Hamilton in 1995
Margaret Elaine Heafield
August 17, 1936
Paoli, Indiana, US
University of Michigan
|Spouse(s)||James Cox Hamilton|
(m. 1958, div.)
|Relatives||James Cox Chambers (former son-in-law)|
|Awards||Presidential Medal of Freedom|
Margaret Elaine Heafield Hamilton (born August 17, 1936) is an American computer scientist, systems engineer and business owner. She was director of the Software Engineering Division of the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory, which developed on-board flight software for NASA's Apollo space program. She later founded two software companies—Higher Order Software with Saydean Zeldin in 1976 and Hamilton Technologies in 1986, both in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Hamilton has published more than 130 papers, proceedings and reports about sixty projects and six major programs. She is one of the people credited with coining the term "software engineering".
On November 22, 2016, Hamilton received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from President Barack Obama for her work leading to the development of on-board flight software for NASA's Apollo Moon missions.
Personal life and education
Margaret Elaine Heafield was born August 17, 1936, in Paoli, Indiana, to Kenneth Heafield and Ruth Esther Heafield (née Partington); she has a younger sister named Kathryn. The family later moved to Michigan, where Margaret graduated from Hancock High School in 1954. She studied mathematics at the University of Michigan in 1955 before transferring to Earlham College where her mother was an alumna; she earned a BA in mathematics with a minor in philosophy in 1958. She cites Florence Long, the head of the math department at Earlham, as helping with her desire to pursue abstract mathematics and become a mathematics professor. She had other inspirations including her father (a philosopher and poet), and her grandfather (a school headmaster and Quaker minister). She says these men inspired her to include a minor in philosophy in her studies.
While at Earlham, Hamilton met her first husband, James Cox Hamilton, a senior majoring in chemistry. They were married on June 15, 1958, the summer after she graduated from Earlham. She briefly taught high school mathematics and French at a public school in Boston, Indiana, while her husband completed his undergraduate degree at Earlham. The couple then moved to Boston, Massachusetts, where James would later earn his master's degree in chemistry from Brandeis University; they had a daughter, Lauren, born on November 10, 1959. James later graduated from Harvard Law School in 1963; he founded a law firm in Boston and also later served on the board of the American Civil Liberties Union. The couple eventually divorced.[when?]
In Boston, she initially intended to enroll in graduate study in abstract mathematics at Brandeis. However, in the summer of 1959, Hamilton began working for Edward Norton Lorenz, in the meteorology department at MIT. She developed software for predicting weather, programming on the LGP-30 and the PDP-1 computers at Marvin Minsky's Project MAC. Her work contributed to Lorenz's publications on chaos theory. At the time, computer science and software engineering were not yet established disciplines; instead, programmers learned on the job with hands-on experience. She moved on to another project in the summer of 1961, and hired and trained Ellen Fetter as her replacement.
From 1961 to 1963, Hamilton worked on the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) Project at Lincoln Lab, where she was one of the programmers who wrote software for the prototype AN/FSQ-7 computer (the XD-1), used by the U.S. Air Force to search for possibly unfriendly aircraft. She also wrote software for a satellite tracking project at the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. The SAGE Project was an extension of Project Whirlwind, started by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), to create a computer system that could predict weather systems and track their movements using simulators. SAGE was soon developed for military use in anti-aircraft air defense from potential Soviet attacks during the Cold War. Hamilton said:
What they used to do when you came into this organization as a beginner, was to assign you this program which nobody was able to ever figure out or get to run. When I was the beginner they gave it to me as well. And what had happened was it was tricky programming, and the person who wrote it took delight in the fact that all of his comments were in Greek and Latin. So I was assigned this program and I actually got it to work. It even printed out its answers in Latin and Greek. I was the first one to get it to work.
It was her efforts on this project that made her a candidate for the position at NASA as the lead developer for Apollo flight software.
