Long March 3B

Summary

Long March 3B
The Launch of Long March 3B Rocket.jpg
The launch of a Long March 3B carrier rocket at Xichang Satellite Launch Center.
FunctionCarrier rocket
ManufacturerCALT
Country of originChina
Cost per launchMore than US$70 million (compare Long march 3A cost) [1]
Size
Height
  • 3B: 54.8 m (180 ft) [1]
  • 3B/E: 56.3 m (185 ft) [2]
Diameter3.35 m (11.0 ft)[1]
Mass
  • 3B: 425,800 kg (938,700 lb) [1]
  • 3B/E: 458,970 kg (1,011,860 lb) [2]
Stages3 / 4
Capacity
Payload to LEO11,500 kg (25,400 lb) [3][4]
Payload to SSO7,100 kg (15,700 lb) [3][4]
Payload to GTO
  • 3B: 5,100 kg (11,200 lb)[3][4]
  • 3B/E: 5,500 kg (12,100 lb)[2][3]
Payload to GEO2,000 kg (4,400 lb)[4]
Payload to HCO3,300 kg (7,300 lb)[3][4]
Associated rockets
FamilyLong March
DerivativesLong March 3C
Comparable
Launch history
Status
  • 3B: Retired
  • 3B/E: Active
Launch sitesXichang LC-2, LC-3
Total launches
  • 69
    • 3B: 12
    • 3B/E: 57
Successes
  • 65
    • 3B: 10
    • 3B/E: 55
Failures
Partial failures
  • 2
  • 3B: 1 (Palapa-D)
  • 3B/E: 1 (Chinasat 9A)
First flight
Last flight
Boosters (3B)
No. boosters4
Length15.33 m (50.3 ft)
Diameter2.25 m (7 ft 5 in)
Propellant mass37,700 kg (83,100 lb)
Engines1 × YF-25
Thrust740.4 kN (166,400 lbf)
Specific impulse2,556.2 m/s (260.66 s)
Burn time127 seconds
FuelN2O4 / UDMH
Boosters (3B/E)
No. boosters4
Length16.1 m (53 ft)
Diameter2.25 m (7 ft 5 in)
Propellant mass41,100 kg (90,600 lb)
Engines1 × YF-25
Thrust740.4 kN (166,400 lbf)
Specific impulse2,556.2 m/s (260.66 s)
Burn time140 seconds
FuelN2O4 / UDMH
First stage (3B)
Length23.27 m (76.3 ft)
Diameter3.35 m (11.0 ft)
Propellant mass171,800 kg (378,800 lb)
Engines4 × YF-21C
Thrust2,961.6 kN (665,800 lbf)
Specific impulse2,556.5 m/s (260.69 s)
Burn time145 seconds
FuelN2O4 / UDMH
First stage (3B/E)
Length24.76 m (81.2 ft)
Diameter3.35 m (11.0 ft)
Propellant mass186,200 kg (410,500 lb)
Engines4 × YF-21C
Thrust2,961.6 kN (665,800 lbf)
Specific impulse2,556.5 m/s (260.69 s)
Burn time158 seconds
FuelN2O4 / UDMH
Second stage
Length12.92 m (42.4 ft)
Diameter3.35 m (11.0 ft)
Propellant mass49,400 kg (108,900 lb)
Engines
Thrust
  • 742 kN (167,000 lbf) (Main)
  • 47.1 kN (10,600 lbf) (Vernier)
Specific impulse
  • 2,922.57 m/s (298.019 s) (Main)
  • 2,910.5 m/s (296.79 s) (Vernier)
Burn time185 seconds
FuelN2O4 / UDMH
Third stage
Length12.38 m (40.6 ft)
Diameter3.0 m (9.8 ft)
Propellant mass18,200 kg (40,100 lb)
Engines2 × YF-75
Thrust167.17 kN (37,580 lbf)
Specific impulse4,295 m/s (438.0 s)
Burn time478 seconds
FuelLH2 / LOX
Fourth stage (optional) – YZ-1
Engines1 × YF-50D
Thrust6.5 kN (1,500 lbf)
Specific impulse315.5 s (3.094 km/s)
FuelN2O4 / UDMH

The Long March 3B (Chinese: 长征三号乙火箭, Chang Zheng 3B), also known as the CZ-3B and LM-3B, is a Chinese orbital carrier rocket. Introduced in 1996, it is launched from Launch Area 2 and 3 at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in Sichuan. A three-stage rocket with four strap-on liquid rocket boosters, it is currently the second most powerful member of the Long March rocket family after the Long March 5 and the heaviest of the Long March 3 rocket family, and is mainly used to place communications satellites into geosynchronous orbits.

