An Eastern Air Lines Connie holds the record for a New York to Washington, D.C. flight from take off to touchdown in just over 30 minutes. The record was set prior to speed restrictions by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) below 10,000 feet (3,000 m).[12]

One of the reasons for the elegant appearance of the aircraft was the fuselage shape, a continuously variable profile with no two bulkheads the same shape. This construction was expensive and was replaced by mostly tube-shaped modern airliners. The tube is more resistant to pressurization changes and cheaper to build.

After ending Constellation production Lockheed chose not to develop a first-generation jetliner, sticking to its military business and production of the turboprop Lockheed L-188 Electra. Lockheed did not build a large passenger aircraft again until its L-1011 Tristar debuted in 1972. While a technological marvel, the L-1011 was a commercial failure, and Lockheed left the commercial airliner business permanently in 1983.[13]

Variants

Super Constellation at Charles Prince Airport, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in 1975, used as a flying club headquarters
A United States Navy R7V-2 (L-1249) in flight: The L-1249 used Pratt & Whitney T34 turboprop engines in place of the Wright R-3350 radials.[14]

The initial military versions carried the Lockheed designation of L-049; as World War II came to a close, some were completed as civilian L-049 Constellations followed by the L-149 (L-049 modified to carry more fuel tanks).

The first purpose-built passenger Constellations were the more powerful L-649 and L-749 (which had more fuel in the outer wings),[9][page needed] L-849 (an unbuilt model to use the R-3350 turbo-compound engines adopted for the L-1049 ), L-949 (an unbuilt, high-density seating-cum-freighter type, what would come to be called a "combi aircraft").[9]

These were followed by the L-1049 Super Constellation (with longer fuselage), L-1149 (proposal to use Allison turbine engines)[9] and L-1249 (similar to L-1149, built as R7V-2/YC-121F),[9] L-1449 (unbuilt proposal for L1049G, stretched 55 in (140 cm), with new wing and turbines)[9] and L-1549 (unbuilt project to stretch L-1449 95 in (240 cm)).[9]

The final civilian variant was the L-1649 Starliner (all new wing and L1049G fuselage).[9]

Military versions included the C-69 and C-121 for the Army Air Forces/Air Force and the R7O R7V-1 (L-1049B) EC-121 WV-1 (L-749A) WV-2 (L-1049B) (widely known as the Willie Victor) and many variant EC-121 designations for the Navy.[15][16]

Operators

After TWA's initial order was filled following World War II, customers rapidly accumulated, with over 800 aircraft built. In military service, the U.S. Navy and Air Force operated the EC-121 Warning Star variant until 1978, nearly 40 years after work on the L-049 began. Cubana de Aviación was the first airline in Latin America to operate Super Constellations. Pakistan International Airlines was the first airline from an Asian country to fly the Super Constellation.

Surviving aircraft

An abandoned Constellation display in Florida (1970s)
Lockheed L-1049 G Super Constellation on display close to Munich International Airport

