Manx language

Summary

Manx (Gaelg or Gailck, pronounced [ɡilɡ, -eːlɡ] or [gilk]),[3] also known as Manx Gaelic or Manks,[4] is a Goidelic language of the insular Celtic branch of the Celtic language family, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Manx is the historical language of the Manx people.

Manx
Manx Gaelic
Gaelg, Gailck
Pronunciation[əˈɣɪlɡ], [əˈɣɪlk] y Ghaelg, y Ghailk
Native toIsle of Man
EthnicityManx
ExtinctExtinct as a first language by 1974 with the death of Ned Maddrell, before subsequent revival.[1]
Revival53 first language speakers and 1,800 second language speakers, including children (2015)[2]
Early forms
Dialects
Official status
Official language in
Isle of Man
Regulated byCoonceil ny Gaelgey (Manx Gaelic Council)
Language codes
ISO 639-1gv
ISO 639-2glv
ISO 639-3glv
ISO 639-6glvx (historical)
rvmx (revived)
Glottologmanx1243
ELPManx
Linguasphere50-AAA-aj
Idioma manés.png
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
A Manx speaker, recorded in the Isle of Man

Although few children have Manx as a first language on the Isle of Man, there has been a steady increase in the number of speakers since the death of Ned Maddrell in 1974. Maddrell was considered to be the last speaker who grew up in a Manx-speaking community environment. Despite this, the language has never fallen completely out of use, with a minority having some knowledge of it as a heritage language, and it is still an important part of the island's culture and cultural heritage.

Manx is often cited as a good example of language revival efforts; in 2015, around 1,800 people had varying levels of second-language conversational ability. Since the late 20th century, Manx has become more visible on the island, with increased signage, radio broadcasts and a Manx-medium primary school. The revival of Manx has been made easier because the language was well recorded, e.g. the Bible and the Book of Common Prayer had been translated into Manx, and audio recordings had been made of native speakers.

NamesEdit

In ManxEdit

The endonym of the language is Gaelg/Gailck, which shares the same etymology as the word "Gaelic", as do the endonyms of its sister languages Irish (Gaeilge; Gaoluinn, Gaedhlag and Gaeilic) and Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig). Manx frequently uses the forms y Ghaelg/y Ghailck (with definite article), as do Irish (an Ghaeilge) and Scottish Gaelic (a' Ghàidhlig).

To distinguish it from the two other forms of Gaelic, the phrases Gaelg/Gailck Vannin "Gaelic of Mann" and Gaelg/Gailck Vanninnagh "Manx Gaelic" are also used. In addition, the nickname Çhengey ny Mayrey "the mother tongue, lit. the mother's tongue" is occasionally used.

In EnglishEdit

The language is usually referred to in English as "Manx". The term "Manx Gaelic" is often used, for example when discussing the relationship between the three Goidelic languages (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, and Manx) or to avoid confusion with Manx English, the form of English spoken on the island. A feature of Manx English deriving from Gaelic is the use of the definite article, e.g. "the Manx", "the Gaelic", in ways not generally seen in standard English. [5]

The word "Manx", often spelled historically as "Manks" particularly by natives of the island, means "Mannish" and originates from Old Norse *manskr.[6] The Isle of Man is named after the Irish god Manannán mac Lir, thus Ellan Vannin ("Mannanán's Island", Irish: Oileán Mhannanáin "Mannanán's Island").[7]

HistoryEdit

 
An ogham inscription on a stone in the Manx Museum written in Primitive Irish and which reads DOVAIDONA MAQI DROATA, "Of Dovaido, son of Droata"[8]
 
William Christian, better known as Illiam Dhone (Brown-haired William)
 
Lag ny Keeilley ("Hollow of the Church") on Cronk ny Arrey Laa ("Hill of the Day Watch"). The Manx language has had a substantial influence on the island's toponymy and nomenclature.

Manx is a Goidelic language, closely related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic. On the whole it is partially mutually intelligible with these, and native speakers of one find it easy to gain passive, and even spoken, competency in the other two.

It has been suggested that a little-documented Brythonic language (i.e. related to modern Welsh, Cornish and Breton) may have been spoken on the Isle of Man before the arrival of Christian missionaries from Ireland in the early Middle Ages. However, there is little surviving evidence about the language spoken on Man at that time.

The basis of the modern Manx language is Primitive Irish (like modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic). The Island either lends its name to, or takes its name from Manannán, the Brythonic and Gaelic sea god who is said in myth to have once ruled the island. Primitive Irish is first attested in Ogham inscriptions from the 4th century AD. These writings have been found throughout Ireland and the west coast of Great Britain. Primitive Irish transitioned into Old Irish through the 5th century. Old Irish, dating from the 6th century, used the Latin script and is attested primarily in marginalia to Latin manuscripts, but there are no extant examples from the Isle of Man.

Latin was used for ecclesiastical records from the establishment of Christianity in the Isle of Man in the 5th century AD. Many lexical items concerning religion, writing and record keeping entered Manx at this time.

The Isle of Man was conquered by Norse Vikings in the 9th century. Although there is some evidence in the form of runic inscriptions that Norse was used by some of these settlers, the Vikings who settled around the Irish Sea and West Coast of Scotland soon became Gaelic speaking Norse-Gaels. During the 9th century AD, the Gaelic of the inhabitants of the Isle of Man, like those Scotland and the North of Ireland, may have been significantly influenced by Norse speakers. While Norse had very little impact on the Manx language overall,[9][10] a small number of modern place names on Mann are Norse in origin, e.g. Laxey (Laksaa) and Ramsey (Rhumsaa). Other Norse legacies in Manx include loanwords and personal names.

By the 10th century, it is supposed that Middle Irish had emerged and was spoken throughout Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man.

The island came under Scottish rule in 1266, and alternated between Scottish and English rule until finally becoming the feudal possession of the Stanley family in 1405. It is likely that up until this point, except for scholarly knowledge of Latin and courtly use of Anglo-Norman, that Manx was the only language spoken on the island. Since the establishment of the Stanleys on the Isle of Man, first Anglo-Norman, and later, the English language have been the chief external factors in the development of Manx, until the 20th century, when Manx speakers became able to access Irish and Scottish Gaelic media.

Manx had diverged considerably from the Gaelic languages of Scotland and Ireland between 1400 and 1900. The seventeenth century Plantation of Ulster, the decline of Irish in Leinster and extinction of Galloway Gaelic led to the geographic isolation of Manx from other dialects of Gaelic. The development of a separate orthography also led Manx to diverge from Irish and Scottish Gaelic.[9]

In the 17th century, some university students left the Isle of Man to attend school in England. At the same time, teaching in English was required in schools founded by governor Isaac Barrow. Barrow also promoted the use of English in churches; he considered that it was a superior language for reading the Bible; however, because the majority of ministers were monolingual Manx speakers, his views had little practical impact.[9][10]

Thomas Wilson began his tenure as Bishop of Mann in 1698 and was succeeded by Mark Hildesley. Both men held positive views of Manx; Wilson was the first person to publish a book in Manx, a translation of The Principles and Duties of Christianity (Coyrie Sodjey), and Hildesley successfully promoted the use of Manx as the language of instruction in schools. The New Testament was first published in Manx in 1767. In the late 18th century, nearly every school was teaching in English. This decline continued into the 19th century, as English gradually became the primary language spoken on the Isle of Man.[9][10]

In 1848, J.G. Cumming wrote, "there are ... few persons (perhaps none of the young) who speak no English." Henry Jenner estimated in 1874 that about 30% of the population habitually spoke Manx (12,340 out of a population of 41,084). According to official census figures, 9.1% of the population claimed to speak Manx in 1901; in 1921 the percentage was only 1.1%.[11] Since the language was used by so few people, it had low linguistic "prestige", and parents tended to not teach Manx to their children, thinking it would be useless to them compared with English.[10]

RevivalEdit

Following the decline in the use of Manx during the nineteenth century, Yn Çheshaght Ghailckagh (The Manx Language Society) was founded in 1899. By the middle of the twentieth century, only a few elderly native speakers remained (the last of them, Ned Maddrell, died on 27 December 1974), but by then a scholarly revival had begun and a few people had started teaching it in schools. The Manx Language Unit was formed in 1992, consisting of three members and headed by Manx Language Officer Brian Stowell, a language activist and fluent speaker, "which was put in charge of all aspects of Manx language teaching and accreditation in schools."[9] This led to an increased interest in studying the Manx language and encouraged a renewed sense of ethnic identity. The revival of Manx has been aided by the recording work done in the twentieth century by researchers. Most notably, the Irish Folklore Commission was sent in with recording equipment in 1948 by Éamon de Valera. Also important in preserving the Manx language was work conducted by the late Brian Stowell, who is considered personally responsible for the current revival of the Manx language.[12] The Manx Language Strategy was released in 2017, outlining a five-year plan for the language's continued revitalisation.[13][14] Culture Vannin employs a Manx Language Development Officer (Manx: Yn Greinneyder) to encourage and facilitate the use of the language.

In 2009, UNESCO's Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger declared Manx an extinct language, despite the presence of hundreds of speakers on the Isle of Man.[15] Since then, UNESCO's classification of the language has changed to "critically endangered".[12]

In the 2011 census, 1,823 out of 80,398 Isle of Man residents, or 2.27% of the population, claimed to have knowledge of Manx,[16] an increase of 134 people from the 2001 census.[17] These were spread roughly uniformly over the island: in Douglas 566 people professed an ability to speak, read or write Manx; 179 in Peel, 146 in Onchan, and 149 in Ramsey.[16]

Traditional Manx given names have experienced a marked resurgence on the island, especially Moirrey and Voirrey (Mary), Illiam (William), Orry (from the Manx king Godred Crovan of Norse origin), Breeshey/Breesha (Bridget), Aalish/Ealish (Alice), Juan (Jack), Ean (John), Joney (Joan), Fenella (Fionnuala), Pherick (Patrick) and Freya (from the Norse goddess) remain popular.[18]

Number of speakers by yearEdit

Year Manx speakers Manx
population
Total Of Manx
population
1874 16,200 30% 54,000 (1871)
1901 4,419[19] 8.07% 54,752
1911 2,382[19] 4.58% 52,016
1921 915[19] 1.52% 60,284
1931 529[19] 1.07% 49,308
1951 355[19] 0.64% 50,253
1961 165 0.34% 48,133
1971 284 0.52% 54,481
1974 Last native speaker dies
1991 643[20] 0.90% 71,267
2001 1,500[21] 1.95% 78,266
2011 1,650[22] 1.97% 84,497
2015 1,800[12] 2% 88,000
2021 2,223[23] 2.64% 84,069

StatusEdit

Manx is not officially recognised by any national or regional government, although its contribution to Manx culture and tradition is acknowledged by some governmental and non-governmental bodies. For example:

The Standing Orders of the House of Keys provide that: "The proceedings of the House shall be in English; but if a Member at any point pronounces a customary term or sentence in Manx Gaelic or any other language, the Speaker may call upon the Member for a translation."[24] An example was at the sitting on 12 February 2019, when an MHK used the expression boghtnid,[25] stated to mean "nonsense".[26][27]

Manx is used in the annual Tynwald ceremony and Manx words are used in official Tynwald publications.[28]

For the purpose of strengthening its contribution to local culture and community, Manx is recognised under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and in the framework of the British-Irish Council.