An enhanced version, the Long March 3B/E or G2, was introduced in 2007 to increase the rocket's GTO cargo capacity and lift heavier GEO communications satellites. The Long March 3B also served as the basis for the medium-capacity Long March 3C, which was first launched in 2008.

As of July 2020, the Long March 3B and 3B/E have conducted 65 successful launches, plus two failures and two partial failures, giving them a success rate of 94.2%.

History

A diagram of the Long March 3B, showing its outboard liquid rocket boosters.

The development of the Long March 3B began in 1986 to meet the needs of the international GEO communications satellite market. During its maiden flight, on 14 February 1996 carrying the Intelsat 708 satellite, the rocket suffered a guidance failure two seconds into the flight and destroyed a nearby town, killing at least six people,[5] but outside estimates suggest that anywhere between 200 and 500 people might have been killed.[6] However, the author of the report[6] later ruled out large casualties, because evidence suggest that the crash site was evacuated before the launch.[7]

The Long March 3B and 3B/E rockets conducted ten successful launches between 1997 and 2008.[2]

In 1997, the Agila 2 satellite was forced to use onboard propellant to reach its correct orbit because of poor injection accuracy on the part of its Long March 3B launch vehicle.[8] In 2009, a Long March 3B partially failed during launch due to a third stage anomaly, which resulted in the Palapa-D satellite reaching a lower orbit than planned.[9] Nonetheless, the satellite was able to maneuver itself into the planned orbit. The Long March 3B and its variants remain in active use as of January 2020, having conducted a total of 26 consecutive successful launches, since 19 June 2017 until now.

In December 2013, a Long March 3B/E successfully lifted Chang'e 3, China's first Lunar lander and rover into the projected lunar-transfer orbit.

In April 2020, the third stage of the Long March 3B/E failed during a Palapa-N1 communications satellite mission; this was the first total failure of the Long March 3B/E.[10]

Design and variants

The Long March 3B is based on the Long March 3A as its core stage, with four liquid boosters strapped on the first stage. It has an LEO cargo capacity of 11,200 kilograms (24,700 lb) and a GTO capacity is 5,100 kilograms (11,200 lb).

Long March 3B/E

The Long March 3B/E, also known as 3B/G2, is an enhanced variant of the Long March 3B, featuring an enlarged first stage and boosters, increasing its GTO payload capacity to 5,500 kilograms (12,100 lb).[11] Its maiden flight took place on 13 May 2007, when it successfully launched Nigeria's NigComSat-1, the first African geosynchronous communications satellite. In 2013, it successfully launched China's first lunar lander Chang'e 3 and lunar rover Yutu.

Since 2015, the Long March 3B and 3C can optionally accommodate a YZ-1 upper stage, which has been used to carry dual launches or BeiDou navigation satellites into medium-Earth orbit.

Long March 3C

A modified version of the Long March 3B, the Long March 3C, was developed in the mid-1990s to bridge the gap in payload capacity between the Long March 3B and 3A. It is almost identical to the Long March 3B, but has two boosters instead of four, giving it a reduced GTO payload capacity of 3,800 kilograms (8,400 lb). Its maiden launch took place on 25 April 2008.

