Lonchodectids
Temporal range: Early-Late Cretaceous, 135–94 Ma
Pterodactylus compressirostris.jpg
Material referred to Lonchodectes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Order: Pterosauria
Suborder: Pterodactyloidea
Clade: Ornithocheiromorpha
Family: Lonchodectidae
Hooley, 1914
Genera
Synonyms
  • Lonchodraconidae Rodrigues & Kellner, 2013

Lonchodectidae is a group of pterosaurs within the clade Pterodactyloidea. It has variously been considered to be within Ctenochasmatoidea,[1] Azhdarchoidea[2] and Pteranodontia.[3][4][5] They are notable for their high, conical tooth sockets and raised alveolar margins.[6]

Description

The most diagnostic features of Lonchodectidae pertain to the teeth and jaws. The teeth on both the upper and lower jaws are generally small, do not vary in size through the length of the jaw, and are placed on raised alveolar margins. The upper palate has a prominent ridge. One genus, Lonchodraco, has prominent crests at the tips of both the skull and mandible, while another, Ikrandraco, only has a crest on the mandible. Only Lonchodraco and Ikrandraco preserve postcrania, which is similar to other lanceodontians.[5]

Taxonomic history

Lonchodectidae was first named by Reginald Walter Hooley in 1914,[7] and was first considered to only contain species of Lonchodectes.[8] A taxonomic review of pterosaurs from the Cambridge Greensand in 2013 considered Lonchodectes a nomen dubium, and named a new family, Lonchodraconidae, for the remaining species, which had been moved to the new genus Lonchodraco.[9] Yixianopterus,[10] Unwindia, Prejanopterus,[11] and Serradraco[12] have also been considered possible lonchodectids. A taxonomic review of Lonchodectidae by Russian paleontologist Alexander Averianov in 2020 limited the clade to Ikrandraco, Lonchodectes, and Lonchodraco, thus finding Lonchodraconidae to be synonymous with the earlier name Lonchodectidae.[5]

Clasification

Holotype of Ikrandraco
Reconstruction of Lonchodectes, with hypothetical bauplan

The cladogram below is a topology recovered by Pêgas et al. (2019). In the analyses, they placed Lonchodectidae (represented as Lonchodraconidae) as the sister taxon of Istiodactyliformes, and restricted the family with Lonchodraco and Ikrandraco as the only members.[13]

Lanceodontia
Lonchodraconidae

Lonchodraco

Ikrandraco

Istiodactyliformes

Haopterus

Hongshanopterus

Istiodactylidae

Nurhachius

Istiodactylinae

Istiodactylus

Liaoxipterus

Boreopteridae

Boreopterus

Zhenyuanopterus

Ornithocheirae

Ornithocheirus

Targaryendraconia
Targaryendraconidae

Aussiedraco

Barbosania

Targaryendraco

Cimoliopteridae

Aetodactylus

Camposipterus

Cimoliopterus

Anhangueria
Hamipteridae

Hamipterus

Iberodactylus

Anhangueridae

Tropeognathus

Coloborhynchinae

Coloborhynchus

Siroccopteryx

Uktenadactylus

Anhanguerinae

Caulkicephalus

Guidraco

Ludodactylus

Anhanguera

Liaoningopterus

Cearadactylus

Maaradactylus

Paleobiology

Lifestyle

Postcranial material similar to those of azhdarchoids has previously been referred to Lonchodectes;[14] however, this material has later been referred to the azhdarchoid Ornithostoma.[15] Ikrandraco is presumed to have been piscivorous, though this is not completely confirmed.[16]

References

  1. ^ Unwin, David M. (2003). "On the phylogeny and evolutionary history of pterosaurs". In Buffetaut, Eric; Mazin Jean-Michel (eds.). Evolution and Palaeobiology of Pterosaurs. Geological Society Special Publication 217. London: Geological Society. pp. 139–190. ISBN 1-86239-143-2.
  2. ^ Unwin, D.M. (2008)
  3. ^ Witton, M.P., Martill, D.M., and Green, M. (2009). "On pterodactyloid diversity in the British Wealden (Lower Cretaceous) and a reappraisal of “Palaeornis” cliftii Mantell, 1844." Cretaceous Research, 30: 676–686.
  4. ^ Andres, B.; Myers, T. S. (2013). "Lone Star Pterosaurs". Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: 1. doi:10.1017/S1755691013000303.
  5. ^ a b c Averianov, A.O. (2020). "Taxonomy of the Lonchodectidae (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea)". Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS. 324 (1): 41–55. doi:10.31610/trudyzin/2020.324.1.41.
  6. ^ Pterosaurs: Natural History, Evolution, Anatomy, Mark P. Witton (2013)
  7. ^ Hooley, R.W. 1914. "On the Ornithosaurian genus Ornithocheirus with a review of the specimens from the Cambridge Greensand in the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge", Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 8, 78: 529-557
  8. ^ Unwin, David M. 2001. "An overview of the pterosaur assemblage from the Cambridge Greensand (Cretaceous) of Eastern England". Mitteilungen as dem Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Geowissenschaftliche Reihe 4: 189–222
  9. ^ Rodrigues, T.; Kellner, A. (2013). "Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria) from the Cretaceous of England". ZooKeys. 308: 1–112. doi:10.3897/zookeys.308.5559. PMC 3689139. PMID 23794925.
  10. ^ J. Lü, S. Ji, C. Yuan, Y. Gao, Z. Sun and Q. Ji. 2006. New pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Western Liaoning. Papers from the 2005 Heyuan International Dinosaur Symposium. Geological Publishing House, Beijing 195-203
  11. ^ Witton, Mark P. (2013). Pterosaurs: Natural History, Evolution, Anatomy
  12. ^ Rigal, S.; Martill, D. M.; Sweetman, S. C. (2017). "A new pterosaur specimen from the Upper Tunbridge Wells Sand Formation (Cretaceous, Valanginian) of southern England and a review of Lonchodectes sagittirostris (Owen 1874)". Geological Society, London, Special Publications: SP455.5. doi:10.1144/SP455.5.
  13. ^ Rodrigo V. Pêgas, Borja Holgado & Maria Eduarda C. Leal (2019) On Targaryendraco wiedenrothi gen. nov. (Pterodactyloidea, Pteranodontoidea, Lanceodontia) and recognition of a new cosmopolitan lineage of Cretaceous toothed pterodactyloids, Historical Biology, doi:10.1080/08912963.2019.1690482
  14. ^ Pterosaurs: Natural History, Evolution, Anatomy, Mark P. Witton (2013)
  15. ^ Averianov, A.O. (2012). "Ornithostoma sedgwicki – valid taxon of azhdarchoid pterosaurs." Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, 316(1): 40–49.
  16. ^ Xiaolin Wang; Taissa Rodrigues; Shunxing Jiang; Xin Cheng; Alexander W. A. Kellner (2014). "An Early Cretaceous pterosaur with an unusual mandibular crest from China and a potential novel feeding strategy". Scientific Reports. 4: Article number 6329. doi:10.1038/srep06329. PMC 5385874. PMID 25210867.