Hamilton then joined the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory at MIT, which worked on the Apollo space mission. She eventually led a team credited with developing the software for Apollo and Skylab. Hamilton's team was responsible for developing in-flight software, which included algorithms designed by various senior scientists for the Apollo command module, lunar lander and the subsequent Skylab. Another part of her team designed and developed the systems software. This included error detection and recovery software such as restarts and the Display Interface Routines (also known as the Priority Displays), which Hamilton designed and developed. She worked to gain hands-on experience during a time when computer science courses were uncommon and software engineering courses did not exist. Hamilton also served as Director of the Software Engineering Division.
Her areas of expertise include: systems design and software development, enterprise and process modeling, development paradigm, formal systems modeling languages, system-oriented objects for systems modeling and development, automated life-cycle environments, methods for maximizing software reliability and reuse, domain analysis, correctness by built-in language properties, open-architecture techniques for robust systems, full life-cycle automation, quality assurance, seamless integration, error detection and recovery techniques, man-machine interface systems, operating systems, end-to-end testing techniques, and life-cycle management techniques.
In one of the critical moments of the Apollo 11 mission, the Apollo Guidance Computer together with the on-board flight software averted an abort of the landing on the Moon. Three minutes before the lunar lander reached the Moon's surface, several computer alarms were triggered. The on-board flight software captured these alarms with the "never supposed to happen displays" interrupting the astronauts with priority alarm displays. Hamilton had prepared for just this situation years before:
There was one other failsafe that Hamilton likes to remember. Her “priority display” innovation had created a knock-on risk that astronaut and computer would slip out of synch just when it mattered most. As the alarms went off and priority displays replaced normal ones, the actual switchover to new programmes behind the screens was happening “a step slower” than it would today.
Hamilton had thought long and hard about this. It meant that if Aldrin, say, hit a button on the priority display too quickly, he might still get a “normal” response. Her solution: when you see a priority display, first count to five.
The astronauts had inadvertently left the rendezvous radar switch on, causing these alarms to be triggered. The computer was overloaded with interrupts caused by incorrectly phased power supplied to the lander's rendezvous radar. The program alarms indicated "executive overflows", meaning the guidance computer could not complete all of its tasks in real time and had to postpone some of them. The asynchronous executive designed by J. Halcombe Laning was used by Hamilton's team to develop asynchronous flight software:
Because of the flight software's system-software's error detection and recovery techniques that included its system-wide "kill and recompute" from a "safe place" restart approach to its snapshot and rollback techniques, the Display Interface Routines (AKA the priority displays) together with its man-in-the-loop capabilities were able to be created in order to have the capability to interrupt the astronauts' normal mission displays with priority displays of critical alarms in case of an emergency. This depended on our assigning a unique priority to every process in the software in order to ensure that all of its events would take place in the correct order and at the right time relative to everything else that was going on.
Hamilton's priority alarm displays interrupted the astronauts' normal displays to warn them that there was an emergency "giving the astronauts a go/no go decision (to land or not to land)". Jack Garman, a NASA computer engineer in mission control, recognized the meaning of the errors that were presented to the astronauts by the priority displays and shouted, "Go, go!" and they continued. Paul Curto, senior technologist who nominated Hamilton for a NASA Space Act Award, called Hamilton's work "the foundation for ultra-reliable software design".
Hamilton later wrote of the incident:
The computer (or rather the software in it) was smart enough to recognize that it was being asked to perform more tasks than it should be performing. It then sent out an alarm, which meant to the astronaut, 'I'm overloaded with more tasks than I should be doing at this time and I'm going to keep only the more important tasks'; i.e., the ones needed for landing ... Actually, the computer was programmed to do more than recognize error conditions. A complete set of recovery programs was incorporated into the software. The software's action, in this case, was to eliminate lower priority tasks and re-establish the more important ones ... If the computer hadn't recognized this problem and taken recovery action, I doubt if Apollo 11 would have been the successful moon landing it was.