List of launches

Flight number Date (UTC) Launch site Version Payload Orbit Result
1 14 February 1996
19:01
LA-2, XSLC 3B Intelsat 708 GTO Failure
2 19 August 1997
17:50
LA-2, XSLC 3B Agila-2 GTO Success
3 16 October 1997
19:13
LA-2, XSLC 3B APStar 2R GTO Success
4 30 May 1998
10:00
LA-2, XSLC 3B Chinastar 1 GTO Success
5 18 July 1998
09:20
LA-2, XSLC 3B SinoSat 1 GTO Success
6 12 April 2005
12:00
LA-2, XSLC 3B APStar 6 GTO Success
7 28 October 2006
16:20
LA-2, XSLC 3B SinoSat 2 GTO Success
8 13 May 2007
16:01
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E NigComSat-1 GTO Success
9 5 July 2007
12:08
LA-2, XSLC 3B ChinaSat 6B GTO Success
10 9 June 2008
12:15
LA-2, XSLC 3B ChinaSat 9 GTO Success
11 29 October 2008
16:53
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Venesat-1 GTO Success
12 31 August 2009
09:28
LA-2, XSLC 3B Palapa-D GTO Partial failure
13 4 September 2010
16:14
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E SinoSat 6 GTO Success
14 20 June 2011
16:13
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E ChinaSat 10 GTO Success
15 11 August 2011
16:15
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Paksat-1R GTO Success
16 18 September 2011
16:33
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E ChinaSat 1A GTO Success
17 7 October 2011
08:21
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Eutelsat W3C GTO Success
18 19 December 2011
16:41
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E NigComSat-1R GTO Success
19 31 March 2012
10:27
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E APStar 7 GTO Success
20 29 April 2012
20:50
LA-2, XSLC 3B Compass-M3
Compass-M4
MTO Success
21 26 May 2012
15:56
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E ChinaSat 2A GTO Success
22 18 September 2012
19:10
LA-2, XSLC 3B Compass-M5
Compass-M6
MTO Success
23 27 November 2012
10:13
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E ChinaSat 12 GTO Success
24 1 May 2013
16:06
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E ChinaSat 11 GTO Success
25 1 December 2013
17:30
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Chang'e 3 LTO Success
26 20 December 2013
16:42
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Túpac Katari 1 GTO Success
27 25 July 2015
12:29
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou M1-S
BeiDou M2-S
MEO Success
28 12 September 2015
15:42
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E TJSW-1 GTO Success
29 29 September 2015
23:13
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E BeiDou I2-S GTO Success
30 16 October 2015
16:16
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E APStar 9 GTO Success
31 3 November 2015
16:25
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E ChinaSat 2C GTO Success
32 20 November 2015
16:07
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E LaoSat-1 GTO Success
33 9 December 2015
16:46
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E ChinaSat 1C GTO Success
34 28 December 2015
16:04
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Gaofen 4 GTO Success
35 15 January 2016
16:57
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E Belintersat-1 GTO Success
36 5 August 2016
16:22
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E Tiantong-1-01 GTO Success
37 10 December 2016
16:11
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E Fengyun-4A GTO Success
38 5 January 2017
15:18
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E TJSW-2 GTO Success
39 12 April 2017
11:04
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Shijian 13 GTO Success
40 19 June 2017
16:11
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Chinasat 9A GTO Partial failure
41 5 November 2017
11:45
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M1
BeiDou-3 M2
MEO Success
42 10 December 2017
16:40
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Alcomsat-1 GTO Success
43 11 January 2018
23:18
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M7
BeiDou-3 M8
MEO Success
44 12 February 2018
05:03
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M3
BeiDou-3 M4
MEO Success
45 29 March 2018
17:56
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M9
BeiDou-3 M10
MEO Success
46 3 May 2018
16:06
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Apstar 6C GTO Success
47 29 July 2018
01:48
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M5
BeiDou-3 M6
MEO Success
48 24 August 2018
23:52
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M11
BeiDou-3 M12
MEO Success
49 19 September 2018
14:07
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M13
BeiDou-3 M14
MEO Success
50 15 October 2018
04:23
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M15
BeiDou-3 M16
MEO Success
51 1 November 2018
15:57
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E BeiDou-3 G1 GTO Success
52 18 November 2018
18:07
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M17
BeiDou-3 M18
MEO Success
53 7 December 2018
18:23
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Chang'e 4 LTO Success
54 10 January 2019
17:11
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E ChinaSat 2D GTO Success
55 9 March 2019
16:28
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E ChinaSat 6C GTO Success
56 31 March 2019
15:51
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Tianlian 2-01 GTO Success
57 20 April 2019
14:41
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E BeiDou-3 I1 GTO Success
58 24 June 24, 2019
18:09
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E BeiDou-3 I2 GTO Success
59 19 August 2019
12:03
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E ChinaSat 18 GTO Success
60 22 September 2019
21:10
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M23
BeiDou-3 M24
MEO Success
61 17 October 2019
15:21
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E TJSW-4 GTO Success
62 4 November 2019
17:43
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E BeiDou-3 I3 GTO Success
63 23 November 2019
00:55
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M21
BeiDou-3 M22
MEO Success
64 16 December 2019
07:22
LA-3, XSLC 3B/E + YZ-1 BeiDou-3 M19
BeiDou-3 M20
MEO Success
65 7 January 2020
15:20
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E TJSW-5 GTO Success
66 9 March 2020
11:55
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E BeiDou-3 GTO Success
67 9 April 2020
11:46
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E Palapa-N1 (Nusantara Dua) GTO Failure[12]
68 23 June 2020
01:43 [13]
LA-2, XSLC 3B/E BeiDou-3 GTO Success
69 9 July 2020
12:11 [14]
XSLC, LA-2 3B/E Apstar 6D GTO Success

