Marshal of the air force

Summary

Marshal of the air force, marshal of the air, or a similar name is a five-star rank (or NATO equivalent OF-10) and an English-language term for the most senior rank in some air forces. It is usually the direct equivalent of a general of the air force in other air forces, a field marshal or general of the army in many armies, or a naval admiral of the fleet.

The rank may be regarded as originating in the British Royal Air Force (RAF), in which the most senior rank remains Marshal of the RAF. Several other Commonwealth air forces and others that have been influenced by the practices of the RAF (especially in the Middle East) have similar names for the most senior rank, such as Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). There is sometimes confusion with the next most senior ranks in such cases: air chief marshal and air marshal (proper). The rank of Marshal of the RAF existed on paper from 1919; the first person to hold the rank was Lord Hugh Trenchard, from 1927. In the UK the rank has often been held by the most senior, actively-serving RAF officer, whereas in other Commonwealth countries the equivalent rank has been purely ceremonial or honorary in function. (For example, the rank of Marshal of the RAAF has been held only by a monarch or consort.)

In Portuguese the equivalent air force ranks are Marechal do Ar (lit. "Marshal of the Air") in Brazil, or Marechal in Portugal, both of which are sometimes translated as "marshal of the air force". In the past, a similar name has been used for the most senior rank in Italian air forces.

A holder of several senior ranks in the Indonesian air force (Tentara Nasional Indonesia-Angkatan Udara; TNI-AU), may be referred to as a marsekal di TNI-AU (lit. "marshal of the TNI-AU"). The most senior rank is Marsekal Besar ("Grand Marshal") is sometimes translated as "marshal of the air force".

In Nazi Germany, the most senior rank of the Luftwaffe was Generalfeldmarschall (a rank that was also used by the German Army). While the commander of the Luftwaffe, Hermann Göring was the only person to hold the more senior rank of Reichsmarschall, this rank could technically have been bestowed on any senior officer of the Heer (army), Kriegsmarine (navy) and Luftwaffe, which together comprised the Wehrmacht.

While the air forces of the former Soviet Union had ranks named chief marshal of the aviation branch (or "chief marshal of the air force") and marshal of the aviation branch (or "marshal of the air force"), these were four-star and three-star ranks, respectively (and therefore equivalent to the less senior RAF ranks of Air Chief Marshal and Air Marshal respectively).

Seniority

A marshal of the air force can be properly considered equivalent to an army marshals or field marshal in many countries, as well as the naval rank of admiral of the fleet. That is, marshal of the air force is a five-star rank and in NATO countries it is described by the ranking code of OF-10. As such a senior rank, it is very seldom held. It is awarded either in a ceremonial capacity to Heads of State or members of Royal Families, or to the most Senior Officers in large Air Forces.

In the Air Force of Australia, India, Thailand and the United Kingdom, "Marshals of the Air Force" are immediately senior to Air Chief Marshals. In the case of New Zealand, although the rank of Marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force has been bestowed, no Royal New Zealand Air Force officer has attained higher rank than Air Marshal and the New Zealand rank of Air Chief Marshal only exists on paper. A similar situation to the one in New Zealand also existed in Malaysia until the 1970s when the Royal Malaysian Air Force replaced its air-officer ranks with general-officer ranks, although it retained the rank of Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force. The rank of Marshal of the Royal Canadian Air Force was never granted.[1]

During Germany's Nazi period, the Luftwaffe (Air Force), in common with the Heer (Army), used the rank of generalfeldmarschall (Field Marshal), which was equivalent to großadmiral (Grand Admiral) in the Navy. Generalfeldmarschall was immediately senior to generaloberst (Colonel General) and it was the most senior German Air Force and Army rank until the promotion of Hermann Göring, the Commander of the Luftwaffe, to the even higher rank of reichsmarschall (Imperial Marshal or Marshal of the Realm) in July 1940. The German ranks of reichsmarschall and generalfeldmarschall ceased to exist with the fall of the Third Reich.

Insignia and distinguishing flags

Rank insignia

There are a variety of rank insignia in use by the different air forces which maintain a rank of marshal of the air force. Some, such as the Royal Air Force, derive the pattern from the sleeve lace for an admiral of the fleet, using one broad light blue band on a wider broad black band with four narrow light blue bands each on slightly wider black bands. Others use a pattern of stars, typically numbering five in total.

Command flags

The following command or rank flags are or have been in use:

Current holders of the rank

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, holds the ranks of Marshal of the Royal Air Force, Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force and Marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force.

As of 2017, there are 14 living individuals who hold or have held the rank, or its equivalents, of Marshal of the Air Force. 10 of those are royalty who have been appointed to the rank in a ceremonial capacity, including Queen Sirikit of Thailand, the Duke of Edinburgh, the Prince of Wales and the current head of state of Malaysia. In the case of Malaysia, the elected Yang di-Pertuan Agong is appointed a Marshal of the Air Force for his tenure as head of state, but relinquishes the rank after completing his term in office. He can, however, be re-appointed to the rank if he later serves another term.

