Mars Orbiter Mission 2


Mars Orbiter Mission 2 (MOM 2), also called Mangalyaan-2 ("Mars-craft", from Sanskrit: मंगल mangal, "Mars" and यान yān, "craft, vehicle"), is India's second interplanetary mission planned by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).[3] In a recorded interview in October 2019, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) director indicated possibility of inclusion of a lander[2] but in an interview to The Times Of India in February 2021 ISRO chairman clarified that the mission will consist only an orbiter.[6] The orbiter will use aerobraking to lower its initial apoapsis and enter into an orbit more suitable for observations.[7][8][9]

Mars Orbiter Mission 2
NamesMOM 2, Mangalyaan-2
Mission typeMars orbiter
Mission duration1 year (proposed)
Spacecraft properties
Payload mass≈100 kg (220 lb)[1][needs update]
Start of mission
Launch dateNET 2024[2][3]
RocketGSLV Mk III[4][2]
Launch siteSDSC/SHAR
Mars orbiter
Orbital parameters
Periareon altitude200 km (120 mi)[5]
Apoareon altitude2,000 km (1,200 mi)[5]
Indian missions to Mars
Mars Orbiter Mission 3 →

The Indian Space Research Organization plans to launch this mission by 2025. The mission will include a hyperspectral camera, a high resolution panchromatic camera and a radar to understand early Martian crust, recent basalts and boulder falls. The mission is proposed to be followed by another, including soft landing on Mars in 2030.[10]


Following the successful insertion of the Mars Orbiter Mission (also called Mangalyaan) into Martian orbit, ISRO announced its intent to launch a second mission to Mars at the Engineers Conclave conference held in Bengaluru on 28 October 2014.[11] The proposed launch vehicle for this campaign is the GSLV Mk III, which flew for the first time on 5 June 2017, which might be powerful enough to place MOM on a direct-to-Mars trajectory alongside carrying much more heavier satellite, unlike the lighter Mars Orbiter Mission, which used a less powerful PSLV rocket.[12]

In January 2016, India and France signed a letter of intent for ISRO and CNES to jointly build MOM 2 by 2020,[13] but by April 2018, France was not yet involved in the mission.[14] The Indian government funded MOM 2 in its 2017 budget proposal, and ISRO is considering whether the best path is to conduct an orbiter/lander/rover mission or to opt for only an orbiter with more sophisticated instruments than those flown on MOM.[9] In a podcast recording VSSC director S. Somanath in October 2019, it was reported the architecture for mission is yet to be finalized and may also have a lander and rover, but no timeline was announced.[2]

In February 2021, ISRO called for 'Announcement of Opportunities' on MOM 2. In it, K. Sivan announced that Mangalyaan 2 will only be an orbiter mission.[15][16]


An Announcement of Opportunity was released requesting submissions for scientific instruments for an orbiter only, with a deadline set for 20 September 2016.[17][18] The total science payload mass is estimated at 100 kg (220 lb).[1]

One of the science payloads under development is an ionosphere plasma instrument named ARIS. It is being developed by Space Satellite Systems and Payloads Centre (SSPACE), which is part of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST). The engineering model and high vacuum test have been completed.[19]

In a panel discussion in September 2022, it was told that mission would include a hyperspectral camera, a very high resolution panchromatic camera and a radar to better understand the early stages of Mars, its early crust, recent basalts, and ongoing activities such as boulder falls.[10]

Future missionsEdit

The MOM-2 has been proposed to be followed by MOM-3 which would include soft landing of a rover on Mars, possibly at Eridania basin.[10]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b MOM Orbiter enters 6th year, ISRO eyes Mangalyaan-2. Rasheed Kappan, The Deccan Herald. 25 September 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d "Episode 90 – An update on ISRO's activities with S Somanath and R Umamaheshwaran". AstrotalkUK. 24 October 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  3. ^ a b Jatiya, Satyanarayan (18 July 2019). "Rajya Sabha Unstarred Question No. 2955" (PDF). Retrieved 30 August 2019.[dead link] Alt URL
  4. ^ Fattah, Md Saim (29 October 2014). "India plans second Mars mission in 2018".
  5. ^ a b D. S., Madhumathi (10 August 2016). "ISRO sets the ball rolling for Mars Mission-2". The Hindu. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  6. ^ "It's tough to land on Mars, Nasa did a good job; our 2nd Mars mission will be an orbital one: Isro chief - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  7. ^ Laxman, Srinivas (29 October 2016). "With 82 launches in a go, Isro to rocket into record books". The Times of India. Times News Network. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  8. ^ Haider, Syed A.; et al. (2018). "Indian Mars and Venus Missions: Science and Exploration" (PDF). Scientific Assembly Abstracts. 42rd Committee on Space Research Scientific Assembly. 14–22 July 2018. Pasadena, California. p. 432. B4.1-0010-18.
  9. ^ a b Bagla, Pallava (17 February 2017). "India eyes a return to Mars and a first run at Venus". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aal0781. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  10. ^ a b c Neeraj Srivastava; S. Vijayan; Amit Basu Sarbadhikari (27 September 2022), "Future Exploration of the Inner Solar Syetem: Scope and the Focus Areas", Planetary Sciences Division (PSDN), Physical Research Laboratory – via ISRO Facebook Panel Discussion, Mars Orbiter Mission National Meet
  11. ^ "We plan to launch 2nd Mars Mission in 2018, says ISRO satellite Centre Director". Business Today. Indo-Asian News Service. 30 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  12. ^ Singh, Surendra (6 June 2017). "GSLV Mk III breaks Isro's jinx of failure in debut rocket launches". The Times of India. Times News Network. Retrieved 8 June 2018.
  13. ^ Singh, Kanishk (28 January 2016). "India's French Connection: CNES and ISRO jointly will develop Mangalyaan 2". The TeCake. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  14. ^ Singh, Surendra (17 April 2018). "India, France to work together on inter-planetary missions". The Times of India. Times News Network. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  15. ^ "Isro says India's second Mars mission Mangalyaan-2 will be an orbiter mission". India Today. 20 February 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  16. ^ "India's next Mars mission likely to be an orbiter". The Week. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  17. ^ "Announcement of Opportunity (AO) for future Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM-2)". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  18. ^ "ISRO seeking proposals for Mars Orbiter Mission-2". The Indian Express. 26 November 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  19. ^ Rajwi, Tiki (19 July 2018). "ISRO's space academy eyeing Mars and Venus". The New Indian Express. Express News Service. Retrieved 3 October 2018.