The Isle of Man comprised the one site for the Manx language in the Atlas Linguarum Europae, a project that compared dialects and languages across all countries in Europe.[29]

 
Sign at the Bunscoill Ghaelgagh at St John's

Manx is taught as a second language at all of the island's primary and secondary schools. The lessons are optional and instruction is provided by the Department of Education's Manx Language Team which teach up to A Level standard.[30]

The Bunscoill Ghaelgagh, a primary school at St John's, has 67 children, as of September 2016, who receive nearly all of their education through the medium of the language. Children who have attended the school have the opportunity to receive some of their secondary education through the language at Queen Elizabeth II High School in Peel.

The playgroup organisation Mooinjer Veggey, which operates the Bunscoill Ghaelgagh, runs a series of preschool groups that introduce the language.

 
Use of Manx on the national museum, underneath the English

Bilingual road, street, village and town boundary signs are common throughout the Isle of Man. All other road signs are in English only.

Business signage in Manx is gradually being introduced but is not mandated by law; however, the 1985 Tynwald Report on the use of Manx states that signage should be bilingual except where a Manx phrase is the norm.

LiteratureEdit

Manx never had a large number of speakers, so it would not have been practical to mass produce written literature. However, a body of oral literature did exist. The "Fianna" tales and others like them are known, including the Manx ballad Fin as Oshin, commemorating Finn MacCumhail and Oisín.[31] With the coming of Protestantism, Manx spoken tales slowly disappeared, while a tradition of carvals, Christian ballads, developed with religious sanction.[when?]

There is no record of literature written distinctively in Manx before the Reformation. By that time, any presumed literary link with Ireland and Scotland, such as through Irish-trained priests, had been lost. The first published literature in Manx was The Principles and Duties of Christianity (Coyrie Sodjey), translated by Bishop of Sodor and Man Thomas Wilson.[9]

The Book of Common Prayer was translated by John Phillips, the Welsh-born Anglican Bishop of Sodor and Man from 1605 to 1633. The early Manx script has some similarities with orthographical systems found occasionally in Scotland and in Ireland for the transliteration of Gaelic, such as the Book of the Dean of Lismore, as well as some extensive texts based on English and Scottish English orthographical practices of the time. Little secular Manx literature has been preserved.

The New Testament was first published in 1767. When the Anglican church authorities started to produce written literature in the Manx language in the 18th century, the system developed by John Philips was further "anglicised"; the one feature retained from Welsh orthography was the use of ⟨y⟩ to represent /ə/ (e.g. cabbyl [kaːβəl] "horse" and cooney [kuːnə] "help" as well as /ɪ/ (e.g. fys [fɪz] "knowledge"), though it is also used to represent [j], (e.g. y Yuan [ə juːan] "John" (vocative), yeeast [jiːəst] "fish").

Other works produced in the 18th and 19th centuries include catechisms, hymn books and religious tracts. A translation of Paradise Lost was made in 1796.

A considerable amount of secular literature has been produced in the 20th and 21st centuries as part of the language revival. In 2006, the first full-length novel in Manx, Dunveryssyn yn Tooder-Folley ("The Vampire Murders") was published by Brian Stowell, after being serialised in the press. There is an increasing amount of literature available in the language, and recent publications include Manx versions of the Gruffalo and Gruffalo's Child.[32]

Antoine de Saint-Exupéry's The Little Prince was translated into Manx by Rob Teare in 2019.[33]

Learning the languageEdit

There is a growing number of resources available for those who want to learn Manx. The Manx Language Development Officer for Culture Vannin manages Learnmanx.com which has a wide variety of resources. These include mobile apps a new podcast in Manx, the 1,000 words in Manx challenge and the Video a day in Manx series by the Learn Manx channel. The most recent development is the creation of a online course, Say Something in Manx which was created in conjunction with the Say Something in Welsh . A new dictionary for learners was published in 2016 by Culture Vannin.[34]

MediaEdit

Two weekly programmes in Manx are available on medium wave on Manx Radio: Traa dy liooar on Monday and Jamys Jeheiney on Friday. The news in Manx is available online from Manx Radio, who have three other weekly programmes that use the language: Clare ny Gael; Shiaght Laa and Moghrey Jedoonee. Several news readers on Manx Radio also use a good deal of incidental Manx.

The Isle of Man Examiner has a monthly bilingual column in Manx.

The first film to be made in Manx, 22-minute-long Ny Kirree fo Niaghtey "The Sheep Under the Snow", premiered in 1983 and was entered for the 5th Celtic Film and Television Festival in Cardiff in 1984. It was directed by Shorys Y Creayrie (George Broderick) for Foillan Films of Laxey, and is about the background to an early 18th-century folk song. In 2013, a short film, Solace in Wicca, was produced with financial assistance from Culture Vannin, CinemaNX and Isle of Man Film.[35] A series of short cartoons about the life of Cú Chulainn which were produced by BBC Northern Ireland are available[36] as are a series of cartoons on Manx mythology.[37] Most significant is a 13-part DVD series Manx translation of the award-winning series Friends and Heroes.[38]

The Manx BibleEdit

In the time of Bishop Wilson it had been a constant source of complaint among the Manx clergy that they were the only church in Christendom that had no version of the Bible in the vulgar tongue. Wilson set to work to remedy the defect, and, with the assistance of some of his clergy, managed to get some of the Bible translated, and the Gospel of St. Matthew printed. Bishop Hildesley, his successor, with the help of the whole body of Manx clergy, completed the work, and in 1775 the whole Bible was printed.[39]

The Bible was first produced in Manx by a group of Anglican clergymen on the island. The Gospel of Matthew was printed in 1748. The Gospel and Conaant Noa nyn Jiarn as Saualtagh Yeesey Creest were produced in 1763 and 1767, respectively, by the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge (SPCK). In 1772 the Old Testament was printed, together with the Wisdom of Solomon and Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) from the Apocrypha.

Yn Vible Casherick "The Holy Bible" of the Old and New Testaments was published as one book by the SPCK in 1775, effectively fixing the modern orthography of Manx, which has changed little since. Jenner claims that some bowdlerisation had occurred in the translation, e.g. the occupation of Rahab the prostitute is rendered as ben-oast[citation needed] "a hostess, female inn-keeper."[39] The bicentenary was celebrated in 1975 and included a set of stamps from the Isle of Man Post Office.

There was a translation of the Psalmyn Ghavid ("Psalms of David") in metre in Manx by the Rev John Clague, vicar of Rushen, which was printed with the Book of Common Prayer of 1768. Bishop Hildesley required that these Metrical Psalms were to be sung in churches. These were reprinted by Yn Çheshaght Ghailckagh in 1905.

The British and Foreign Bible Society (BFBS) published the Conaant Noa "New Testament" in 1810 and reprinted it in 1824. Yn Vible Casherick "The Holy Bible" of the Old Testament and New Testament (without the two books of the Apocrypha) was first printed as a whole in 1819. BFBS last printed anything on paper in Manx in 1936 when it reprinted Noo Ean "the Gospel of St John"; this was reprinted by Yn Çheshaght Ghailckagh in 1968. The Manx Bible was republished by Shearwater Press in July 1979 as Bible Chasherick yn Lught Thie (Manx Family Bible), which was a reproduction of the BFBS 1819 Bible.

Since 2014 the BFBS 1936 Manx Gospel of John has been available online on YouVersion and Bibles.org.

ChurchEdit

Manx hasn’t been used in Mass since the late 19th century.[39] Although, Yn Çheshaght Ghailckagh holds an annual Christmas service on the island.

Classification and dialectsEdit

Manx is one of the three daughter languages of Old Irish (via Middle Irish), the other two being Irish and Scottish Gaelic. It shares a number of developments in phonology, vocabulary and grammar with its sisters (in some cases only with certain dialects) and shows a number of unique changes. There are two attested historical dialects of Manx, Northern Manx and Southern Manx.[40] A third dialect may have existed in-between, around Douglas.

Similarities and differences with Irish and Scottish GaelicEdit

Manx and Scottish Gaelic share the partial loss of phonemic palatalisation of labial consonants; while in Irish velarised consonants /pˠ bˠ fˠ w mˠ/ contrast phonemically with palatalised /pʲ bʲ fʲ vʲ mʲ/.[41] A consequence of this phonemic merger is that Middle Irish unstressed word-final [əβʲ] (-⟨(a)ibh, (a)imh⟩ in Irish and Gaelic) has merged with [əβ] (-⟨(e)abh, (e)amh⟩), in Manx; both have become [u] (-⟨oo, u(e)⟩), e.g. shassoo "to stand" (Irish seasamh), credjue "religion" (Irish creideamh), nealloo "fainting" (Early Modern Irish (i) néalaibh, lit. in clouds), and erriu "on you (pl.)" (Irish oraibh).[42]

Medial and final *⟨bh⟩ and *⟨mh⟩ have generally become /u/ and /w/ in Manx, thus shiu 'you pl.' (Irish and Scottish Gaelic sibh, Northern Irish siph, South Connacht Irish sip; Lewis Gaelic siù), sharroo "bitter" (Scottish searbh /ʃærav/, Irish searbh (Northern/Western) /ʃæru/, (Southern) /ʃærəβ/), awin "river" (Scottish abhainn /aviɲ/, Irish abhainn /aunʲ/), laaue "hand" (Scottish làmh /laːv/, Irish lámh (Northern) /læːw/, (Western) /lɑːw/, (Southern) /lɑːβ/), sourey "summer" (Scottish samhradh /saurəɣ/, Irish samhradh (Northern) /sauru/, (Western/Southern) /saurə/). Rare retentions of the older pronunciation of ⟨bh⟩ include Divlyn, Divlin "Dublin", Middle Irish Duibhlinn /d̪uβʲlʲinʲː/.