Commercial

On Display
L-049
L-749
  • C/N 2503 — on display at the Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace (The Museum of Air and Space) located at Paris-Le Bourget Airport near Le Bourget, France, 10 km north of Paris. It initially served with Pan American Airways, before being transferred to Air France, with whom it served until 1960. Afterwards, it was used by the Compagnie Générale des Turbo-Machines (General Company of Turbomachinery) as an engine testbed until December 1974.[21]
  • C/N 2553 — on display in TWA colors (although this aircraft never flew for TWA) at the Large Item Storage facility for the UK Science Museum at Wroughton, near Swindon. This aircraft was used by the Rolling Stones to transport equipment during their 1973 Australian tour.[22] It is the only Constellation in the United Kingdom and is viewable on certain open days.[23]
L-1049 Super Constellation
L-1649 Starliner
  • C/N 1040 — on display in front of the Fantasy of Flight attraction in Lakeland, Florida.[27]
  • C/N 1042 — on display at OR Tambo International Airport, South Africa at the South African Airways Technical area. The aircraft is owned by the South African Airways Museum Society.[28]
Under restoration or in storage
L-1049 Super Constellation
  • C/N 4519 — to display by the Amicale du Super Constellation located at the Nantes Airport in Nantes, France. It was delivered to Air France on November 2, 1953, and was upgraded to a L-1049 G in 1956, serving until August 8, 1967, having totaled 24,284 hours under Air France's colors. After retirement, it was sent to Spain, to be registered EC-BEN, briefly flying humanitarian and medevac missions in Biafra. Aero Fret bought it in 1968, brought it back home to France, registered it as F-BRAD, and operated it on cargo hauls until 1974. When the Constellation landed in Nantes one last time to be scrapped, it was ultimately saved by Mr. Gaborit, who revamped it somewhat by his own modest means to finally park it near the terminal, accessible to visitors for a few years, until the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Nantes-Atlantique Airport bought it, to contract the Amicale du Super Constellation to undergo a complete restoration of the old aircraft.[29]
  • C/N 4825 City of Miami — parked on an unused runway at the Rafael Hernández Airport in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. It was struck by a runaway DC-4 on February 3, 1992, resulting in damage to the right wing and main spar.[30]
  • C/N 4830 Star of America — to airworthiness by the National Airline History Museum in Kansas City, Missouri. This aircraft was originally built in 1957, stored for several years, and then delivered to cargo carrier Slick Airways. It was restored in 1986 by the Save-a-Connie, Inc. organization, later renamed as the National Airline History Museum. It was originally painted in red and white with Save-a-Connie, but was later repainted in the 1950s livery of TWA to resemble its original Star of America Constellation.[31] The aircraft appeared at New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport at the original TWA terminal designed by Eero Saarinen to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the airline with the paint scheme donated by TWA in Kansas City for the occasion. The Star of America has appeared at many airshows and was even used in The Aviator, the 2004 film depicting the life of TWA's one-time owner Howard Hughes, the man often credited with helping design and develop the original Constellation series.[32]
L-1649 Starliner
  • C/N 1018 — returned to airworthiness by Lufthansa Technik North America in Auburn, Maine. This aircraft was purchased at auction in 2007, along with C/N 1038, by the Deutsche Lufthansa Berlin Foundation. Lufthansa has built a hangar at the airport, which will allow the aircraft to be restored indoors. Lufthansa announced in March 2018 that it will be transported back to Germany and further restoration decisions will be made after it arrives.[33][34]
  • C/N 1038 — This aircraft was purchased at auction in 2007, along with C/N 1018, by the Deutsche Lufthansa Berlin Foundation, and stripped of all usable spares to support the restoration of C/N 1018. The aircraft was subsequently sold and transported to JFK International Airport to become a cocktail bar in the TWA Hotel, a retro-aviation themed hotel built on the former TWA Flight Center.[35]

