Chhatrapati of Maratha Empire
Shivaji British Museum.jpg
Shivaji
Details
StyleHis Imperial Majesty
First monarchShivaji
Last monarchShivaji III
Formation1674 CE
Abolition1818 CE
ResidenceRaigad fort
AppointerHereditary

The Maratha emperors, belonging to the Bhonsale dynasty, from the early 17th century to the early 18th century, built and ruled the Maratha Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.[1][note 1] Their power rapidly dwindled during the 19th century and the last of the emperors was deposed in 1818, with the establishment of the British Raj. At their empire's greatest extent in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled much of the Indian subcontinent, extending from Bengal in the east to Atak and Sindh in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south. Peshwas served as subordinates to the Chhatrapati (the Maratha king), but later, they became the leaders of the Marathas, and the Chatrapati was reduced to a nominal ruler. During the last years of the Maratha Empire, Peshwa were instrumental in expanding the Maratha Empire to this extent.[3][4][5]

List of Maratha Emperors

Portrait Titular Name Birth Name Birth Reign Death Notes
Shivaji British Museum.jpg Shivaji 6 April 1627 6 June 1674  – 3 April 1680

5 years 9 months

3 April 1680 (aged 53) Shivaji was a Maratha aristocrat of the Bhosle clan who is considered to be the founder of the Maratha empire.
Maharaja Sambhajiraje, late 17th century.png Sambhaji May 14, 1657 January 16, 1681- March 11, 1689

9 years 4 months 21 days

Sambhaji had himself crowned and resumed his father's expansionist policies. Sambhaji had earlier defeated the Portuguese and Chikka Deva Raya of Mysore.
Rajaram I 24 February 1670 12 March 1689 – 3 March 1700

11 years

Chhatrapati Shahu I.jpg Chhattrapati Shahu 18 May 1682 12 January, 1708 – 15 December, 1749

41 years

15 December, 1749 This started Satara branch
Rajaram II of Satara June 1726 December 15, 1749 - December 11, 1777

28 years

December 11, 1777 Satara branch
Shahu II of Satara 1763 11 Dec 1777 – 3 May 1808

31 years

3 May 1808 Satara branch
Pratap Singh of Satara.png Pratap Singh, Raja of Satara 18 January 1793 3 May 1808 - 5 September 1839

(31 years)

5 September 1839 He was the nominal emperor of the Maratha Empire, Satara from 1808 to 1819 and Raja of Satara but the main control was under the hands of Peshwas until 1839 when he was deposed by the British. Satara branch
Maharani Tarabai.jpg Tarabai 1675–1761

6 years

1761 She was wife of Chhatrapati Rajaram
Shivaji II 1698 1700-1707, 1710-1714

11 years

He was son of Maratha ruler Chhattrapati Rajaram and his wife Tarabai of Kolhapur branch
Sambhaji II 1714 to 1760

46 years

He came to power by deposing his half brother Shivaji II
Shivaji III 1760–1812

52 years

He was adopted from the family of Khanwilkar which was from Kolhapur branch

See also

References

  1. ^ An Advanced History of Modern India By Sailendra Nath Sen, p.16
  2. ^ Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bharatiya Itihasa Samiti, Ramesh Chandra Majumdar – The History and Culture of the Indian People: The Maratha supremacy
  3. ^ Pearson, M. N. (February 1976). "Shivaji and the Decline of the Mughal Empire". The Journal of Asian Studies. 35 (2): 221–235. doi:10.2307/2053980. JSTOR 2053980.
  4. ^ Delhi, the Capital of India By Anon, John Capper, p.28. "This source establishes the Maratha control of Delhi before the British"
  5. ^ An Advanced History of Modern India By Sailendra Nath Sen p.Introduction-14. The author says: "The victory at Bhopal in 1738 established Maratha dominance at the Mughal court"

Notes

  1. ^ Many historians consider Attock to be the final frontier of the Maratha Empire[2]

External links