Moreover, similarly to Munster Irish, historical ⟨bh⟩ ([βʲ]) and ⟨mh⟩ (nasalised [βʲ]) tend to be lost word medially or finally in Manx, either with compensatory lengthening or vocalisation as [u] resulting in diphthongisation with the preceding vowel, e.g. geurey "winter" [ˈɡʲeurə], [ˈɡʲuːrə] (Irish geimhreadh; Southern Irish: gíre [ˈɟiːɾʲə]) and sleityn "mountains" [ˈsleːdʒən] (Irish: sléibhte; Southern Irish: sléte [ˈʃlʲeːtʲə]).[43] Another similarity to Munster Irish is the development of the Old Irish diphthongs [oi ai] before velarised consonants (⟨ao⟩ in Irish and Scottish Gaelic) to [eː], as in seyr "carpenter" [seːr] and keyl "narrow" [keːl] (Irish and Scottish saor and caol).[44]

Like Connacht and Ulster Irish (cf. Irish phonology) and most dialects of Scottish Gaelic, Manx has changed the historical consonant clusters /kn ɡn mn tn/ to /kr ɡr mr tr/, e.g. Middle Irish cnáid "mockery" and mná "women" have become craid and mraane respectively in Manx.[45] The affrication of slender "⟨d, t⟩" sounds is also common to Manx, Northern Irish, and Scottish Gaelic.[46]

Unstressed Middle Irish word-final syllable [iʝ] (-⟨(a)idh, (a)igh⟩) has developed to [iː] (-⟨ee⟩) in Manx, as in kionnee "buy" (cf. Irish ceannaigh) and cullee "apparatus" (cf. Gaelic culaidh),[47] like Northern/Western Irish and Southern dialects Scottish Gaelic (e.g. Arran, Kintyre).

Another property Manx shares with Ulster Irish and some dialects of Scottish Gaelic is that /a/ rather than /ə/ appears in unstressed syllables before /x/ (⟨agh⟩ in Manx), e.g. jeeragh "straight" [ˈdʒiːrax] (Irish díreach), cooinaghtyn "to remember" [ˈkuːnʲaxt̪ən] (Scottish Gaelic cuimhneachd).[48]

Like Southern and Western Irish and Northern Scottish Gaelic, but unlike the geographically closer varieties of Ulster Irish and Arran and Kintyre Gaelic, Manx shows vowel lengthening or diphthongisation before the Old Irish fortis and lenis sonorants, e.g. cloan "children" [klɔːn], dhone "brown" [d̪oːn] and eeym "butter" [iːᵇm] correspond to Irish/Scottish Gaelic clann, donn, and im respectively, which have long vowels or diphthongs in Western and Southern Irish and in the Scottish Gaelic dialects of the Outer Hebrides and Skye, thus Western Irish [klˠɑːn̪ˠ], Southern Irish/Northern Scottish [kl̪ˠaun̪ˠ], [d̪ˠaun̪ˠ]/[d̪ˠoun̪ˠ], [iːm]/[ɤim]), but short vowels and 'long' consonants in Ulster Irish, Arran, and Kintyre, [kl̪ˠan̪ːˠ], [d̪ˠon̪ːˠ] and [imʲː].[49]

Another similarity with Southern Irish is the treatment of Middle Irish word-final unstressed [əð] (-⟨(e)adh⟩ in Irish and Scottish Gaelic). In nouns (including verbal nouns), this became [ə] in Manx, as it did in Southern Irish, e.g. caggey "war" [ˈkaːɣə], moylley "to praise" [ˈmɔlə] (cf. Irish cogadh and moladh (Southern Irish) [ˈkˠɔɡˠə] and [ˈmˠɔl̪ˠə]).[50] In finite verb forms before full nouns (as opposed to pronouns) [əð] became [ax] in Manx, as in Southern Irish, e.g. voyllagh [ˈvɔlax] "would praise" (cf. Irish mholfadh (Southern Irish) [ˈβˠɔl̪ˠhəx]).[51]

DialectsEdit

 
Dialect map of Manx (boundaries are approximate)

Linguistic analysis of the last few dozen native speakers reveals a number of dialectal differences between the North and the South of the island. Northern Manx was spoken from Maughold in the northeast to Peel on the west coast. Southern Manx was spoken in the sheading of Rushen. It is possible that written Manx represents a 'midlands' dialect of Douglas and surrounding areas.

In Southern Manx, older ⟨á⟩, and in some cases ⟨ó⟩, became [æː]. In Northern Manx the same happened, but ⟨á⟩ sometimes remained [aː] as well, e.g. laa "day" (cf. Irish ) was [læː] in the South but [læː] or [laː] in the North. Old ⟨ó⟩ is always [æː] in both dialects, e.g. aeg "young" (cf. Irish óg) is [æːɡ] in both dialects.[52] ⟨á⟩, ⟨ó⟩ and lengthened ⟨a⟩ before ⟨rt, rd, rg ⟩ became /œː/, as in paayrt '"part" /pœːrt/, ard "high" /œːrd/, jiarg "red" /dʒœːrɡ/, argid "money, silver" /œːrɡid/ and aarey "gold gen." /œːrə/.

In Northern Manx, older ⟨(e)a⟩ before ⟨nn⟩ in the same syllable is diphthongised, while in Southern Manx it is lengthened but remains a monophthong, e.g. kione "head" (cf. Irish ceann) is [kʲaun] in the North but [kʲoːn] in the South.[53]

Words with ⟨ua⟩, and in some cases ⟨ao⟩, in Irish and Scottish are spelled with ⟨eay⟩ in Manx. In Northern Manx, this sound was [iː], while in Southern Manx it was [ɯː], [uː], or [yː], e.g. geay "wind" (cf. Irish gaoth) is [ɡiː] in the north and [ɡɯː] in the South, while geayl "coal" (cf. Irish gual) is [ɡiːl] in the North and [ɡyːl], [ɡɯːl], or [ɡuːl] in the South.[54]

In both the North and the South, there is a tendency to insert a short [d] before a word-final [n] in monosyllabic words, as in [sleᵈn] for slane "whole" and [beᵈn] for ben "woman". This is known as pre-occlusion. In Southern Manx, however, there is also pre-occlusion of [d] before [l] and of [ɡ] before [ŋ], as in [ʃuːᵈl] for shooyl "walking" and [lɔᶢŋ] for lhong "ship". These forms are generally pronounced without pre-occlusion in the North. Pre-occlusion of [b] before [m], on the other hand, is more common in the North, as in trome "heavy", which is [t̪roᵇm] in the North but [t̪roː(ᵇ)m] in the South.[55] This feature is also found in Cornish.

Southern Manx tended to lose word-initial [ɡ] before [lʲ], which was usually preserved in the North, e.g. glion "glen" and glioon "knee" are and [lʲɔᵈn] and [lʲuːᵈn] in the South but [ɡlʲɔᵈn] and [ɡlʲuːn] in the North.[56]

PhonologyEdit

StressEdit

Stress generally falls on the first syllable of a word in Manx, but in many cases, stress is attracted to a long vowel in the second syllable.[57] Examples include:

  • buggane /bəˈɣæːn/ "sprite"
  • tarroogh /t̪aˈruːx/ "busy"
  • reeoil /riːˈoːl/ "royal"
  • vondeish /vonˈd̪eːʃ/ "advantage"

ConsonantsEdit

The consonant phoneme inventory of Manx:[58]

  Labial Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Palato-
velar
Velar Glottal
Plosive p b         ɡʲ k ɡ    
Fricative f v     s   ʃ       ɣʲ x ɣ h  
Nasal   m   n             ŋʲ   ŋ    
Trill           r                    
Lateral       l                      
Semivowel                   j       w    

The voiceless plosives are aspirated. The dental, postalveolar and palato-velar plosives /t̪ d̪ tʲ dʲ kʲ/ affricate to [t̪͡θ d̪͡ð t͡ʃ d͡ʒ k͡xʲ] in many contexts.

Manx has an optional process of lenition of plosives between vowels, where voiced plosives and voiceless fricatives become voiced fricatives and voiceless plosives become either voiced plosives or voiced fricatives. This process introduces the allophones [β ð z ʒ]. The voiced fricative [ʒ] may be further lenited to [j], and [ɣ] may disappear altogether. Examples include:[59]

Voiceless plosive to voiced plosive:

  • /t̪/ > [d̪]: brattag [ˈbrad̪aɡ] "flag, rag"
  • /k/ > [ɡ]: peccah [ˈpɛɡə] "sin"

Voiceless plosive to voiced fricative:

  • /p/ > [v]: cappan [ˈkavan] "cup"
  • /t̪/ > [ð]: baatey [ˈbɛːðə] "boat"
  • /k/ > [ɣ]: feeackle [ˈfiːɣəl] "tooth"

Voiced plosive to voiced fricative:

  • /b/ > [v]: cabbyl [ˈkaːvəl] "horse"
  • /d̪/ > [ð]: eddin [ˈɛðənʲ] "face"
  • /dʲ/ > [ʒ]: padjer [ˈpaːʒər] "prayer"
  • /dʲ/ > [ʒ] > [j]: maidjey [ˈmaːʒə, -jə] "stick"
  • /ɡ/ > [ɣ]: ruggit [ˈroɣət] "born"

Voiceless fricative to voiced fricative:

  • /s/ > [ð] or [z]: poosit [ˈpuːðitʲ/ˈpuːzitʲ] "married"
  • /s/ > [ð]: shassoo [ˈʃaːðu] "stand"
  • /ʃ/ > [ʒ]: aashagh [ˈɛːʒax] "easy"
  • /ʃ/ > [ʒ] > [j]: toshiaght [ˈt̪ɔʒax, -jax] "beginning"
  • /x/ > [ɣ]: beaghey [ˈbɛːɣə] "live"
  • /x/ > [ɣ] > ∅: shaghey [ʃaː] "past"

Another optional process is pre-occlusion, the insertion of a very short plosive before a sonorant consonant. In Manx, this applies to stressed monosyllabic words. The inserted consonant is homorganic with the following sonorant, which means it has the same place of articulation. Long vowels are often shortened before pre-occluded sounds. Examples include:[60]

  • /m/ > [ᵇm]: trome /t̪roːm/ > [t̪roᵇm] "heavy"
  • /n/ > [ᵈn]: kione /kʲoːn/ > [kʲoᵈn] "head"
  • /nʲ/ > [ᵈnʲ]: ein /eːnʲ/ > [eːᵈnʲ], [eᵈnʲ] "birds"
  • /ŋ/ > [ᶢŋ]: lhong /loŋ/ > [loᶢŋ] "ship"
  • /l/ > [ᵈl]: shooyll /ʃuːl/ > [ʃuːᵈl] "walking"

The trill /r/ is realised as a one- or two-contact flap [ɾ] at the beginning of syllable, and as a stronger trill [r] when preceded by another consonant in the same syllable. At the end of a syllable, /r/ can be pronounced either as a strong trill [r] or, more frequently, as a weak fricative [ɹ̝], which may vocalise to a nonsyllabic [ə̯] or disappear altogether.[61] This vocalisation may be due to the influence of Manx English, which is non-rhotic.[62] Examples of the pronunciation of /r/ include:

  • ribbey "snare" [ˈɾibə]
  • arran "bread" [ˈaɾan]
  • mooar "big" [muːr], [muːɹ̝], [muːə̯], [muː]

VowelsEdit

The vowel phoneme inventory of Manx:[63]

Front Central Back
Short Long Short Long Short Long
Close i u
Mid e ə øː o
Open æ æː a ɔ ɔː