Military

The Breitling Super Constellation
Airworthy
C-121C
  • S/N 54-0156 — Flies with the Super Constellation Flyers Association out of Basel, as The Breitling Super Constellation. Its restoration was sponsored by Swiss watch manufacturer Breitling, and is now registered in the Swiss Aircraft registry as HB-RSC. This Constellation is one of two flying in the world.[36]
HARS Super Connie at Wollongong, 2004
  • S/N 54-0157 — Flies with the Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) out of Illawarra Regional Airport near Wollongong, Australia. Following its restoration, it was painted in pseudo-Qantas livery including the Qantas logo on the tail, (with the usual Qantas lettering along the fuselage and on the wing-end fuel tanks replaced with the word "CONNIE") and registered as VH-EAG. This Constellation is one of two flying in the world.[37]
On Display
VC-121A
  • S/N 48-0609 — on display at Jeongseok Airport on Jeju Island, South Korea. It was donated to Korean Air in 2005, and restored to airworthy condition at Tucson, Arizona. It was then ferried to South Korea, where it made its final flight, under its own power, from Seoul to its current location for static display. It has been repainted in 1950s Korean Air colors, and rendered unable to fly by the presence of unserviceable engines.[38]
L-749A restored at Aviodrome
  • S/N 48-0612 — on display at the Dutch National Aviation Museum Aviodrome. It was restored to airworthy condition and ferried from Tucson, Arizona, to the Netherlands, where restoration continued. It is now painted in the KLM livery of the 1950s, depicting a KLM Lockheed L-749A. Renamed Flevoland, this is the only airworthy example of the "short" version of the Constellation. However, thanks to Korean Air, which donated two airworthy engines from S/N 48-0609 (see above), this aircraft was scheduled to be flying again, but the flights were cancelled. As of 2016, the aircraft is on display in the Aviodrome museum.[citation needed]
  • S/N 48-0614 Columbine — on display at the Pima Air and Space Museum in Tucson, Arizona. This aircraft was used by Dwight D. Eisenhower during his role as Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe commander before he became president. It is on loan from the National Museum of the U.S. Air Force.[39]
VC-121E
Dwight D. Eisenhower flew in three Constellations, named Columbine, Columbine II, and Columbine III.
C-121C
EC-121K
EC-121T
N4257U on display at the Combat Air Museum in Topeka
L-1049G
Under restoration or in storage
WV-1
  • BuNo 124438 — to airworthiness by Gordon Cole at Salina, Kansas. This aircraft was the first of two WV-1s delivered to the U.S. Navy in 1949. Essentially, it was a prototype for the EC-121 Warning Star that followed. Retired from the Navy in 1957, it served the FAA from 1958 to 1966, before being flown to Salina in 1967 for retirement. It remains parked there, and was last flown in 1992.[47]
VC-121A
  • S/N 48-0610 Columbine II — to airworthiness by Dynamic Aviation in Bridgewater, Virginia. This aircraft served as the first Air Force One, during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower, before it was replaced by Columbine III as Eisenhower's primary presidential aircraft in 1954. After a long period of storage at Marana Regional Airport, near Tucson, Arizona, this aircraft made its first flight, since 2003, in March 2016, when it was ferried to Bridgewater for additional restoration.[48][49][50][51]
  • S/N 48-0613 Bataan — to airworthiness by Lewis Air Legends in San Antonio, Texas. This aircraft was used as a personal transport by General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War, and later by other Army general officers until 1966, when it was transferred to NASA. Following its permanent retirement in 1970, it was placed on display at a museum at Fort Rucker near Daleville, Alabama. It was acquired by the Planes of Fame Air Museum at Chino, California in 1992, and overhauled into airworthy condition for a flight to Dothan, Alabama, where it received additional work. After a thorough restoration back to its original configuration with a "VIP interior", it was placed on display at the Planes of Fame secondary location in Valle, Arizona. Then, in 2015, it was sold to Lewis Air Legends, and prepped for a ferry flight to Chino, arriving there on January 14, 2016.
EC-121T
C-121J

Specifications (L-1049G Super Constellation)

Lockheed Super Constellation of Lufthansa.
Lockheed C-121C (L-1049) Super Constellation.

Data from Great Aircraft of the World[54] and Quest for Performance[55]

General characteristics

Performance

Accidents and incidents

Like every other major type in long service and operation, accidents and incidents have been recorded that have substantially reduced the numbers flying.

