Lyot (Martian crater)


Lyot is a large peak ring crater in the Vastitas Borealis region of Mars, located at 50.8° north latitude and 330.7° west longitude within the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle. It is 236 km in diameter. Its name refers to Bernard Lyot, a French astronomer (1897–1952).[1]

Lyot Martian crater 600km.jpg
Shaded relief topographic map of Lyot
RegionIsmenius Lacus quadrangle
Coordinates50°48′N 330°42′W / 50.8°N 330.7°W / 50.8; -330.7Coordinates: 50°48′N 330°42′W / 50.8°N 330.7°W / 50.8; -330.7
QuadrangleIsmenius Lacus
Diameter236 km (147 mi)
EponymBernard Lyot, French astronomer (1897–1952)

Lyot crater, featuring a central peak in the middle, stands out on the flat plains of Vastitas Borealis, which is generally flat and smooth with few large craters.[2] Lyot is the deepest point in the northern hemisphere of Mars.[3] To the south are the Deuteronilus Mensae, and further to the southeast are Protonilus Mensae. To the west is the smaller Micoud crater, and to the east-southeast is Moreux crater.

Research published in 2009 describes evidence for liquid water in Lyot in the past.[4]

Many channels have been found near Lyot Crater. Research, published in 2017, concluded that the channels were made from water released when the hot ejecta landed on a layer of ice that was 20 to 300 meters thick. Calculations suggest that the ejecta would have had a temperature of at least 250 °F (121 °C). The valleys seem to start from beneath the ejecta near the outer edge of the ejecta. One evidence for this idea is that there are few secondary craters nearby. Few secondary craters were formed because most landed on ice and did not affect the ground below. The ice accumulated in the area when the climate was different. The tilt or obliquity of the axis changes frequently. During periods of greater tilt, ice from the poles is redistributed to the mid-latitudes. The existence of these channels is unusual because although Mars used to have water in rivers, lakes, and an ocean, these features have been dated to the Noachian and Hesperian periods—4 to 3 billion years ago.[5][6][7]

Former riversEdit

Images from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter show valleys carved by rivers on the floor of Lyot crater. Scientists are excited because the rivers seem to have formed more recently than others on Mars; water could have flowed in them only 1.25 million years ago. The source of the water is believed to have been ice from nearby glaciers. The river valleys are over 250 metres (820 ft) wide and tens of kilometers long.[8]

Dust devil tracksEdit

Many areas on Mars, including Lyot, experience the passage of giant dust devils. A thin coating of fine bright dust covers most of the Martian surface. When a dust devil goes by it blows away the coating and exposes the underlying dark surface. These dust devils have been seen from the ground and high overhead from orbit.


Interactive Mars mapEdit

Acheron FossaeAcidalia PlanitiaAlba MonsAmazonis PlanitiaAonia PlanitiaArabia TerraArcadia PlanitiaArgentea PlanumArgyre PlanitiaChryse PlanitiaClaritas FossaeCydonia MensaeDaedalia PlanumElysium MonsElysium PlanitiaGale craterHadriaca PateraHellas MontesHellas PlanitiaHesperia PlanumHolden craterIcaria PlanumIsidis PlanitiaJezero craterLomonosov craterLucus PlanumLycus SulciLyot craterLunae PlanumMalea PlanumMaraldi craterMareotis FossaeMareotis TempeMargaritifer TerraMie craterMilankovič craterNepenthes MensaeNereidum MontesNilosyrtis MensaeNoachis TerraOlympica FossaeOlympus MonsPlanum AustralePromethei TerraProtonilus MensaeSirenumSisyphi PlanumSolis PlanumSyria PlanumTantalus FossaeTempe TerraTerra CimmeriaTerra SabaeaTerra SirenumTharsis MontesTractus CatenaTyrrhen TerraUlysses PateraUranius PateraUtopia PlanitiaValles MarinerisVastitas BorealisXanthe Terra 
 Interactive image map of the global topography of Mars. Hover over the image to see the names of over 60 prominent geographic features, and click to link to them. Coloring of the base map indicates relative elevations, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. Whites and browns indicate the highest elevations (+12 to +8 km); followed by pinks and reds (+8 to +3 km); yellow is 0 km; greens and blues are lower elevations (down to −8 km). Axes are latitude and longitude; Polar regions are noted.
(See also: Mars Rovers map and Mars Memorial map) (view • discuss)

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Lyot". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program.
  2. ^ U.S. department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey, Topographic Map of the Eastern Region of Mars M 15M 0/270 2AT, 1991
  3. ^ "Mars: What We Know About the Red Planet". October 2021.
  4. ^ Dickson, J. L.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W. (2009). "Amazonian‐aged fluvial valley systems in a climatic microenvironment on Mars: Melting of ice deposits on the interior of Lyot Crater". Geophysical Research Letters. 36 (8): L08201. Bibcode:2009GeoRL..36.8201D. doi:10.1029/2009GL037472.
  5. ^ Weiss, David K. (2017). "Extensive Amazonian-aged fluvial channels on Mars: Evaluating the role of Lyot crater in their formation". Geophysical Research Letters. 44 (11): 5336–5344. Bibcode:2017GeoRL..44.5336W. doi:10.1002/2017GL073821.
  6. ^ Weiss, D.; et al. (2017). "Extensive Amazonian-aged fluvial channels on Mars: Evaluating the role of Lyot crater in their formation". Geophysical Research Letters. 44 (11): 5336–5344. Bibcode:2017GeoRL..44.5336W. doi:10.1002/2017GL073821.
  7. ^ "Hot Rocks Led to Relatively Recent Water-Carved Valleys on Mars - SpaceRef".
  8. ^ "Rivers Might Have Flowed Recently on Mars". 14 May 2009.

External linksEdit