The status of [æ] and [æː] as separate phonemes is debatable, but is suggested by the allophony of certain words such as ta "is", mraane "women", and so on. An alternative analysis is that Manx has the following system, where the vowels /a/ and /aː/ have allophones ranging from [ɛ]/[ɛː] through [æ]/[æː] to [a]/[aː]. As with Irish and Scottish Gaelic, there is a large amount of vowel allophony, such as that of /a/, /aː/. This depends mainly on the 'broad' and 'slender' status of the neighbouring consonants:

Manx vowel phonemes and their allophones
Phoneme "Slender" "Broad"
/i/, /iː/ [i], [iː] [ɪ], [ɪː]
/e/, /eː/ [e]/[eː] [ɛ]/[ɛː]
/a/, /aː/ [ɛ~æ]/[ɛː~æː] [a]/[aː]/[øː]
/ə/ [ɨ] [ə]
/əi/ (Middle Gaelic) [iː] [ɛː], [ɯː], [ɪː]
/o/, /oː/ [o], [oː] [ɔ], [ɔː]
/u/, /uː/ [u], [uː] [ø~ʊ], [uː]
/uə/ (Middle Gaelic) [iː], [yː] [ɪː], [ɯː], [uː]

When stressed, /ə/ is realised as [ø].[64]

Manx has a relatively large number of diphthongs, all of them falling:

Manx diphthongs
Second element
/i/ /u/ /ə/
First
element
Close ui iə, uə
Mid ei, əi, oi eu, əu
Open ai au

Syntax and MorphologyEdit

SyntaxEdit

Like most Insular Celtic languages, Manx is a VSO language.[65] However, most finite verbs are formed periphrastically, using an auxiliary verb in conjunction with the verbal noun. In this case, only the auxiliary verb precedes the subject, while the verbal noun comes after the subject. The auxiliary verb may be a modal verb rather than a form of bee ("be") or jannoo ("do"). Particles like the negative cha ("not") precede the inflected verb. Examples:

main verb

Hug

put-PRET

 

yn

the

subject

saggyrt

priest

 

e

his

direct object

laue

hand

 

urree.

on her

{main verb} {} subject {} {direct object} {}

Hug yn saggyrt e laue urree.

put-PRET the priest his hand {on her}

"The priest put his hand on her."[66]

aux. verb

Va

were

 

ny

the

subject

eayin

lambs

main verb

gee

eat-V.N.

 

yn

the

direct object

conney.

gorse

{aux. verb} {} subject {main verb} {} {direct object}

Va ny eayin gee yn conney.

were the lambs eat-V.N. the gorse

"The lambs used to eat the gorse."[67]

 

Cha

not

modal verb

jarg

can

subject

shiu

you-PL

main verb

fakin

see-V.N.

direct object

red erbee.

anything

{} {modal verb} subject {main verb} {direct object}

Cha jarg shiu fakin {red erbee.}

not can you-PL see-V.N. anything

"You can't see anything."[68]

When the auxiliary verb is a form of jannoo ("do"), the direct object precedes the verbal noun and is connected to it with the particle y:

aux. verb

Ren

did

subject

ad

they

direct object

my choraa

my voice

 

y

PTCL

main verb

chlashtyn.

hear-V.N.

{aux. verb} subject {direct object} {} {main verb}

Ren ad {my choraa} y chlashtyn.

did they {my voice} PTCL hear-V.N.

"They heard my voice."[69]

As in Irish (cf. Irish syntax#The forms meaning "to be"), there are two ways of expressing "to be" in Manx: with the substantive verb bee, and with the copula. The substantive verb is used when the predicate is an adjective, adverb, or prepositional phrase.[70] Examples:

t'

is

eh

it

agglagh

awful/frightening

t' eh agglagh

is it awful/frightening

"It is awful/frightening."

t'

is

eh

he

dy mie

well

t' eh {dy mie}

is he well

"He is well"

t'

is

eh

he

ayns

in

y

the

thie-oast

house-ale

t' eh ayns y thie-oast

is he in the house-ale

"He is in the ale-house (pub)."

Where the predicate is a noun, it must be converted to a prepositional phrase headed by the preposition in ("in") + possessive pronoun (agreeing with the subject) in order for the substantive verb to be grammatical:

t'

is

eh

he

ny

in-his

wooinney

man

mie

good

t' eh ny wooinney mie

is he in-his man good

"He is a good man" (lit. "He is in his good man")[71]

Otherwise, the copula is used when the predicate is a noun. The copula itself takes the form is or she in the present tense, but it is often omitted in affirmative statements:

She

COP

Manninagh

Manxman

mish

me

She Manninagh mish

COP Manxman me

"I am a Manxman."[72]

Shoh

this

'n

the

dooinney

man

Shoh 'n dooinney

this the man

"This is the man."[69]

In questions and negative sentences, the present tense of the copula is nee:

Cha

not

nee

COP

mish

me

eh

him

Cha nee mish eh

not COP me him

"I am not him."[69]

Nee

COP

shoh

this

'n

the

lioar?

book

Nee shoh 'n lioar?

COP this the book

"Is this the book?"[69]

MorphologyEdit

Initial consonant mutationsEdit

Like all modern Celtic languages, Manx shows initial consonant mutations, which are processes by which the initial consonant of a word is altered according to its morphological and/or syntactic environment.[73] Manx has two mutations: lenition and eclipsis, found on nouns and verbs in a variety of environments; adjectives can undergo lenition but not eclipsis. In the late spoken language of the 20th century the system was breaking down, with speakers frequently failing to use mutation in environments where it was called for, and occasionally using it in environments where it was not called for.

Initial consonant mutation in Manx
Unmutated IPA Lenition IPA Eclipsis IPA
p /p/ ph /f/ b /b/[74]
t(h) /t̪/ h /h/, /x/ d(h) /d̪/
çh /tʲ/~/tɕ/ h /h/, /xʲ/ j /dʲ/[74]
c, k /kʲ/ ch /xʲ/ g /ɡʲ/[74]
c, k

qu

/k/ /kw/ ch

wh

/x/, /h/ /hw/ g

gu

/ɡ/
b

bw

/b/
/bw/
b

w

/v/
/w/
m

mw

/m/[74]
/mw/[74]
d(h) /d̪/ gh /ɣ/, /w/ n /n/[74]
j /dʲ/~/dʑ/ gh, y /ɣʲ/, /j/ n /nʲ/
g /ɡʲ/ gh, y /ɣʲ/, /j/ ng /ŋ/?[74]
m

mw

/m/
/mw/
v

w

/v/
/w/
(no change)
f

fw

/f/
/fw/
f zero
/hw/
v

w

/v/[74]
/w/[74]
s

sl

sn

/s/
/sl/
/snʲ/
s

sl

sn

/h/
/l/
/nʲ/
(no change)
sh /ʃ/ h /h/ , /xʲ/ (no change)


In the corpus of the late spoken language, there is also one example of the eclipsis (nasalisation) of /ɡ/: the sentence Ta mee er ngeddyn yn eayn ("I have found the lamb"), where ⟨ng⟩ is pronounced /n/. However, probably this was a mis-transcription; the verbal noun in this case is not geddyn "get, fetch", but rather feddyn "find".[75]

NounsEdit

Manx nouns display gender, number and sometimes case, for instance, for feminine cass "foot".

Singular Plural
Nominative cass cassyn
Vocative chass chassyn
Genitive coshey cassyn

PronounsEdit

In addition to regular forms, personal pronouns also have emphatic versions.

Manx personal pronouns
Person Regular Emphatic
First singular mee mish
Second singular oo uss
Third singular masculine eh eshyn
feminine ee ish
First plural shin shinyn
Second plural shiu shiuish
Third plural ad adsyn

VerbsEdit

Manx verbs generally form their finite forms by means of periphrasis: inflected forms of the auxiliary verbs ve "to be" or jannoo "to do" are combined with the verbal noun of the main verb. Only the future, conditional, preterite, and imperative can be formed directly by inflecting the main verb, but even in these tenses, the periphrastic formation is more common in Late Spoken Manx.[76]

Manx finite verb forms
Tense Periphrastic form
(literal translation)
Inflected form Gloss
Present ta mee tilgey
(I am throwing)
I throw
Imperfect va mee tilgey
(I was throwing)
I was throwing
Perfect ta mee er jilgey
(I am after throwing)[77]
I have thrown
Pluperfect va mee er jilgey
(I was after throwing)[77]
I had thrown
Preterite ren mee tilgey
(I did throwing)
hilg mee I threw
Future neeym tilgey
(I will do throwing)
tilgym I will throw
Conditional yinnin tilgey
(I would do throwing)
hilgin I would throw
Imperative jean tilgey
(Do throwing!)
tilg Throw!
Past participle tilgit thrown

The fully inflected forms of the regular verb tilgey "to throw" are as follows. In addition to the forms below, a past participle may be formed using -it: tilgit "thrown".

Inflection of a regular Manx verb
Tense Independent Dependent Relative
Preterite hilg (same as independent)
Future tilgym[1], tilgmayd[2], tilgee[3] dilgym[1], dilgmayd[2], dilgee[3] tilgys
Conditional tilgin[1], tilgagh[3] dilgin[1], dilgagh[3]
Imperative tilg (same as independent)

1.^ First person singular, making the use of a following subject pronoun redundant

2.^ First person plural, making the use of a following subject pronoun redundant

3.^ Used with all other persons, meaning an accompanying subject must be stated, e.g. tilgee eh "he will throw", tilgee ad "they will throw"

There are a few peculiarities when a verb begins with a vowel, i.e. the addition of d' in the preterite and n' in the future and conditional dependent. Below is the conjugation of aase "to grow".

There is a small number of irregular verbs, the most irregular of all being ve "be".

Forms of verb ve "to be"
Form Independent Dependent Relative
Present ta vel, nel
Preterite va row
Future bee'm, beemayd, bee (same as independent) vees
Conditional veign, veagh beign, beagh
Imperative bee (same as independent)

PrepositionsEdit

Like the other Insular Celtic languages, Manx has inflected prepositions, contractions of a preposition with a pronominal direct object, as the following common prepositions show. Note the sometimes identical form of the uninflected preposition and its third person singular masculine inflected form.

Conjugation of Manx prepositions using pronominal ending
1st person 2nd person 3rd person
singular plural singular plural singular plural
masculine feminine
ayns "in" aynym ayn, ayndooin aynyd ayndiu ayn aynjee ayndoo, ayndaue
da "to" dou dooin dhyt diu da jee daue
ec "at" aym ain ayd orroo echey eck oc
er "on" orrym orrin ort erriu er urree orroo
lesh "with" lhiam lhien lhiat lhiu lesh lhee lhieu
veih, voish "from" voym voin voyd veue voish, veih voee voue

NumbersEdit

Numbers are traditionally vigesimal in Manx, e.g. feed "twenty", daeed "forty" ("two twenties"), tree feed "sixty" ("three twenties").