Flight mishaps

Intelsat 708 launch failure

On 14 February 1996, the launch of the first Long March 3B with Intelsat 708 failed just after liftoff when the launch vehicle veered off course and exploded when it hit the ground at T+23 seconds. One person on the ground was killed by the explosion (the total number of casualties is unknown). The cause of the accident was traced to short-circuiting of the vehicle's guidance platform at liftoff.[15] The number of casualties is debated and unclear even decades after the accident. The Chinese official death toll is usually of the order of few casualties, whereas some estimates place the number of people dead to a few hundred (see Intelsat 708).

The participation of Space Systems/Loral in the accident investigation caused great political controversy in the United States since the information provided during the accident investigation would help China improve its rockets and ballistic missiles. The U.S. Congress reclassified satellite technology as a munition and placed it back under the restrictive International Traffic in Arms Regulations in 1998.[16] No license to launch United States spacecraft on Chinese rockets has been approved by the U.S. State Department since then, and an official at the Bureau of Industry and Security emphasized in 2016 that "no U.S.-origin content, regardless of significance, regardless of whether it's incorporated into a foreign-made item, can go to China".[17]

Palapa-D partial launch failure

On 31 August 2009, during the launch of Palapa-D, the third stage engine under-performed and placed the satellite into a lower than planned orbit. The satellite was able to make up the performance shortfall using its own engine and reach geosynchronous orbit, but with its lifetime shortened to 10.5 years from the originally projected 15-16 years. The investigation found that the failure was due to burn-through of the engine's gas generator, and that "the most likely cause of the burn-through was a foreign matter or humidity-caused icing in the engine's liquid-hydrogen injectors".[18]

ChinaSat-9A partial launch failure

On 19 June 2017, a Long March 3B/E mission carrying ChinaSat-9A ended in partial failure. Officials did not release details regarding the status of the mission for at least 4 hours after liftoff.[19] Two weeks later, on 7 July 2017, officials confirmed that the mission had been anomalous, with Space Daily reporting that "an anomaly was found on the carrier rocket's rolling control thruster, part of the attitude control engine, during the third gliding phase". The failure in the rocket's third stage left the payload in a lower than intended orbit, and the payload was forced to spend two weeks reaching its intended orbit under its own power.[20]