The Duke of Edinburgh holds the ceremonial rank of a Marshal of the Royal Air Force, as well as the honorary ranks of Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force and Marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force; owing to their smaller size, however, neither of the latter two air forces have ever used the rank in an operational capacity. Although the rank of Marshal of the Royal Canadian Air Force existed on paper until 1968, the Duke of Edinburgh was never appointed to this rank nor to the other Canadian 5-star ranks before they were abolished that year. In 2012, his son, the Prince of Wales, was appointed to the British rank.

The remaining four holders of the rank were all serving air officers, three of whom served as Chief of the Air Staff of the Royal Air Force, and were promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Royal Air Force upon concluding their tenure. Of those, only Lord Craig did not retire then, as he went on to serve as Chief of the Defence Staff as a Marshal of the RAF. In June 2014, retired Air Chief Marshal the Lord Stirrup was promoted to Marshal of the RAF in a ceremonial capacity, marking the first time since 1992 that an RAF air officer had been awarded the rank; Lord Stirrup had served as Chief of the Defence Staff from 2006 to 2010.

List of marshals of the air force

Country
Year of promotion /
appointment
Portrait Officer
Rank
Year of birth
Year of death
Notes
Australia 1938 HM King George VI Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force 1895 1952 Assumed the rank 2 June 1938.[2]
Australia 1954 HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force 1921 - Honorary rank.
Appointed 1 April 1954.[3]
Bahrain HM Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah Marshal of the Royal Bahrain Air Force 1950 - Honorary rank.[citation needed]
Brazil 1959 Armando Figueira Trompowsky de Almeida Marechal-do-ar 1889 1964 Promoted 30 January 1959[4]
Brazil 1960 Eduardo Gomes cropped from 1982 Brazil stamp.jpg Eduardo Gomes Marechal-do-ar 1896 1981 Patron of the Brazilian Air Force. Promoted 22 September 1960.[5]
Brazil Marechal do Ar Casimiro Montenegro Filho.jpg Casimiro Montenegro Filho Marechal-do-ar 1904 2000
Egypt HM King Farouk Marshal of the Royal Egyptian Air Force 1920 1965 Honorary rank.[citation needed]
Egypt 1952 HM King Fuad II Marshal of the Royal Egyptian Air Force 1952 - Honorary rank.
Appointed 26 July 1952 at the age of six months.[citation needed]
Ethiopia HIM Haile Selassie Marshal of the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force 1892 1975 Honorary rank.[citation needed]
Ethiopia HIM Amha Selassie Marshal of the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force 1916 1997 Honorary rank.[citation needed]
Germany 1938 Goeringcaptivity2.jpg Hermann Göring Reichsmarschall 1893 1945 Promoted to Generalfeldmarschall 4 February 1938, promoted to Reichsmarschall 19 July 1940
Germany 1940 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R93434, Albert Kesselring.jpg Albert Kesselring Generalfeldmarschall 1885 1960 Promoted 19 July 1940
Germany 1940 Erhard Milch.jpg Erhard Milch Generalfeldmarschall 1892 1972 Promoted 19 July 1940
Germany 1940 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1987-121-30A, Hugo Sperrle.jpg Hugo Sperrle Generalfeldmarschall 1885 1953 Promoted 19 July 1940
Germany 1943 Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-452-0985-36, Russland, Generäle Löhr und W. v. Richthofen (cropped).jpg Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen Generalfeldmarschall 1895 1945 Promoted 16 February 1943
Germany 1945 Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-401-0204-25, Robert Ritter v. Greim.jpg Robert Ritter von Greim Generalfeldmarschall 1892 1945 Promoted 25 April 1945
Greece 1937 George II of Greece Marshal of the Royal Hellenic Air Force 1890 1947 Honorary rank[6] as commander-in-chef of the Greek armed forces.
Greece 1947 Paul of Greece Marshal of the Royal Hellenic Air Force 1901 1964 Honorary rank as commander-in-chef of the Greek armed forces.
Greece 1964 Constantine II of Greece Marshal of the Royal Hellenic Air Force 1940 Honorary rank as commander-in-chef of the Greek armed forces.
India 2002 Arjan Singh.gif Arjan Singh Marshal of the Indian Air Force 1919 2017[7] Promoted.
26 January 2002[8]
Iraq 1933 HM King Ghazi Marshal of the Royal Iraqi Air Force 1912 1939 Honorary rank.
Appointed 8 September 1933
Iraq 1939 HRH Prince Abdul Illah Marshal of the Royal Iraqi Air Force 1913 1958 Honorary rank.
Appointed 6 April 1939[citation needed]
Iraq 1953 HM King Faisal II Marshal of the Royal Iraqi Air Force 1935 1958 Honorary rank.
Appointed 2 May 1953
Italy 1933 Italo Balbo in 1930.png Italo Balbo Maresciallo dell'Aria 1896 1940 Promoted August 1933
Jordan KingHussain.JPG HM King Hussein of Jordan Marshal of the Royal Jordanian Air Force 1935 1999 Honorary rank.[9]