English Manx[78] Irish
cognate
Scottish Gaelic
cognate
one un [æːn, oːn, uːn]
nane [neːn]
aon [eːnˠ, iːnˠ, (older) ɯːnˠ] aon [ɯːn]
two daa [d̪æː], ghaa [ɣæː],
jees [dʒiːs]
[d̪ˠoː], d(h)á [ɣaː/d̪ˠaː],(people only) dís [dʲiːʃ]* [t̪aː]
three tree [t̪riː] trí [tʲrʲiː] trì [t̪ʰɾiː]
four kiare [kʲæːə(r)] ceathair [cahərʲ], ceithre [ˈcɛɾʲə] ceithir [ˈkʲʰehɪɾʲ]
five queig [kweɡ] cúig [kuːɟ] còig [kʰoːkʲ]
six shey [ʃeː] [ʃeː] sia [ʃiə]
seven shiaght [ʃæːx] seacht [ʃaxt̪ˠ] seachd [ʃɛxk], [ʃaxk]
eight hoght [hoːx] ocht [ɔxt̪ˠ] ochd [ɔxk]
nine nuy [nɛi, nøi, niː] naoi [n̪ˠiː (n̪ˠɰiː)] naoi [n̪ˠɤi]
ten jeih [dʒɛi] deich [dʲɛç, -ɛh, -ɛi]* deich [tʲeç]
eleven nane jeig [neːn dʒeɡ] aon déag [eːnˠ/iːnˠ dʲeːɡ]* aon deug/diag [ɯːn dʲeːk], [ɯːn dʲiək]
twelve daa yeig [d̪eiɡʲ] dó dhéag [d̪ˠoː jeːg], d(h)á dhéag [ɣaː/d̪ˠaː jeːɡ] dà dheug/dhiag [t̪aː ʝeːk], [t̪aː ʝiək]
thirteen tree jeig [t̪ri dʒeɡ] trí déag [tʲrʲiː dʲeːɡ]* trì deug/diag [t̪ʰɾiː tʲeːk], [t̪ʰɾiː tʲiək]
twenty feed [fiːdʒ] fiche [fʲɪçə, -hə]; fichid (sing. dat.) [ˈfʲɪçədʲ, -ɪhə-]* fichead [fiçət̪]
hundred keead [kiːəd] céad [ceːd̪ˠ, ciːa̯d̪ˠ] ceud, ciad [kʲʰeːt̪], [kʲʰiət̪]

* In the northern dialects of Irish /dʲ tʲ/ may be affricated to [dʒ tʃ] or [dʑ tɕ].[79][80][81]

OrthographyEdit

Manx orthography is based on Early Modern English, and to a (lesser) extent Welsh, developed by people who had an education in English (and Welsh until the 16th century).[82] The result is an inconsistent and only partially phonemic spelling system, similar to English orthography, unlike that of Irish and Scottish Gaelic, which both use similar spelling systems derived from Classical Gaelic, the written language of the educated Gaelic elite of both Ireland and Scotland until the mid-19th century, which makes them very etymological. Both use only 18 letters to represent around 50 phonemes. While Manx uses 24 letters (the ISO basic Latin alphabet, excluding ⟨x⟩ and ⟨z⟩), covering a similar range of phonemes, all three making use of many digraphs and trigraphs. T. F. O'Rahilly expressed the opinion that Manx spelling is inadequate, being neither traditional nor phonetic, and that if the traditional Gaelic orthography had been preserved the relationship between Manx, Irish and Scottish Gaelic would be obvious to readers at first sight.[83]

There is no evidence of Gaelic type being used on the island.

Spelling to sound correspondencesEdit

Vowels
Letter(s) Phoneme(s) Examples
a stressed /a/
/aː/
Ghaelgagh, cooinaghtyn
padjer, cabbyl
unstressed /ə/
/i/
/a/
ardnieu, bodjal
collaneyn
duillag
a...e, ia...e /eː/ slane, buggane, kiare
aa, aa...e /ɛː/
/øː/
/eːa/
/eː/
/aː/ (north)
baatey, aashagh
faarkey
jaagh
blaa, aane
aai /ɛi/ faaie
ae /i/
/ɪ/
/eː/
Gaelg
Ghaelgagh
aeg, aer
aew /au/ braew
ah /ə/ peccah
ai, ai...e /aː/
/ai/
/e/
maidjey
aile
paitçhey
aiy /eː/ faiyr
aue /eːw/ craue, fraue
ay /eː/ ayr, kay
e stressed /e/
/eː/
/ɛ/
/i/
ben, veggey
mess
peccah, eddin
chengey
unstressed /ə/ padjer
ea /ɛː/ beaghey
eai /eː/ eairk
eau, ieau /uː/ slieau
eay /eː/
/iː/ (north)
/ɯː/, /uː/ or /yː/ (south)
eayst, cleaysh
geay, keayn
ee /iː/ kionnee, jees
eea /iːə/
/iː/
/jiː/
yeeast, keead
feeackle, keeagh
eeast
eei, eey /iː/ feeid, dreeym, meeyl
ei /eː/
/e/
/a/
sleityn, ein
queig
geinnagh
eih /ɛː/ jeih
eoie /øi/ leoie
eu, ieu /uː/
/eu/
geurey
ardnieu
ey stressed /eː/ seyr, keyl
unstressed /ə/ veggey, collaneyn
i unstressed /ə/
/i/
eddin, ruggit
poosit
ia /aː/
/a/
/iː/
/iːə/
çhiarn, shiaght
toshiaght, sniaghtey
grian
skian
ie /aɪ/ mie
io /ɔ/ glion
io...e /au/ (north)
/oː/ (south)
kione
o, oi /ɔ/ or /ɑ/
/ɔː/ or /ɑː/
/o/
/oː/
/u/
lhong, toshiaght
bodjal, logh, moir
vondeish, bolg, bunscoill
hoght, reeoil
stroin
o...e /ɔː/
/oː/
dhone
trome
oa /ɔː/
/au/
cloan
joan
oh /ɔ/ shoh
oie /ei/ or /iː/ oie
oo, ioo, ooh /uː/ shassoo, cooney, glioon, ooh
ooa, iooa /uː/ mooar
ooi /u/ mooinjer, cooinaghtyn
ooy /uː/ shooyl
oy /ɔ/ moylley, voyllagh
u, ui, iu stressed /ʊ/
/o/
/ø/
bunscoill
ruggit, ushag, duillag, fuill
lurgey
unstressed /ə/ buggane
ua /uːa/ y Yuan
ue /u/ credjue
uy /ɛi/ or /iː/ nuy
wa /o/ mwannal
y /ə/
/i/
/ɪ/
/j/
cabbyl, sleityn
yngyn
fys
y Yuan, yeeast
Consonants
Letter(s) Phoneme(s) Examples
b, bb usually /b/ bunscoill, ben
between vowels /β/ or /v/ cabbyl
c, cc, ck usually /k/ bunscoill, cloan
between vowels /ɡ/
/ɣ/
peccah, gaccan
feeackle, crackan
ch /x/ cha
çh, tçh /tʃ/ çhiarn, çhengey, paitçhey
d, dd, dh broad /d̪/ keead, ardnieu, tedd, dhone
slender /dʲ/ or /dʒ/ feeid
broad, between vowels /ð/ eddin, moddey
f /f/ fys, feeackle
g, gg broad /ɡ/ Gaelg, Ghaelgagh
slender /ɡʲ/ geurey, geinnagh
between vowels /ɣ/ veggey, ruggit
gh usually /ɣ/
Ghaelgagh, beaghey
shaghey
finally or before t /x/ jeeragh, clagh, cooinaghtyn
-ght /x/ toshiaght, hoght
h /h/ hoght
j, dj usually /dʒ/ mooinjer, jeeragh
between vowels /ʒ/
/j/
padjer
maidjey, fedjag
k broad /k/ keyl, eairk
slender /kʲ/ kione, kiare
l, ll broad /l/ Gaelg, sleityn, moylley
slender /lʲ/ glion, blein, feill, billey
finally, in monosyllabic words (S only) /ᵈl/ shooyl
-le /əl/ feeackle
lh /l/ lhong
m, mm normally /m/ mooinjer, dreeym, famman
finally, in monosyllabic words (N only) /ᵇm/ eeym, trome
n broad /n/ bunscoill, cooinaghtyn, ennym
slender /nʲ/ ardnieu, collaneyn, dooinney, geinnagh
finally, in monosyllabic words /ᵈn/ slane, ben
slender, finally, in monosyllabic words /ᵈnʲ/ ein
ng usually /ŋ/
/nʲ/
yngyn
chengey
finally, in monosyllabic words (S only) /ᶢŋ/ lhong
p, pp usually /p/ peccah, padjer
between vowels /v/ cappan
qu /kw/ queig
r, rr usually /r/ geurey, jeeragh, ferrishyn
finally [ɹ̝] or [ə̯] aer, faiyr
s, ss usually /s/
/z/
bunscoill, sleityn, cass
fys
initially before n /ʃ/ sniaghtey
between vowels /ð/
/z/
shassoo
poosit
sh usually /ʃ/ shooyl, vondeish
between vowels /ʒ/
/j/
aashagh, ushag
toshiaght
-st /s/ eayst, eeast
t, tt, th broad /t̪/ trome, cooinaghtyn, thalloo
slender /tʲ/ or /tʃ/ poosit, ushtey, tuittym
broad, between vowels /d̪/
/ð/
brattag
baatey
slender, between vowels /dʲ/ or /dʒ/ sleityn
v /v/ veggey, voyllagh
w /w/ awin

DiacriticsEdit

Manx uses only one diacritic, a cedilla, which is (optionally) used to differentiate between the two phonemes represented by ⟨ch⟩:

  • Çhiarn (/ˈt͡ʃaːrn/) "lord", is pronounced with /t͡ʃ/ , as in the English "church"
  • Chamoo (/xaˈmu/) "nor" or "neither", is pronounced with /x/, as in Scottish English "loch" (/ˈlɒx/) or Irish English "lough" (/ˈlɒx/), a sound commonly represented by ⟨gh⟩ at the ends of words in Manx (and Irish English).

ExampleEdit

The following examples are taken from Broderick 1984–86, 1:178–79 and 1:350–53. The first example is from a speaker of Northern Manx, the second from Ned Maddrell, a speaker of Southern Manx.

Orthography (+ phonetic transcription) Gloss

V'ad

vod̪

smooinaghtyn

ˈsmuːnʲaxt̪ən

dy

d̪ə

beagh

biəx

cabbyl

ˈkaːbəl

jeeaghyn

dʒiːən

skee

skiː

as

as

deinagh

ˈd̪øinʲax

ayns

uns

y

ə

voghree

ˈvoːxəri

dy

d̪ə

beagh

biəx

eh

e

er

er

ve

vi

ec

ek

ny

ferrishyn

ˈferiʃən

fud

fod̪

ny

h-oie

høi

as

as

beagh

biəx

ad

əd̪

cur

kør

lesh

leʃ

yn

ən

saggyrt

ˈsaːɡərt̪

dy

d̪ə

cur

kør

e

ə

vannaght

ˈvanax

er.

er

V'ad smooinaghtyn dy beagh cabbyl jeeaghyn skee as deinagh ayns y voghree dy beagh eh er ve ec ny ferrishyn fud ny h-oie as beagh ad cur lesh yn saggyrt dy cur e vannaght er.

vod̪ ˈsmuːnʲaxt̪ən d̪ə biəx ˈkaːbəl dʒiːən skiː as ˈd̪øinʲax uns ə ˈvoːxəri d̪ə biəx e er vi ek nə ˈferiʃən fod̪ nə høi as biəx əd̪ kør leʃ ən ˈsaːɡərt̪ d̪ə kør ə ˈvanax er

They used to think if a horse was looking tired and weary in the morning then it had been with the fairies all night and they would bring the priest to put his blessing on it.