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

Notes

  1. ^ Historic airliner trucked 300 miles to be a hotel bar CNN Travel. By Thom Patterson. Oct. 13th October 2018. Downloaded Oct. 21, 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d Taylor 1993, pp. 606–607.
  3. ^ a b Yenne 1987, pp. 44–46.
  4. ^ a b Boyne 1998, pp. 135–137.
  5. ^ Johnson 1985, pp. 82
  6. ^ "Lockheed C-69 Constellation." Archived 2012-10-15 at the Wayback Machine militaryfactory.com, May 25, 2009. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  7. ^ Sampson 1985
  8. ^ Johnson 1985, pp. 92
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Stringfellow and Bowers 1992.
  10. ^ Pace 2003, p. 17.
  11. ^ Germain 1998, p. 89.
  12. ^ "Lockheed Constellation L749 N749NL Comeback." Archived 2012-11-14 at the Wayback Machine World News. Retrieved: February 22, 2011.
  13. ^ Birtles 1998, p. 56.
  14. ^ Alternate Wars.com — R7V-2 Standard Aircraft Characteristics Archived 2011-10-14 at the Wayback Machine; Retrieved 10/12/11
  15. ^ Swanborough, Gordon and Peter M. Bowers. United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1976. ISBN 0-87021-968-5.
  16. ^ Fahey, James C. The Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet, volumes 1–4, 1939–45. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1965.
  17. ^ "Lockheed L-049 Constellation." Archived 2011-07-25 at the Wayback Machine Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  18. ^ "Lockheed Constellation, A majestade dos ares (in Portuguese). Archived 2007-02-28 at the Wayback Machine Museum Asas de um Sonho (Portugal). Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  19. ^ Pettersen, Ralph M. "N9412H c/n 2072." Archived 2011-01-21 at the Wayback Machine Constellation Survivors, 2011. Retrieved: February 22, 2011.
  20. ^ Kinder, Steve. "AirlineFan: AeroSur Constellation N2520B in AeroSur Colors" Archived 2014-02-22 at the Wayback Machine "AirlineFan: AeroSur Constellation N2520B in AeroSur Colors", 2008. Retrieved: June 17, 2012.
  21. ^ "F-ZVMV c/n 2503." Archived 2008-09-15 at the Wayback Machine conniesurvivors.com. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  22. ^ "THE STONES' CONNIE — The Lockheed File". www.adastron.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-09.
  23. ^ Hayles, John. "Science Museum Swindon: Constellation N7777G." Archived 2008-07-27 at the Wayback Machine aeroflight.co.uk, July 4, 2009. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  24. ^ Bogash, Robert "Super Constellation CF-TGE." Archived 2011-10-19 at the Wayback Machine rbogash.com. Retrieved: November 3, 2011.
  25. ^ Petersen, Ralph M. "CF-TGE c/n 4544." Archived 2011-10-11 at the Wayback Machine conniesurvivors.com. Retrieved: November 3, 2011.
  26. ^ "Lockheed L-1049 G Super Constellation" Archived 2009-06-14 at the Wayback Machine Munich Airport Retrieved: August 31, 2009.
  27. ^ Pettersen, Ralph M. "N974R c/n 1040." Archived 2010-12-18 at the Wayback Machine Constellation Survivors, 2011. Retrieved: February 22, 2011.
  28. ^ "Lockheed L1649A Starliner, ZS-DVJ, c/n 1042." Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine The South African Airways Museum Society via saamuseum.co.za. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  29. ^ "Story of F-BGNJ." Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine Amicale du Super Constellation. Retrieved: March 23, 2010.
  30. ^ Pettersen, Ralph M. "HI-542CT c/n 4825." Archived 2010-12-14 at the Wayback Machine Constellation Survivors, 2011. Retrieved: February 22, 2011.
  31. ^ "N6937C Lockheed Super Constellation "Star of America." Archived 2008-05-11 at the Wayback Machine Airline History Museum at Kansas City.Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  32. ^ Denning, Larry. "Connie at the Movies." Archived 2012-02-25 at the Wayback Machine Airline History Museum at Kansas City. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  33. ^ "Lufthansa sticks to plans to move Constellation to Germany - Lewiston Sun Journal". Lewiston Sun Journal. 2018-03-27. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  34. ^ "Lufthansa Super Star". Lufthansa Super Star. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  35. ^ "Vintage 'Connie' flying from Maine to NYC to become hotel cocktail lounge" Archived 2018-10-09 at the Wayback Machine USA Today via usatoday.com. Retrieved: October 10, 2018.
  36. ^ Pettersen, Ralph M. "Breitling Super Constellation. After the discovery of corrosion, it was grounded for a time, but is flying again after extensive repairs." Archived 2009-02-01 at the Wayback Machine conniesurvivors.com, May 2004. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  37. ^ "Historical Aircraft Restoration Society Super Constellation." Archived 2012-01-31 at the Wayback Machine hars.org.au. Retrieved: January 30, 2012.
  38. ^ Pettersen, Ralph M. "N494TW c/n 2601." Archived 2011-01-23 at the Wayback Machine Constellation Survivors, 2011. Retrieved: February 22, 2011.
  39. ^ Pima Air and Space Museum webpage Archived 2010-07-07 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2013-11-05
  40. ^ Petersen, Ralph M. "53-7885 c/n 4151." Archived 2013-05-29 at the Wayback Machine Lockheed Constellation Survivors. Retrieved: 16 July 2013.
  41. ^ "C-121A." Archived 2018-02-01 at the Wayback Machine National Air and Space Museum. Retrieved 9 March 2018.
  42. ^ "EC-121D." Aerospace Museum of California. Retrieved: January 20, 2013.
  43. ^ "EC121T". Archived 2010-11-28 at the Wayback Machine petemuseum.org. Retrieved: November 21, 2010.
  44. ^ "Lockheed EC-121T Constellation." Archived 2010-01-08 at the Wayback Machine Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: July 18, 2009.
  45. ^ Lockheed EC-121D Constellation Archived 2016-12-07 at the Wayback Machine National Museum of the United States Air Force via nationalmuseum.af.mil. Retrieved: July 23, 2019.
  46. ^ "N4247K c/n 4144." Archived 2010-11-20 at the Wayback Machine conniesurvivors.com. Retrieved: November 21, 2010.
  47. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-04. Retrieved 2013-02-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Salina Connie. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  48. ^ Dagenhart, Jenna (March 23, 2016). "First Air Force One Aircraft Lands in Bridgewater for Restorations". WVIR. Archived from the original on March 27, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
  49. ^ "First Air Force One plane decaying in Arizona field — NBC News". Archived from the original on 2014-08-12.
  50. ^ First Air Force One (3 June 2014). "AMERICA'S LOST AIR FORCE ONE". Archived from the original on 17 February 2016 – via YouTube.
  51. ^ Rogoway, Tyler. "The First Air Force One Has Taken To The Skies Once Again". Archived from the original on 2016-05-03.
  52. ^ "N4247K." Archived 2010-11-20 at the Wayback Machine conniesurvivors.com. Retrieved: November 23, 2010.
  53. ^ "Qantas Founders Museum Saves a 'Super Constellation'". Warbirds News. 22 September 2014. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
  54. ^ Cacutt 1989, pp. 314–322.
  55. ^ Loftin, L. K. Jr. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft. NASA SP-468. Archived 2006-06-13 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: April 22, 2006.