In 1976, Hamilton co-founded with Saydean Zeldin a company called Higher Order Software (HOS) to further develop ideas about error prevention and fault tolerance emerging from their experience at MIT working on the Apollo program. They created a product called USE.IT, based on the HOS methodology they developed at MIT. It was successfully used in numerous government programs including a project to formalize and implement C-IDEF, an automated version of IDEF, a modeling language developed by the U.S. Air Force in the Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) project. In 1980, British-Israeli computer scientist David Harel published a proposal for a structured programming language derived from HOS from the viewpoint of and/or subgoals. Others have used HOS to formalize the semantics of linguistic quantifiers, and to formalize the design of reliable real-time embedded systems.
Hamilton was the CEO of HOS through 1984 and left the company in 1985. In March 1986, she founded Hamilton Technologies, Inc. in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The company was developed around the Universal Systems Language (USL) and its associated automated environment, the 001 Tool Suite, based on her paradigm of Development Before The Fact for systems design and software development.
Hamilton, Anthony Oettinger, and Barry Boehm have all been credited with naming the discipline of "software engineering". Hamilton details how she came to make up the term "software engineering":
When I first came up with the term, no one had heard of it before, at least in our world. It was an ongoing joke for a long time. They liked to kid me about my radical ideas. It was a memorable day when one of the most respected hardware gurus explained to everyone in a meeting that he agreed with me that the process of building software should also be considered an engineering discipline, just like with hardware. Not because of his acceptance of the new 'term' per se, but because we had earned his and the acceptance of the others in the room as being in an engineering field in its own right.
When Hamilton started using the term "software engineering" during the early Apollo missions, software development was not taken seriously compared to other engineering, nor was it regarded as a science. Hamilton was concerned with legitimizing software development as an engineering discipline. Over time the term "software engineering" gained the same respect as any other technical discipline. The IEEE Software September/October 2018 issue celebrates the 50th anniversary of software engineering. Hamilton talks about "Errors" and how they influenced her work related to software engineering and how her language, USL, could be used to prevent the majority of "Errors" in a system. Writing in Wired, Robert McMillan noted: "At MIT she assisted in the creation of the core principles in computer programming as she worked with her colleagues in writing code for the world's first portable computer". Hamilton's innovations go beyond the feats of playing an important role in getting humans to the moon. According to Wired's Karen Tegan Padir: "She, along with that other early programming pioneer, CoBOL [sic] inventor Grace Hopper, also deserve tremendous credit for helping to open the door for more women to enter and succeed in STEM fields like software."
- In 1986, Hamilton received the Augusta Ada Lovelace Award by the Association for Women in Computing.
- In 2003, she was given the NASA Exceptional Space Act Award for scientific and technical contributions. The award included $37,200, the largest amount awarded to any individual in NASA's history.
- In 2009, she received the Outstanding Alumni Award by Earlham College.
- In 2016, she received the Presidential Medal of Freedom from Barack Obama, the highest civilian honor in the United States.
- On April 28, 2017, she received the Computer History Museum Fellow Award, which honors exceptional men and women whose computing ideas have changed the world.
- In 2017, a "Women of NASA" LEGO set went on sale featuring minifigures of Hamilton, Mae Jemison, Sally Ride, and Nancy Grace Roman.
- In 2018, she was awarded an honorary doctorate degree by the Polytechnic University of Catalonia.
- In 2019, she was awarded an honorary doctorate degree by Bard College.
- Hamilton, M.; Zeldin, S. (March 1976). "Higher Order Software—A Methodology for Defining Software". IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. SE-2 (1): 9–32. doi:10.1109/TSE.1976.233798.
- Hamilton, M.; Zeldin, S. (January 1, 1979). "The relationship between design and verification". Journal of Systems and Software. 1: 29–56. doi:10.1016/0164-1212(79)90004-9.
- Hamilton, M. (April 1994). "Inside Development Before the Fact". (Cover story). Special Editorial Supplement. 8ES-24ES. Electronic Design.
- Hamilton, M. (June 1994). "001: A Full Life Cycle Systems Engineering and Software Development Environment". (Cover story). Special Editorial Supplement. 22ES-30ES. Electronic Design.
- Hamilton, M.; Hackler, W. R. (2004). "Deeply Integrated Guidance Navigation Unit (DI-GNU) Common Software Architecture Principles". (Revised December 29, 2004). DAAAE30-02-D-1020 and DAAB07-98-D-H502/0180, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ, 2003–2004.