Va

ben

ˈbɛn

aynshoh

əˈsoː

yn

ən

çhiaghtin

ˈtʃaːn

chaie

ˈkai

as

as

v'ee

vai

laccal

ˈlaːl

mish

ˈmiʃ

dy

ði

ynsagh

ˈjinðax

ee

i

dy

ðə

gra

ˈɡreː

yn

in

Padjer

ˈpaːdʒər

yn

ən

Çhiarn.

ˈtʃaːrn

 

Dooyrt

d̪ot̪

ee

i

dy

ðə

row

ˈrau

ee

i

gra

ɡreː

eh

a

tra

ˈt̪reː

v'ee

vai

inneen

iˈnʲin

veg,

ˈveːɡ

 

agh

ax

t'eh

t̪e

ooilley

ˈolʲu

jarroodit

dʒaˈrud̪ətʃ

eck,

ek

 

as

as

v'ee

vei

laccal

ˈlaːl

gynsagh

ˈɡʲinðax

eh

a

reesht

ˈriːʃ

son

san

dy

ðə

gra

ˈɡreː

eh

ə

ec

əɡ

vrastyl

ˈvraːst̪əl

ny

red

ˈrið

ennagh.

ənax

 

As

as

dooyrt

ˈd̪ut̪

mish

miʃ

dy

ðə

jinnagh

ˈdʒinax

mee

mi

jannoo

ˈdʒinu

my

share

ˈʃeː

son

san

dy

ðə

cooney

ˈkunə

lhee

lʲei

as

as

ren

ˈrenʲ

ee

i

çheet

ˈtʃit̪

aynshoh

oˈsoː

son

san

dy

ðə

clashtyn

ˈklaːʃtʲən

eh,

a

 

as

as

vel

vel

oo

u

laccal

ˈlaːl

dy

ðə

clashtyn

ˈklaːʃtʲən

mee

mi

dy

ðə

gra

ˈɡreː

eh?

a

 

Va ben aynshoh yn çhiaghtin chaie as v'ee laccal mish dy ynsagh ee dy gra yn Padjer yn Çhiarn. {} Dooyrt ee dy row ee gra eh tra v'ee inneen veg, {} agh t'eh ooilley jarroodit eck, {} as v'ee laccal gynsagh eh reesht son dy gra eh ec vrastyl ny red ennagh. {} As dooyrt mish dy jinnagh mee jannoo my share son dy cooney lhee as ren ee çheet aynshoh son dy clashtyn eh, {} as vel oo laccal dy clashtyn mee dy gra eh? {}

və ˈbɛn əˈsoː ən ˈtʃaːn ˈkai as vai ˈlaːl ˈmiʃ ði ˈjinðax i ðə ˈɡreː in ˈpaːdʒər ən ˈtʃaːrn ‖ d̪ot̪ i ðə ˈrau i ɡreː a ˈt̪reː vai iˈnʲin ˈveːɡ ‖ ax t̪e ˈolʲu dʒaˈrud̪ətʃ ek ‖ as vei ˈlaːl ˈɡʲinðax a ˈriːʃ san ðə ˈɡreː ə əɡ ˈvraːst̪əl nə ˈrið ənax ‖ as ˈd̪ut̪ miʃ ðə ˈdʒinax mi ˈdʒinu mə ˈʃeː san ðə ˈkunə lʲei as ˈrenʲ i ˈtʃit̪ oˈsoː san ðə ˈklaːʃtʲən a ‖ as vel u ˈlaːl ðə ˈklaːʃtʲən mi ðə ˈɡreː a ‖

There was a woman here last week and she wanted me to teach her to say the Lord's Prayer. She said that she used to say it when she was a little girl, but she has forgotten it all, and she wanted to learn it again to say it at a class or something. And I said I would do my best to help her and she came here to hear it, and do you want to hear me say it?

VocabularyEdit

Manx vocabulary is predominantly of Goidelic origin, derived from Old Irish and has cognates in Irish and Scottish Gaelic. However, Manx itself, as well as the languages from which it is derived, borrowed words from other languages, especially Latin, Old Norse, French (particularly Anglo-Norman), and English (both Middle English and Modern English).[84]

The following table shows a selection of nouns from the Swadesh list and indicates their pronunciations and etymologies.

Manx IPA[78] English Etymology[85]
aane [eːn] liver Goidelic; from Mid.Ir. ae < O.Ir. óa; cf. Ir. ae, Sc.G. adha
aer [eːə] sky Latin; from O.Ir. aer < L. aër; cf. Ir. aer, Sc.G. adhar
aile [ail] fire Goidelic; from O.Ir. aingel "very bright"; cf. Ir., Sc.G. aingeal
ardnieu [ərd̪ˈnʲeu] snake Apparently "highly poisonous" (cf. ard "high", nieu "poison")
awin [aunʲ], [ˈawənʲ] river Goidelic; from the M.Ir. dative form abainn of aba < O.Ir. abaind aba; cf. Ir. abha/abhainn, dative abhainn, Sc.G. abhainn (literary nominative abha).
ayr [ˈæːar] father Goidelic; from M.Ir. athair, O.Ir. athir; cf. Ir., Sc.G. athair
beeal [biəl] mouth Goidelic; from O.Ir. bél; cf. Ir. béal, Sc.G. beul/bial
beishteig [beˈʃtʲeːɡ], [prəˈʃtʲeːɡ] worm Latin; from M.Ir. piast, péist < O.Ir. bíast < L. bēstia
ben [beᵈn] woman Goidelic; from M.Ir and O.Ir. ben; cf. Ir., Sc.G. bean
billey [ˈbilʲə] tree Goidelic; from O.Ir. bile
blaa [blæː] flower Goidelic; from O.Ir. bláth, Ir. bláth, Sc.G. blàth
blein [blʲeːnʲ], [blʲiᵈn] year Goidelic; from O.Ir. bliadain; cf. Ir. blian, dat. bliain, Sc.G. bliadhna
bodjal [ˈbaːdʒəl] cloud English/French; shortened from bodjal niaul "pillar of cloud" (cf. Sc.G. baideal neòil); bodjal originally meant "pillar" or "battlement" < E. battle < Fr. bataille
bolg [bolɡ] belly, bag Goidelic; from O.Ir. bolg, Ir., Sc.G bolg
cass [kaːs] foot Goidelic; from O.Ir. cos, cf. Sc.G. cas, Ir.dialect cas, Ir. cos
çhengey [ˈtʃinʲə] tongue Goidelic; from O.Ir. tengae; cf. Ir., Sc.G. teanga
clagh [klaːx] stone Goidelic; from O.Ir. cloch; cf. Sc.G. clach, Ir. cloch
cleaysh [kleːʃ] ear Goidelic; from O.Ir. dative clúais "hearing"; cf. Ir., Sc.G. cluas, dative cluais, Ir. dialect cluais
collaneyn [ˈkalinʲən] guts Goidelic; from O.Ir. cáelán; cf. Ir. caolán, Sc.G. caolan, derived from caol "thin, slender", -án nominaliser
crackan [ˈkraːɣən] skin Goidelic; from O.Ir. croiccenn; cf. Ir., Sc.G. craiceann, dialect croiceann
craue [kræːw] bone Goidelic; from O.Ir. cnám; cf. Ir. cnámh, dative cnáimh, Sc.G. cnàimh
cree [kriː] heart Goidelic; from O.Ir. cride; cf. Ir. croí, Sc.G. cridhe
dooinney [ˈd̪unʲə] person Goidelic; from O.Ir. duine, cf. Ir., Sc.G duine
dreeym [d̪riːm], [d̪riᵇm] back Goidelic; from O.Ir. dative druimm, nominative dromm; cf. Ir. drom, dialect droim, dative droim, Sc.G. drom, dialect druim, dative druim
duillag [ˈd̪olʲaɡ] leaf Goidelic; from O.Ir. duilleóg; cf. Ir. duilleóg, Sc.G. duilleag
eairk [eːak] horn Goidelic; from O.Ir. adarc; cf. Ir., Sc.G. adharc, Ir. dialect aidhearc
eayst [eːs] moon Goidelic; from O.Ir. ésca; cf. archaic Ir. éasca, Sc.G. easga
eeast [jiːs] fish Goidelic; from O.Ir. íasc; cf. Ir. iasc, Ul. /jiəsk/, Sc.G. iasg
ennym [ˈenəm] name Goidelic; from O.Ir. ainmm; cf. Ir., Sc.G. ainm
faarkey [ˈføːɹkə] sea Goidelic; from O.Ir. fairrge; cf. Ir. farraige, Sc.G. fairge
faiyr [feːə] grass Goidelic; from O.Ir. fér; cf. Ir. féar, Sc.G. feur, fiar
famman [ˈfaman] tail Goidelic; from O.Ir. femm+ -án nominaliser (masculine diminutive); cf. Ir. feam, Sc.G. feaman
fedjag [ˈfaiaɡ] feather Goidelic; from O.Ir. eteóc; cf. Ir. eiteog "wing", Sc.G. iteag
feeackle [ˈfiːɣəl] tooth Goidelic; from O.Ir. fíacail; cf. Ir., Sc.G. fiacail
feill [feːlʲ] meat Goidelic; from O.Ir. dative feóil; cf. Ir. feoil, Sc.G. feòil
fer [fer] man Goidelic; from O.Ir. fer; cf. Ir., Sc.G. fear
fliaghey [flʲaːɣə] rain Goidelic; from O.Ir. flechud; cf. Ir. fleachadh "rainwater; a drenching", related to fliuch "wet"
folt [folt̪] hair Goidelic; from O.Ir. folt, Ir.folt, Sc.G. falt
fraue [fræːw] root Goidelic; from O.Ir. frém; cf. Ir. fréamh, préamh, Sc.G. freumh
fuill [folʲ] blood Goidelic; from O.Ir. fuil, Ir., Sc.G. fuil
geay [ɡiː] wind Goidelic; from O.Ir. dative gaíth; cf. Ir., Sc.G. gaoth, dative gaoith
geinnagh [ˈɡʲanʲax] sand Goidelic; from O.Ir. gainmech; cf. Sc.G. gainmheach, Ir. gaineamh
glioon [ɡlʲuːnʲ] knee Goidelic; from O.Ir. dative glúin; cf. Ir. glúin, Sc.G. glùn, dative glùin
grian [ɡriːn], [ɡriᵈn] sun Goidelic; from O.Ir. grían; cf. Ir., Sc.G. grian
jaagh [ˈdʒæːax] smoke Goidelic, from M.Ir. deathach < O.Ir. ; cf. Sc.G. deathach
joan [dʒaun] dust Goidelic; from O.Ir. dend; cf. Ir. deannach
kay [kʲæː] fog Goidelic; from O.Ir. ceó; cf. Ir. ceo, Sc.G. ceò
keayn [kiᵈn] sea Goidelic; from O.Ir. cúan; cf. Ir. cuan "harbor", Sc.G. cuan "ocean"
keeagh [kiːx] breast Goidelic; from O.Ir. cíoch; cf. Ir. cíoch, Sc.G. cìoch
keyll [kiːlʲ], [kelʲ] forest Goidelic; from O.Ir. caill; cf. Ir. coill, Sc.G. coille
kione [kʲaun], [kʲoːn] head Goidelic; from O.Ir. cend, dative ciond; cf. Ir., Sc.G. ceann, dative cionn
laa [læː] day Goidelic; from O.Ir. láa; cf. Ir. , Sc.G. latha,
laue [læːw] hand Goidelic; from O.Ir. lám; cf. Ir. lámh, Sc.G. làmh
leoie [løi] ashes Goidelic; from O.Ir. dative lúaith; cf. Ir. luaith, Sc.G. luath
logh [lɒːx] lake Goidelic; from O.Ir. loch
lurgey [løɹɡə] leg Goidelic; from O.Ir. lurga "shin bone"; cf. Ir. lorga
maidjey [ˈmaːʒə] stick Goidelic; from O.Ir. maide, Ir., Sc.G. maide
meeyl [miːl] louse Goidelic; from O.Ir. míol; cf. Ir. míol, Sc.G. mial
mess [meːs] fruit Goidelic; from O.Ir. mes; cf. Ir., Sc.G. meas
moddey [ˈmaːðə] dog Goidelic; from O.Ir. matrad; cf. Ir. madra, N.Ir. mada,madadh [madu], Sc.G. madadh
moir [mɒːɹ] mother Goidelic; from O.Ir. máthir; cf. Ir. máthair, Sc.G. màthair
mwannal [ˈmonal] neck Goidelic; from O.Ir. muinél; cf. Ir. muineál, muinéal, Sc.G. muineal
oie [ei], [iː] night Goidelic; from O.Ir. adaig (accusative aidchi); cf. Ir. oíche, Sc.G. oidhche
ooh [au], [uː] egg Goidelic; from O.Ir. og; cf. Ir. ubh,ugh, Sc.G. ugh
paitçhey [ˈpætʃə] child French; from E.M.Ir. páitse "page, attendant" < O.Fr. page; cf. Ir. páiste, Sc.G. pàiste
raad [ræːd̪], [raːd̪] road English; from Cl.Ir. rót,róat< M.E. road; cf. Ir. ród, Sc.G. rathad
rass [raːs] seed Goidelic; from O.Ir. ros
rollage [roˈlæːɡ] star Goidelic; from M.Ir. rétlu < O.Ir. rétglu + feminine diminutive suffix -óg; cf. Ir. réaltóg, Sc.G. reultag
roost [ruːs] bark Brythonic; from O.Ir. rúsc Brythonic (cf. Welsh rhisg(l); cf. Ir. rúsc, Sc.G. rùsg
skian [ˈskiːən] wing Goidelic; from O.Ir. scíathán; cf. Ir. sciathán, Sc.G. sgiathan
slieau [slʲuː], [ʃlʲuː] mountain Goidelic, from O.Ir. slíab; cf. Ir., Sc.G. sliabh
sniaghtey [ˈʃnʲaxt̪ə] snow Goidelic; from O.Ir. snechta; cf. Ir. sneachta, Sc.G. sneachd
sollan [ˈsolan] salt Goidelic; from O.Ir., Ir., Sc.G. salann
sooill [suːlʲ] eye Goidelic; from O.Ir. súil; cf. Ir. súil, Sc.G. sùil
stroin [st̪ruᵈnʲ], [st̪raiᵈnʲ] nose Goidelic; from O.Ir. dative sróin; cf. Ir. srón, dialect sróin, dative sróin, Sc.G. sròn, dative sròin
tedd [t̪ed̪] rope Goidelic; from O.Ir. tét; cf. Ir. téad, Sc.G. teud, tiad
thalloo [ˈtalu] earth Goidelic; from O.Ir. talam; cf. Ir., Sc.G. talamh
ushag [ˈoʒaɡ] bird Goidelic; from O.Ir. uiseóg "lark"; cf. Ir. fuiseog, Sc.G. uiseag
ushtey [ˈuʃtʲə] water Goidelic; from O.Ir. uisce; cf. Ir. uisce, Sc.G. uisge
yngyn [ˈiŋən] fingernail Goidelic; from O.Ir. ingen; cf. Ir., Sc.G. ionga, dative iongain, plural Ir. iongna, Sc.G. iongnan, etc.