Bibliography

  • Birtles, Phillip. Lockheed L-1011 TriStar (Airliner Color History). St. Paul: Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1998. ISBN 978-0-7603-0582-9.
  • Boyne, Walter J. Beyond the Horizons: The Lockheed Story. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1998. ISBN 0-312-24438-X.
  • Cacutt, Len, ed. "Lockheed Constellation". Great Aircraft of the World. London: Marshall Cavendish, 1989. ISBN 1-85435-250-4.
  • Germain, Scott E. Lockheed Constellation and Super Constellation. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 1998. ISBN 1-58007-000-0.
  • Johnson, Clarence L. "Kelly" with Smith, Maggie. Kelly: More Than My Share of It All. Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985. ISBN 0-87474-564-0.
  • Marson, Peter J. The Lockheed Constellation Series. Tonbridge, Kent, UK: Air-Britain (Historians), 1982. ISBN 0-85130-100-2.
  • Pace, Steve. X-Planes: Pushing the Envelope of Flight. Osceola, Wisconsin: Zenith Imprint, 2003. ISBN 978-0-7603-1584-2.
  • Sampson, Anthony. Empires of the Sky: The Politics, Contest and Cartels of World Airlines. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1985. ISBN 0-340-37668-6.
  • Smith, M.J. Jr. Passenger Airliners of the United States, 1926–1991. Missoula, Montana: Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1986. ISBN 0-933126-72-7.
  • Stringfellow, Curtis K. and Peter M. Bowers. Lockheed Constellation: A Pictorial History. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-379-8.
  • Taylor, Michael J.H., ed. "Lockheed Constellation and Super Constellation". Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. New York: Crescent, 1993. ISBN 0-517-10316-8.
  • United States Air Force Museum Guidebook. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975.
  • Yenne, Bill, Lockheed. Greenwich, Connecticut: Bison Books, 1987. ISBN 0-517-60471-X.

External links

  • Lockheed Martin: How the Constellation Became the Star of the Skies
  • Popular Mechanics, June 1943, The Flying Shark one of the first detailed articles on the C-69 Constellation
  • Connie Survivors
  • Goleta Air and Space Museum: Lockheed Constellation Survivors
  • Warbird Alley: Connie page
  • A photograph and description of VH-EAB and two colored promotional posters for Qantas Empire Airways's Constellation services, Qantas Empire Airways Lockheed L749 Constellation VH-EAB.
  • Restoration of Lockheed L-1649A Super Star to airworthy condition by Lufthansa Technik
  • One of four similar aerial photographs of VH-EAB by Frank Hurley, with brief annotation
  • Super Constellation Flyers Association
  • Many detailed close-up photographs of the Constellation from the Airline History Museum
  • Maintenance parts catalog Constellation model L-049 reissue:1947
  • Historic airliner trucked 300 miles to be a hotel bar – CNN