- Hamilton, M.; Hackler, W. R. (2007). "Universal Systems Language for Preventative Systems Engineering", Proc. 5th Ann. Conf. Systems Eng. Res. (CSER), Stevens Institute of Technology, Mar. 2007, paper #36.
- Hamilton, M.; Hackler, W. R. (2007). "A Formal Universal Systems Semantics for SysML". 17th Annual International Symposium, INCOSE 2007, San Diego, CA, Jun. 2007.
- Hamilton, M.; Hackler, W. R. (2008). "Universal Systems Language: Lessons Learned from Apollo". IEEE Computer, Dec. 2008.
- Hamilton, M. H. (September 2018). "What the Errors Tell Us". IEEE Software. 35 (5): 32–37. doi:10.1109/MS.2018.290110447.
- Welch, Rosanne; Lamphier, Peg A., eds. (February 28, 2019). Technical Innovation in American History: An Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. 3. ABC-CLIO. p. 62. ISBN 978-1-61069-094-2.
- "Ruth Esther Heafield". Tributes.com. Wujek-Calcaterra & Sons. Archived from the original on December 16, 2014. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
- Onwuamaegbu, Natachi (July 20, 2019). "Margaret Hamilton's sister shares her memories as Seattle's seniors celebrate the 50th anniversary of the moon landing". The Seattle Times. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- "Commings, Goings and Events". The Evening News. Sault Ste Marie, Michigan. December 10, 1952.
- "Pioneers in Computer Science". Utah State University. Archived from the original on September 17, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- "Former Earlham Student Had Role in Moon Flight". Palladium-Item. Richmond, Indiana. August 15, 1969 – via Newspapers.com.
- "2009 Outstanding Alumni and Distinguished Service Awards". Earlham College. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
- "The Woman Who Taught Me – Margaret Hamilton MAKERS Moment". MAKERS. Archived from the original on May 25, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2019.
- "Margaret Hamilton: The Untold Story of the Woman Who Took Us to the Moon". Futurism. July 20, 2016. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
- Stickgold, Emma (August 31, 2014). "James Cox Hamilton, at 77; lawyer was quiet warrior for First Amendment". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on December 16, 2014. Retrieved December 15, 2014.
- "Wed In Earlham Meetinghouse Rite". Palladium-Item. Richmond, Indiana. July 2, 1958. Retrieved August 10, 2019.
- Wayne, Tiffany K. (2011). American Women of Science Since 1900. ABC-CLIO. pp. 480–82. ISBN 978-1-59884-158-9. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- Sokol, Joshua (May 20, 2019). "The Hidden Heroines of Chaos". quantamagazine.org. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Lorenz, Edward (March 1962). "The Statistical Prediction of Solutions" (PDF). The Meteorological Society of Japan.
- Levy, Steven (1984). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Doubleday. pp. Chapter 5:The Midnight Computer Wiring Society. ISBN 0-385-19195-2.
- "About Margaret Hamilton". klabs.org. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
- Spicer, Dan. "2017 CHM Fellow Margaret Hamilton". Computer History Museum. Archived from the original on February 12, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- "AGC – Conference 1: Margaret Hamilton's introduction". authors.library.caltech.edu. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Weinstock, Maia (August 17, 2016). "Scene at MIT: Margaret Hamilton's Apollo code". MIT News. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved August 17, 2016.
- Rayl, A.J.S (October 16, 2006). "NASA Engineers and Scientists-Transforming Dreams Into Reality". 50th Magazine. NASA.
- "About Margaret Hamilton". NASA Office of Logic Design. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
- "NASA – NASA Engineers and Scientists-Transforming Dreams Into Reality". nasa.gov. Archived from the original on June 29, 2010. Retrieved July 29, 2010.