See Celtic Swadesh lists for the complete list in all the Celtic languages.

PhrasesEdit

Manx (Gaelg) English (Baarle)
Moghrey mie Good morning
Fastyr mie Good afternoon/evening
Oie vie Good night
Kys t'ou? ("tu" form)
Kys ta shiu? (plural)
Kanys ta shiu? ("vous" form)
How are you?
Feer vie Very well
Gura mie ayd ("tu" form)
Gura mie eu ("vous" form)
Thank you
As oo hene?
As shiu hene?
And yourself?
Slane lhiat
Slane lhiu
Goodbye
Whooiney Yessir (Manx English equivalent of "man" (US: "dude"), as an informal term of address; found as a dhuine in Irish and Scottish Gaelic)
Ellan Vannin Isle of Man

LoanwordsEdit

 
Loaghtan, a Manx breed of primitive sheep. The name means "mousy grey" in Manx.

Loanwords are primarily Norse and English, with a smaller number coming from French. Some examples of Norse loanwords are garey "garden" (from garðr "enclosure") and sker "sea rock" (from sker). Examples of French loanwords are danjeyr "danger" (from danger) and vondeish "advantage" (from avantage).

English loanwords were common in late (pre-revival) Manx, e.g. boy "boy", badjer "badger", rather than the more usual native Gaelic guilley and brock. In more recent years, there has been a reaction against such borrowing, resulting in coinages for technical vocabulary. Despite this, calques exist in Manx, not necessarily obvious to its speakers. To fill gaps in recorded Manx vocabulary, revivalists have referred to modern Irish and Scottish Gaelic for words and inspiration.

Some religious terms come ultimately from Latin, Greek and Hebrew, e.g. casherick "holy" (from Latin consecrātus), agglish "church" (from Greek ἐκκλησία/ekklesia "assembly") and abb "abbot" (from Hebrew אבא/abba "father"). These did not necessarily come directly into Manx, but via Old Irish. In more recent times, ulpan has been borrowed from modern Hebrew. Many Irish and English loanwords also have a classical origin, e.g. çhellveeish "television" (Irish teilifís) and çhellvane "telephone". Foreign language words (usually via English) are used occasionally especially for ethnic food, e.g. chorizo and spaghetti.

Going in the other direction, Manx Gaelic has influenced Manx English (Anglo-Manx). Common words and phrases in Anglo-Manx originating in the language include tholtan "ruined farmhouse",[86] quaaltagh "first-foot", keeill "(old) church", cammag, traa-dy-liooar "time enough", and Tynwald (tinvaal), which is ultimately of Norse origin, but comes via Manx. It is suggested that the House of Keys takes its name from Kiare as Feed (four and twenty), which is the number of its sitting members.

Vocabulary comparison examplesEdit

Manx Irish Scottish Gaelic Welsh English
Moghrey mie Maidin mhaith Madainn mhath Bore da good morning
Fastyr mie Tráthnóna maith Feasgar math Prynhawn da
Noswaith dda
good afternoon/evening
Slane lhiat, Slane lhiu Slán leat, Slán libh Slàn leat, Slàn leibh Hwyl fawr goodbye
Gura mie ayd,
Gura mie eu
Go raibh maith agat,
Go raibh maith agaibh
Tapadh leat,
Tapadh leibh
Diolch thank you
baatey bád bàta cwch boat
barroose bus bus bws bus
blaa bláth blàth blodyn flower
booa buwch/bo cow
cabbyl capall each ceffyl horse
cashtal caisleán, caiseal caisteal castell castle
creg carraig carraig, creag carreg, craig crag, rock
eeast iasc iasg pysgodyn fish [sg.]
ellan oileán eilean ynys island, eyot
gleashtan gluaisteán, carr càr car car
kayt cat cat cath cat
moddey madra, madadh ci dog, hound
shap siopa bùth siop shop
thie tigh, teach taigh house
eean éan eun, ian aderyn, edn bird
jees, daa dá, dhá, dó; (people) beirt, dís dà, dhà; (people) dithis dau (m.)/dwy (f.) two
oik oifig oifis swyddfa office
ushtey uisce uisge dŵr, dwfr water

Gaelic versions of the Lord's PrayerEdit

The Lord's Prayer has been translated into all of the Gaelic languages (and Old Irish). Although not direct, it is a good demonstration of the differences between their orthographies.

Example textEdit

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Manx:

Ta dy chooilley ghooinney ruggit seyr as corrym rish dy chooilley ghooinney elley ayns ooashley as ayns cairys. Ta resoon as cooinsheanse stowit orroo as lhisagh ad dellal rish y cheilley lesh spyrryd braaragh.[89]