Palapa-N1 (Nusantara Dua) launch failure

On 9 April 2020, a Long March 3B launcher failed after lifting off from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in the southwestern Sichuan province at 11:46 UTC during the launch of an Indonesian communications satellite, Palapa-N1 (Nusantara Dua) of a mass of 5500 kg and was expected to enter service in geostationary orbit at 113° East, replacing the Palapa-D satellite. But one of the two YF-75 third stage engines appeared failed to ignite, preventing the Palapa-N1 (Nusantara Dua) satellite to reach orbit.[21] Wreckage from the third stage and the Palapa-N1 spacecraft re-entered the atmosphere, leading to sightings of fiery debris in the skies over Guam. With the Long March 3B failure, Chinese rockets have faltered on two missions in less than a month. A Long March 7A rocket failed to place a satellite in orbit on 16 March 2020 after taking off from the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site on Hainan Island, located in southern China.[22] After two Chinese launch failures in less than a month, further Chinese launches will be likely delayed until it is sure that the quality control is satisfactory.[23]

Controversy

There have been many confirmed reports and videos of boosters that have been jettisoned and landed in small villages in China. These boosters being hypergolic and highly toxic, there has been large amounts of controversy regarding photos taken of the staged boosters on fire and with civilians standing nearby. These photos ultimately led to the ethical aspect of the CNSA to be questioned. Debris from the Long March 3B rocket ends up crashing into villages because unlike launchpads for other space agencies which are usually by the coastline, China's main launch pads are inland. [24]

References

  1. ^ a b c Mark Wade. "CZ-3B". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 19 March 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d "LM-3B". China Great Wall Industry Corporation. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d e "LM-3A Series Launch Vehicle User's Manual - Issue 2011" (PDF). China Great Wall Industries Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e Gunter Krebs. "CZ-3B (Chang Zheng-3B)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 26 April 2008.
  5. ^ Select Committee of the United States House of Representatives (3 January 1999). "Satellite Launches in the PRC: Loral". U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the People's Republic of China. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  6. ^ a b Lan, Chen. "Mist around the CZ-3B disaster". The Space Review. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  7. ^ Lan, Chen. "Mist around the CZ-3B disaster (part 2)". The Space Review. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
  8. ^ International reference guide to space launch systems. Fourth edition. p. 243. ISBN 1-56347-591-X.
  9. ^ ""帕拉帕-D"通信卫星未能进入预定轨道". Xinhua. 31 August 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
  10. ^ Barbosa, Rui C. (9 April 2020). "Long March 3B fails during Indonesian satellite launch". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  11. ^ "LM-3B". China Great Wall Industry Corporation. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
  12. ^ Jing, Zhan (9 April 2020). "PALAPA-N1卫星发射失利". Xinhua.
  13. ^ "Launch Schedule". Spaceflight Now. 22 June 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  14. ^ "High-throughput communications satellite launched from China". Spaceflight Now. 9 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  15. ^ "Satellite Launches in the PRC: Loral". CNN. 25 May 1999. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  16. ^ Zelnio, Ryan (9 January 2006). "A short history of export control policy". The Space Review.
  17. ^ de Selding, Peter B. (14 April 2016). "U.S. ITAR satellite export regime's effects still strong in Europe". SpaceNews.
  18. ^ de Selding, Peter B. (19 November 2009). "Burn-through Blamed in China Long March Mishap". SpaceNews. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  19. ^ http://spaceflight101.com/long-march-3b-zhongxing-9a-launch/
  20. ^ http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Chinese_satellite_Zhongxing_9A_enters_preset_orbit_999.html
  21. ^ https://kumparan.com/kumparantech/satelit-nusantara-dua-gagal-mengorbit-siaran-tv-dan-radio-terancam-bermasalah-1tCCDi3iDLY
  22. ^ https://spaceflightnow.com/2020/04/09/chinese-rocket-fails-during-launch-of-indonesian-communications-satellite/ - 9 April 2020
  23. ^ https://www.seradata.com/china-loses-another-long-march-3b-launch-fails-and-palapa-n1-falls-into-drink/
  24. ^ Li, Michael Sheetz,Yun (26 November 2019). "'Adjust your location quickly' — How China warns residents before rockets crash down from space". CNBC. Retrieved 4 August 2020.

External links

  • LM-3B User's Manual at GlobalSecurity.org
  • Long March-3B (LM-3B) at the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology