Longwave

Summary

In radio, longwave, long wave or long-wave,[1] and commonly abbreviated LW,[2] refers to parts of the radio spectrum with wavelengths longer than what was originally called the medium-wave broadcasting band. The term is historic, dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of longwave (LW), medium-wave (MW), and short-wave (SW) radio bands. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.

Tuning dial on 1946 Dynatron Merlin T.69 console radio receiver, showing LW wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres (375–150 kHz)

In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely, and its intended meaning varies. It may be used for radio wavelengths longer than 1,000 m[2] i.e. frequencies[note 1] up to 300 kilohertz (kHz),[3][4] including the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU's) low frequency (LF, 30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) bands. Sometimes the upper limit is taken to be higher than 300 kHz, but not above the start of the medium wave broadcast band at 520 kHz.[5]

In Europe, Africa, and large parts of Asia (International Telecommunication Union Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting[6] in addition to the medium-wave band, the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band, which falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30–300 kHz). The "Longwave Club of America" (United States) is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band"[5] (i.e., all frequencies below 520 kHz).

Propagation edit

Because of their long wavelength, radio waves in this frequency range can diffract over obstacles like mountain ranges and travel beyond the horizon, following the contour of the Earth. This mode of propagation, called ground wave, is the main mode in the longwave band.[7] The attenuation of signal strength with distance by absorption in the ground is lower than at higher frequencies, and falls with frequency. Low frequency ground waves can be received up to 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) from the transmitting antenna. Very low frequency waves below 30 kHz can be used to communicate at transcontinental distances, can penetrate saltwater to depths of hundreds of feet, and are used by the military to communicate with submerged submarines.

Low frequency waves can also occasionally travel long distances by reflecting from the ionosphere (the actual mechanism is one of refraction), although this method, called skywave or "skip" propagation, is not as common as at higher frequencies. Reflection occurs at the ionospheric E layer or F layers. Skywave signals can be detected at distances exceeding 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the transmitting antenna.[8]

Non-broadcast use edit

Non-directional beacons edit

Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America, they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.

Time signals edit

There are institutional broadcast stations in the range that transmit coded time signals to radio clocks. For example:

Radio-controlled clocks receive their time calibration signals with built-in long-wave receivers. They use long-wave, rather than short-wave or medium-wave, because long-wave signals from the transmitter to the receiver always travel along the same direct path across the surface of the Earth, so the time delay correction for the signal travel time from the transmitting station to the receiver is always the same for any one receiving location.

Longwaves travel by groundwaves that hug the surface of the Earth, unlike mediumwaves and shortwaves. Those higher-frequency signals do not follow the surface of the Earth beyond a few kilometers, but can travel as skywaves, 'bouncing' off different layers of the ionosphere at different times of day. These different propagation paths can make the time lag different for every signal received. The delay between when the long-wave signal was sent from the transmitter (when the coded time was correct) and when the signal is received by the clock (when the coded time is slightly late) depends on the overland distance between the clock and the transmitter and the speed of light through the air, which is also very nearly constant. Since the time lag is essentially the same, a single constant shift forward from the time coded in the signal can compensate for all long-wave signals received at any one location from the same time signal station.

Submarine communication edit

The militaries of the United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, India and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with submerged submarines.

Amateur radio edit

In the ITU Radio Regulations the band 135.7–137.8 kHz is allocated (on a secondary basis) to Amateur radio worldwide, subject to a power limit of 1 watt EIRP. Many countries' regulators license amateurs to use it.

LowFER edit

In North America during the 1970s, the frequencies 167, 179, and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States.

Nowadays, in the United States, Part 15 of FCC regulations allow unlicensed use of the 160–190 kHz band a transmitter / amplifier output power to the antenna of at most 1 watt, with an antenna at most 15 meters (49 feet) high; this is called Low Frequency Experimental Radio (LowFER). The 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.

Frequencies from 472–479 kHz are available to licensed amateurs as the new 630 m band, part of the now-defunct maritime band, but this is often considered a medium wave sub-band.

Historic edit

Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator long-wave transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site, and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz.[9]

Broadcasting edit

Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. The long-wave broadcasters are located in Europe, North Africa and Mongolia.

Typically, a larger geographic area can be covered by a long-wave broadcast transmitter compared to a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to ground conductivity at lower frequencies.[10]

Many countries have stopped using LW for broadcasting because of low audience figures, a lack of LW on new consumer receivers, increasing interference levels, the energy inefficiency of AM and high electricity costs at transmitters.

In 2014 and 2015 Russia closed all of its LW broadcast transmitters.[11]

As of 2024 more than half of LW frequencies are unoccupied and some of the remaining services are scheduled for closure. BBC Radio 4 (UK) announced that it will stop LW broadcasts 2024.[12]

Carrier frequencies edit

With the adoption of the Geneva Frequency Plan of 1975, long-wave carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz; ranging from 153 to 279 kHz. One exception was a French-language station, Europe 1 in Germany, which retained its prior channel spacing until the long-wave service was terminated in 2019. Other exceptions are all Mongolian transmitters, which are 2 kHz above the internationally recognized channels.[clarification needed]

Until the 1970s, some long-wave stations in northern and eastern Europe and the Soviet Union operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz.[13]

Some radio broadcasters, for instance Droitwich transmitting station in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock, allowing their use as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.

Long-distance reception edit

Because long-wave signals can travel very long distances, some radio amateurs and shortwave listeners engage in an activity called DXing. DXers attempt to listen in to far away transmissions, and they will often send a reception report to the sending station to let them know where they were heard. After receiving a report, the sending station may mail the listener a QSL card to acknowledge this reception.

Reception of long-wave signals at distances in excess of 17,000 kilometres (11,000 mi) have been verified.[14]

List of long-wave broadcasting transmitters edit

 
Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of long-wave broadcasting stations

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Wave length and frequency are inversely related, with lower frequencies corresponding to longer wavelengths; 300 kHz corresponds to 1,000 m.

References edit

  1. ^ Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics, 7th Ed. Boston MA: Newnes. p. 23. ISBN 0750698667.
  2. ^ a b "long wave". Macmillan Online Dictionary. Macmillan Publishers. Archived from the original on 11 August 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  3. ^ "long wave". Cambridge Online Dictionary. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016 – via Cambridge.org.
  4. ^ Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics (7th ed.). Newnes. p. 437. ISBN 0750698667.
  5. ^ a b "About LWCA". Longwave Club of America. Archived from the original on 27 June 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  6. ^ Barun Roy (September 2009). Enter The World of Mass Media. Pustak Mahal. p. 21. ISBN 978-81-223-1080-1.
  7. ^ Seybold, John S. (2005). Introduction to RF Propagation. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 55–58. ISBN 0471743682.
  8. ^ Alan Melia, G3NYK. "Understanding LF Propagation". Radcom. Bedford, UK: Radio Society of Great Britain. 85 (9): 32.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ SAQ Transmission. Archived 7 April 2015 at Wikiwix Radiostation Grimeton SAQ. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  10. ^ Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between 10 kHz and 30 MHz. Archived 24 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine ITU-R Recommendation P.368-9
  11. ^ "Russia says 'So long, long-wave'". BBC News. 7 May 2018. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
  12. ^ BBC Radio 4 begins information campaign to transition listeners from Long Wave
  13. ^ Guide to Broadcasting Stations (17th ed.). Butterworth. 1973. p. 18. ISBN 0-592-00081-8.
  14. ^ http://www.classaxe.com/dx/ndb/rww/stats#top Archived 16 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine

External links edit

  • Tomislav Stimac, "Definition of frequency bands (VLF, ELF... etc.)". IK1QFK Home Page.
  • The Medium Wave Circle – The premier club for MW/LW enthusiasts
  • Medium Wave News – Published regularly since 1954
  • Euro-African Medium Wave Guide
  • Longwave Club of America
  • How to receive DRM from Kalundborg longwave station
  • Reception of long wave and very long wave with ferrite antennas 5–50 kHz
  • Klawitter, G.; Oexner, M.; Herold, K. (2000). "8.2 Langwellenrundfunk". Langwelle und Längstwelle (in German). Meckenheim: Siebel Verlag GmbH. pp. 116–131. ISBN 3-89632-043-2.
  • Busch, Heinrich (14 November 2001). "Luftschiff Graf Zeppelin LZ127". (German)
  • European and Asian Longwave Stations – Medium Wave Radio
  • List of long- and mediumwave transmitters with GoogleMap-Links to transmission sites