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in English:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.[90]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Manx at Ethnologue (21st ed., 2018)
  2. ^ Sarah Whitehead. "How the Manx language came back from the dead | Education". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  3. ^ Jackson 1955, 49
  4. ^ "Full text of "A dictionary of the Manks language, with the corresponding words or explanations in English : interspersed with many Gaelic proverbs, the parts of speech, the genders, and the accents of the Manks words are carefully marked : with some etymological observations, never before published"". Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  5. ^ Moore, A.W. (1924). A Vocabulary of the Anglo-Manx Dialect. Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ "Manx", Wiktionary, 5 March 2022, retrieved 9 April 2022
  7. ^ Koch, John T., ed. (2005). Celtic Culture : A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. ABC-CLIO. pp. 673–690. ISBN 978-1851094400.
  8. ^ West, Andrew (30 June 2011). "The Ogham Stones of the Isle of Man". BabelStone. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Ager, Simon. "A Study of Language Death and Revival with a Particular Focus on Manx Gaelic." Master's Dissertation University of Wales, Lampeter, 2009. PDF.
  10. ^ a b c d George., Broderick (1999). Language death in the Isle of Man : an investigation into the decline and extinction of Manx Gaelic as a community language in the Isle of Man. Niemeyer. ISBN 9783110911411. OCLC 300505991.
  11. ^ Gunther 1990, 59–60
  12. ^ a b c Whitehead, Sarah (2 April 2015). "How the Manx language came back from the dead". theguardian.com. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  13. ^ "Isle of Man Government - Five year strategy salutes and celebrates Manx language". www.gov.im. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  14. ^ "Lifelines for indigenous languages | The World Weekly". www.theworldweekly.com. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  15. ^ "UN declares Manx Gaelic 'extinct'". bbc.co.uk. 20 February 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  16. ^ a b Isle of Man Census Report 2011 Archived 8 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ "Manx Gaelic Revival 'Impressive'". BBC News. 22 September 2005.
  18. ^ Naming, The Art of. "World-Wide Wednesday: Manx Names". Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d e "Censuses of Manx Speakers". www.isle-of-man.com. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  20. ^ Belchem, John (1 January 2000). A New History of the Isle of Man: The modern period 1830-1999. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 9780853237266.
  21. ^ "2001 Isle of Man Census: Volume 2" (PDF). Gov.im. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  22. ^ "2011 Isle of Man Census" (PDF). Gov.im. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  23. ^ "2021 Isle of Man Census" (PDF). Gov.im. Retrieved 26 May 2022.
  24. ^ "Standing Orders of the House of Keys" (PDF). p. 17. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  25. ^ http://www.tynwald.org.im/business/hansard/20002020/k190212.pdf House of Keys Hansard
  26. ^ "Kathleen Faragher's Manx Words & Manx Dialect Words". 18 January 2015.
  27. ^ However this word appears to have been adopted into Manx English, see [1] Braaid Eisteddfod: A poem by Annie Kissack (at 20 seconds)
  28. ^ "Tynwald - the Parliament of the Isle of Man". Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  29. ^ Eder, Birgit (2003). Ausgewählte Verwandtschaftsbezeichnungen in den Sprachen Europas. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. p. 301. ISBN 3631528736.
  30. ^ "Isle of Man Department of Education, Sport and Culture Report AbuseHelp". Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  31. ^ "pp2/5 Manx Ballads - Fin as Oshin". Isle-of-man.com. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  32. ^ "Books - Lioaryn | Culture Vannin | Isle of Man". Culturevannin.im. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  33. ^ "Antoine de Saint-Exupery - "The Little Prince" / Gaelic Manx / 2019, Edition Tintenfass, Neckarsteinach". petit-prince-collection.com.
  34. ^ "Manx Words". Learn Manx. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  35. ^ "Solace: A Film in Manx Gaelic". Youtube. 17 February 2014. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021.
  36. ^ "Cuchulainn Part One". Youtube. 17 February 2013. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021.
  37. ^ "Manannan Episode 4 (part two) Come Dine With Us". Youtube. 3 March 2014. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021.
  38. ^ "Gaelg (Manx) | Children's Animated Bible Stories | Friends and Heroes | UK Website". Friends and Heroes. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
  39. ^ a b c "Henry Jenner - The Manx Language, 1875". Isle-of-man.com. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  40. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 1:xxvii–xxviii, 160
  41. ^ Jackson 1955, 66. Jackson claims that northern Irish has also lost the contrast between velarised and palatalised labials, but this seems to be a mistake on his part, as both Mayo Irish and Ulster Irish are consistently described as having the contrast (cf. Mhac an Fhailigh 1968, 27; Hughes 1994, 621; see also Ó Baoill 1978, 87)
  42. ^ O'Rahilly 1932, 77–82; Broderick 1984–86, 2:152
  43. ^ O'Rahilly 1932, 24; Broderick 1984–86 3:80–83; Ó Sé 2000:15, 120
  44. ^ Jackson 1955, 47–50; Ó Cuív 1944, 38, 91
  45. ^ O'Rahilly 1932, 22
  46. ^ O'Rahilly 1932, 203
  47. ^ O'Rahilly 1932, 57
  48. ^ O'Rahilly 1932, 110; Jackson 1955, 55
  49. ^ O'Rahilly 1932, 51; Jackson 1955, 57–58; Holmer 1957, 87, 88, 106; 1962, 41
  50. ^ O'Rahilly 1932, 68; Broderick 1984–86, 2:56, 308
  51. ^ O'Rahilly 1932, 75
  52. ^ Broderick 1984–8,6 1:160
  53. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 1:161
  54. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 1:161–62
  55. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 1:162–63
  56. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 1:164–65
  57. ^ Broderick 1993, 236
  58. ^ Thomson 1992, 128–29; Broderick 1993, 234
  59. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 3:3–13; Thomson 1992, 129
  60. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 3:28–34; 1993, 236
  61. ^ Broderick 1984–86; 3:17–18
  62. ^ Jackson 1955, 118; Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language, 1998, Isle of Man, retrieved 28 September 2008
  63. ^ Broderick 1993, 230–33
  64. ^ Broderick 1993, 232–33
  65. ^ Broderick 1993, 276
  66. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 1:181
  67. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 1:179
  68. ^ Broderick 1993, 274
  69. ^ a b c d Thomson 1992, 105
  70. ^ Broderick 1993, 276–77
  71. ^ Broderick 1993, 277
  72. ^ Broderick 1993, 278
  73. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 1:7–21; 1993, 236–39; Thomson 1992, 132–35
  74. ^ a b c d e f g h i Not attested in the late spoken language (Broderick 1984–86, 3:66)
  75. ^ (Broderick 1984–86 2:190, 3:66).
  76. ^ Broderick 1984–86, 75–82; 1993, 250, 271; Thomson 1992, 122
  77. ^ a b The particle er is identical in form to the preposition er "on"; however, it is etymologically distinct, coming from Old Irish íar "after" (Williams 1994, 725).
  78. ^ a b Broderick 1984–86, vol. 2
  79. ^ de Búrca, Seán (1958), The Irish of Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-49-9 pp=24–25
  80. ^ Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968), The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-02-2 pp=36–37
  81. ^ Wagner, Heinrich (1959), Gaeilge Theilinn (in Irish), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 1-85500-055-5 pp=9–10
  82. ^ Kelly 1870:xiii footnote in Spoken Sound as a Rule for Orthography, credited to W. Mackenzie.
  83. ^ O'Rahilly 1932, 128
  84. ^ Broderick 1993, 282–83
  85. ^ Macbain 1911; Dictionary of the Irish Language; Broderick 1984–86, vol. 2
  86. ^ "A snapshpot of Manx history". Stamp and Coin Mart. Warners Group Publications. February 2018. p. 38.
  87. ^ MANX GAELIC ( Gaelig, Gaelg ) from www.christusrex.org. Source of text: "ORATIO DOMINICA – Polyglottos, Polymorphos – Nimirum, Plus Centum Linguis, Versionibus, aut Characteribus Reddita & Expressa" ("Lord's Prayer - many languages and forms - restored and rendered in certainly over 100 languages, versions or types"), Daniel Brown, London, 1713.
  88. ^ Ta'n lhieggan shoh jeh'n Phadjer aascreeuit 'sy chlou Romanagh veih'n çhenn chlou Yernagh. Son d'akin er y lhieggan shen jeh'n phadjer gow dys y duillag shoh ec www.christusrex.org
  89. ^ "Fockley-Magh Cairyssyn Deiney cour y Theihll Slane". udhr.audio.
  90. ^ "Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations.

ReferencesEdit

  • Broderick, George (1984–1986). A Handbook of Late Spoken Manx (3 volumes ed.). Tübingen: Niemeyer. ISBN 3-484-42903-8. (vol. 1), (vol. 2), (vol. 3).
  • Broderick, George (1993). "Manx". In M. J. Ball; J. Fife (eds.). The Celtic Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 228–85. ISBN 0-415-01035-7.
  • Cumming, Joseph George (1848). "The Isle of Man". London: John Van Voorst. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Dictionary of the Irish Language based mainly on Old and Middle Irish materials. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy. 1983. ISBN 0-901714-29-1.
  • Gunther, Wilf (1990). "Language conservancy or: Can the anciently established British minority languages survive?". In D. Gorter; J. F. Hoekstra; L. G. Jansma; J. Ytsma (eds.). Fourth International Conference on Minority Languages (Vol. II: Western and Eastern European Papers ed.). Bristol, England: Multilingual Matters. pp. 53–67. ISBN 1-85359-111-4.
  • Holmer, Nils M. (1957). The Gaelic of Arran. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-44-8.
  • Holmer, Nils M. (1962). The Gaelic of Kintyre. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-43-X.
  • Hughes, Art (1994). "Gaeilge Uladh". In K. McCone; D. McManus; C. Ó Háinle; N. Williams; L. Breatnach (eds.). Stair na Gaeilge in ómós do Pádraig Ó Fiannachta (in Ga). Maynooth: Department of Old Irish, St. Patrick's College. pp. 611–60. ISBN 0-901519-90-1.
  • Jackson, Kenneth Hurlstone (1955). Contributions to the Study of Manx Phonology. Edinburgh: Nelson.
  • Kelly, John (1870). Gill, William (ed.). A Practical Grammar of the Antient Gaelic, or Language of the Isle of Man, Usually Called Manks. Douglas: The Manx Society.
  • Kewley-Draskau, Jennifer (2008). Practical Manx. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-1-84631-131-4.
  • Kneen, John J. (1911). A Grammar of the Manx Language. Edinburgh: Ams Pr Inc. ISBN 978-0-404-17564-1.
  • Macbain, Alexander (1911). An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language (2nd ed.). Stirling: E. Mackay. Reprinted 1998, New York: Hippocrene. ISBN 0-7818-0632-1.
  • Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968). The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-02-2.
  • Ó Baoill, Colm (1978). Contributions to a Comparative Study of Ulster Irish and Scottish Gaelic. Institute of Irish Studies, Queen's University of Belfast.
  • O'Rahilly, Thomas F. (1932). Irish Dialects Past and Present. Dublin: Browne and Nolan. Reprinted 1976, 1988 by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-55-3.
  • Ó Cuív, Brian (1944). The Irish of West Muskerry, Co. Cork. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-52-9.
  • Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000). Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Ga). Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann. ISBN 0-946452-97-0.
  • Thomson, Robert L. (1992). "The Manx language". In Donald MacAulay (ed.). The Celtic Languages. Cambridge University Press. pp. 100–36. ISBN 0-521-23127-2.
  • Williams, Nicholas (1994). "An Mhanainnis". In K. McCone; D. McManus; C. Ó Háinle; N. Williams; L. Breatnach (eds.). Stair na Gaeilge in ómós do Pádraig Ó Fiannachta (in Ga). Maynooth: Department of Old Irish, St. Patrick's College. pp. 703–44. ISBN 0-901519-90-1.

External linksEdit

  • Percentage of resident population with a knowledge of Manx Gaelic
  • A bit of Manx Gaelic history
  • Manx language, alphabet and pronunciation at Omniglot
  • Information about the language
  • isle-of-man.com language section
  • Manx dictionaries via Multidict
  • Online Manx Lessons with MP3 recordings
  • Bilingual Bible in Manx and English by the Manx Language Project
  • Manx: Bringing a language back from the dead
  • Media article about the Manx revival
  • Manx free online course