Long March 1


Long March 1
Changzheng-1 (CZ-1)
Lanzador orbital chino CZ-1B.svg
ManufacturerMAI, CASC, CAST
Country of originChina
Height29.86 metres (98.0 ft)
Diameter2.25 metres (7.4 ft)
Mass81,570 kilograms (179,830 lb)
Payload to LEO
Mass300 kilograms (660 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyLong March
Launch history
Launch sitesJiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Total launches2
First flight24 April 1970
Last flight3 March 1971
Notable payloadsDong Fang Hong I
First stage
Length17.835 m (58.51 ft)
Diameter2.25 m (7.4 ft)
Empty mass4,180 kg (9,220 lb)
Gross mass65,250 kg (143,850 lb)
Engines1 YF-2A (4 x YF-1A)
Thrust1,101.2 kN (247,600 lbf) (SL)
1,214.4 kN (273,000 lbf)
Specific impulse242.5 s (2.378 km/s) (SL)
267.4 s (2.622 km/s) (vacuum)
Burn timeabout 130 s[1]
Second stage
Length7.486 m (24.56 ft)
Diameter2.25 m (7.4 ft)
Empty mass2,340 kg (5,160 lb)
Gross mass13,550 kg (29,870 lb)
Thrust320.2 kN (72,000 lbf)
Specific impulse286.9 s (2.814 km/s)
Burn timeabout 126 s
Third stage – FG-02
Length4.565 m (14.98 ft)
Diameter0.77 m (2.5 ft)
Empty mass400 kg (880 lb)
Gross mass2,200 kg (4,900 lb)
Thrust181 kN (41,000 lbf)
Specific impulse254 s (2.49 km/s)
Burn time38s
PropellantSolid: Polysulfide

The Long March 1 (长征一号), also known as the Changzheng-1 (CZ-1),[3] was the first member of China's Long March rocket family.[4] Like the U.S.'s and the Soviet Union's first rockets, it was based on a class of ballistic missiles, namely the Dong Feng 3 class.[5]


Development started in January 1965 as the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry issued a design task. The two stage liquid fueled DF-4 was modified by adding a third stage in order to make it to the desired orbit. Long March 1's second flight launched China's first satellite Dong Fang Hong 1 to space on April 24, 1970. The rocket was operational during 1970–1971. Wang Xiji was the chief designer of the rocket.[6]

Long March 1 (Launch history)
Date and time (UTC) Launch site Payload Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome Notes
24 April 1970
China Jiuquan LA-2A China Dong Fang Hong 1 LEO Test satellite Success First satellite launched by China.
3 March 1971
China Jiuquan LA-2A China Shi Jian 1 LEO Technology 17 June 1979 Success

See also


  1. ^ "Space Launchers - Long March". Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  2. ^ "Go Taikonauts! - Launch Vehicle". Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  3. ^ "CZ-1". Astronautix.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  4. ^ 问鼎苍穹:共和国航天纪实. 中国南京: 江苏文艺出版社. 2009. p. 128. ISBN 978-7-5399-3457-0.
  5. ^ "Long March | Rockets, Types, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
  6. ^ Stokes, Mark A. (July 2003). "The People's Liberation Army and China's Space and Missile Development". In Laurie Burkitt; Andrew Scobell; Larry Wortzel (eds.). The Lessons of History: The Chinese people's Liberation Army at 75 (PDF). Strategic Studies Institute. p. 235. ISBN 978-1-58487-126-2.