- Hoag, David (September 1976). "The History of Apollo On-board Guidance, Navigation, and Control" (PDF). Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 5, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
- Michael Braukus NASA News "NASA Honors Apollo Engineer" Archived November 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine (September 3, 2003)
- Green, Alan (June 1967). "Keyboard and Display Program and Operation" (PDF). Charles Stark Draper Laboratory. p. 29. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 17, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
- "Margaret Hamilton 2017 Fellow". Computer History Museum. Archived from the original on June 29, 2017. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
- "Moon landing memories:'Apollo 11 changed civilisation and I had a part in it'". The Times of London. July 15, 2019.
- Whittell, Giles (July 13, 2004). "First Woman". tortoisemedia.com.
- Eyles, Don. "Tales from the Lunar Module Guidance Computer". Archived from the original on July 20, 2016. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Blair-Smith, Hugh (November 7, 2011). "System integration issues in Apollo 11". IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine. 26 (11): 16–24. doi:10.1109/MAES.2011.6065654.
- Hamilton, Margaret; Hackler, William (December 12, 2008). "Universal Systems Language: Lessons Learned from Apollo". IEEE Computer. 41 (12): 34–43. doi:10.1109/MC.2008.541. ISSN 1558-0814.
- Collins, Michael; Aldrin, Edwin E., Jr. (1975). "A Yellow Caution Light". In Cortright, Edgar M (ed.). Apollo Expeditions to the Moon. Washington, D.C.: NASA. OCLC 1623434. NASA SP-350. Archived from the original on February 19, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2013. Chapter 11.4.
- Hayes, Brian (May – June 2019). "Moonshot Computing". American Scientist.
- Mindell, David A. (September 30, 2011). Digital Apollo. MIT Press. p. 149.
- Snyder, Lawrence and Henry, Ray Laura, "Fluency7 with Information Technology", Pearson, ISBN 0-13-444872-3
- Hamilton, Margaret (July 17, 2009). "Recalling the 'Giant Leap'". MIT News. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
- Lickly, Dan (July 17, 2009). "Recalling the 'Giant Leap'". MIT News. Archived from the original on September 15, 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2016.
- Hamilton, Margaret H. (March 1, 1971). "Computer Got Loaded". Datamation (Letter). ISSN 0011-6963.
- Rayl, A.J.S. (2008). "NASA Engineers and Scientists-Transforming Dreams Into Reality". 50th Magazine. NASA. Archived from the original on June 26, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- Roberts, Edward B. (1991). Entrepreneurs in High Technology: Lessons from MIT and Beyond. Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9780199762903.
- "AGC Biography – Margaret Hamilton". authors.library.caltech.edu. The Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology. May 9, 2002. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
- Huber, Hartmut (August 1987). "Higher Order Software – Evaluation and Critique" (PDF). Naval Surface Warfare Center. p. 2–1. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 7, 2016. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- M. Hamilton, S. Zeldin (1976) "Higher order software—A methodology for defining software" IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. SE-2, no. 1, Mar. 1976.
- Thompson, Arthur A.; Strickland, A. J., (1996), "Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases", McGraw-Hill Companies, ISBN 0-256-16205-0
- Rowena Barrett (June 1, 2004). Management, Labour Process and Software Development: Reality Bites. Routledge. p. 42. ISBN 978-1-134-36117-5. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- M. Hamilton; S. Zeldin. Higher order software techniques applied to a space shuttle prototype program in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 19, G. Goos and J. Hartmanis, Ed. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 17–31, presented at Program Symp. Proc., Colloque sur la Programmation, Paris, France, April 9–11, 1974.
- Cohen, B. (1986). The Specification of Complex Systems. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-14400-X.
- Paul, Lois (October 11, 1982). "Federal User Offers Free CAD/CAM Software". Computerworld. 16 (41): 9 – via Google Books.
- Harel, David (January 1980). "And/Or Programs: A New Approach to Structured Programming" (PDF). ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems. ACM. 2 (1). doi:10.1145/357084.357085. ISSN 0164-0925. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved October 14, 2016 – via Weizmann Institute of Science.
- Cushing, Steven (1983). Abstract Control Structures. And the Semantics of Quantifiers. EACL. Pisa, Italy. doi:10.3115/980092.980093. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016. Retrieved October 14, 2016 – via Semantic Scholar.
- Holland, Michael (June 1, 1997). "A Constrained Interface Refinement Method for Embedded System Design". Department of Computing, Macquarie University. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.37.7895.
- Krut, Robert W. (July 1993). "Overview of Hamilton Technologies, Inc. (HTI) 001". Integrating 001 Tool Support in Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis Methodology (PDF). Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University. pp. 13–15. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 13, 2019. Retrieved May 26, 2019 – via Defense Technical Information Center.
- Ouyang, Meng; Golay, Michael W. (September 1995). "An Integrated Formal Approach for Developing High Quality Software for Safety-Critical Systems". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT-ANP-TR-035. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved May 26, 2019 – via MIT Libraries.
- 2018 International Conference on Software Engineering celebrating its 40th anniversary, and 50 years of Software engineering. "ICSE 2018 – Plenary Sessions – Margaret Hamilton". Archived from the original on June 3, 2018. Retrieved June 9, 2018.
- Software Magazine. "What to Know About the Scientist who Invented the Term "Software Engineering"". Archived from the original on November 24, 2018. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
- Rayl, A.J.S. (October 16, 2008). "NASA Engineers and Scientists-Transforming Dreams Into Reality". 50th Magazine. NASA. Archived from the original on December 23, 2014. Retrieved December 27, 2014.
- "The NASA Heritage Of Creativity" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on May 29, 2016. Retrieved July 13, 2016.
- "Makers:Margaret Hamilton Videos". Makers.com. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2017.
- "Margaret Hamilton: 2017 Fellow Biography". Computer History Museum. Archived from the original on February 12, 2019. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- Verne (December 25, 2014). "Margaret Hamilton, the Engineer Who Took the Apollo to the Moon". Medium. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- IEEE Software. "50th Anniversary of Software Engineering". Archived from the original on February 12, 2019. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
- Hamilton, Margaret H. (2018). "What the Errors Tell Us". IEEE Software. 35 (5): 32–37. doi:10.1109/MS.2018.290110447. ISSN 0740-7459.
- McMillan, Robert (October 13, 2015). "Her code got humans on the moon – and invented software itself". Wired. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Software — and a Woman — at the Heart of Lunar Triumph". WIRED. Archived from the original on May 5, 2016. Retrieved April 29, 2016.
- Luke Kingma. "The Women Who Put Men on the Moon". Futurism. Archived from the original on July 23, 2016. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- "Ada Lovelace Awards". Association for Women in Computing. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016.
- "NASA Honors Apollo Engineer". NASA News (Press release). September 3, 2003. Archived from the original on December 26, 2017.
'The Apollo flight software Ms. Hamilton and her team developed was truly a pioneering effort,' said NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe. 'The concepts she and her team created became the building blocks for modern "software engineering." It's an honor to recognize Ms. Hamilton for her extraordinary contributions to NASA,' he said.
- "President Obama Names Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom". whitehouse.gov. November 16, 2016. Archived from the original on November 22, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- "Honour for software writer on Apollo moon mission". BBC News. November 23, 2016. Archived from the original on November 24, 2016. Retrieved November 23, 2016.
- "White House honors two of tech's female pioneers". CBS News. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
- "The 2017 Fellow Award Acceptance Speech". Computer History Museum.
- Science (June 22, 2017). "Women of NASA Lego toy set now on sale for $24.99". Business Insider. Archived from the original on November 1, 2017. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
- "Investiture of scientist Margaret Hamilton as an honorary doctor of the UPC". Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. October 18, 2018. Archived from the original on January 26, 2019. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- "BARD COLLEGE 2019 HONORARY DEGREE RECIPIENTS". Bard College. May 21, 2019.
- Steafel, Eleanor (July 20, 2019). "One woman in a room full of men". The Telegraph Magazine. London: Daily Telegraph plc. pp. 56–59, 61. OCLC 69022829.
- Hamilton Technologies, Inc.
- MIT News
- Margaret Hamilton Video produced by Makers: Women Who Make America
- Margaret Hamilton ’58 — Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipient: Earlham College profile