Jordan 1999 HM King Abdullah II Marshal of the Royal Jordanian Air Force 1962 - Honorary rank.
Appointed 7 February 1999[9]
Malaysia 1970 Sultan Abdul Halim Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force 1927 2017 Honorary rank.
Appointed 21 September 1970.[10] Relinquished role as Head of State on 20 September 1975. Re-appointed Head of State on 13 December 2011.
Malaysia 1975 Sultan Yahya Petra Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force 1917 1979 Honorary rank.
Appointed 21 September 1975[citation needed]
Malaysia 1979 Sultan Ahmad Shah Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force 1930 2019 Honorary rank.
Appointed 30 March 1979[citation needed]
Malaysia 1984 Sultan Iskandar Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force 1932 2010 Honorary rank.
Appointed 26 April 1984,[citation needed] died 22 January 2010.
Malaysia 1989 Sultan Azlan Shah Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force 1928 2014 Honorary rank.
Appointed 26 April 1989[citation needed] died 28 May 2014.
Malaysia 1994 Tuanku Jaafar Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force 1922 2008 Honorary rank.
Appointed 26 April 1994,[citation needed] died 27 December 2008.
Malaysia 1999 Salahuddin Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force 1926 2001 Honorary rank.
Appointed 26 April 1999[citation needed] died 21 November 2001.
Malaysia 2001 Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force 1943 - Honorary rank.
Appointed 12 December 2001.[citation needed]
Malaysia 2007 Mizan Zainal Abidin Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force 1962 - Honorary rank.
Appointed 16 February 2007.[citation needed]
New Zealand 1977 HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Marshal of the Royal New Zealand Air Force 1921 - Honorary rank.
Appointed 11 June 1977.[11]
Oman 1974 Sultan Qaboos Marshal of the Royal Air Force of Oman 1940 2020 Honorary rank.[citation needed]
Portugal 1958 General Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes, Presidente de Portugal.tif Francisco Craveiro Lopes Marechal da Força Aérea 1894 1964 Honorary rank.[12]
Portugal 1990 Humberto Delgado Marechal da Força Aérea 1906 1965 Posthumous promotion.[13]
Saudi Arabia 1991 HRH Prince Khalid bin Sultan Field Marshal 1949 -
Thailand 1941 Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram.jpg Plaek Phibunsongkhram Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force 1897 1964 Appointed 28 July 1941.[14]
Thailand 1954 Wax sculpture of Fuen Ronnabhakas Riddhagni, National Memorial, Thailand (2).jpg Fuen Ronnaphagrad Ritthakhanee Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force 1900 1987 Appointed 27 July 1954.[15]
Thailand 1959 Field Marshal Sarit Dhanarajata.jpg Sarit Dhanarajata Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force 1908 1963 Honorary rank.
Appointed 28 February 1959.[16]
Thailand 1960 Chalermkiat Vatthanangkun Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force 1914 1960 Awarded Posthumously, after plane crashed while on duty.
Appointed 24 May 1960.[17]
Thailand 1964 Thanom Kittikachorn 1960 02.jpg Thanom Kittikachorn Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force 1911 2004 Honorary rank.
Appointed 11 January 1964.[18]
Appointed himself.
Thailand 1973 Praphas Charusathien.jpg Praphas Charusathien Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force 1912 1997 Honorary rank.
Appointed 6 June 1973.[19]
Thailand 1992 HM Queen Sirikit Marshal of the Royal Thai Air Force 1932 - Honorary rank.
Appointed 4 August 1992.[20]
Possibly the only woman to have held such rank.
United Kingdom 1927 Sir Hugh Trenchard (cropped).jpg Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1873 1956 Promoted 1 January 1927.
United Kingdom 1933 Sir John Salmond in 1925.jpg Sir John Salmond Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1881 1968 Promoted 1 January 1933.
United Kingdom 1936 HM King Edward VIII Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1894 1972 Honorary rank.
Appointed 21 January 1936.
United Kingdom 1936 HM King George VI in MRAF uniform.jpg HM King George VI Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1895 1952 Honorary rank.
Appointed 11 December 1936.
United Kingdom 1937 Marshal of the RAF Sir Edward Ellington.jpg Sir Edward Ellington Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1877 1967 Promoted 1 January 1937.
United Kingdom 1940 Air Chief Marshal Sir Cyril Newall (close-up).jpg Cyril Newall, 1st Baron Newall Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1886 1963 Promoted 4 October 1940. Retired 20 days later.[21]
United Kingdom 1944 Lord Portal.jpg Charles Portal, 1st Viscount Portal of Hungerford Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1893 1971 Promoted 1 June 1944.
United Kingdom 1945 Sir Arthur Tedder Marschal of the RAF.jpg Arthur Tedder, 1st Baron Tedder Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1890 1967 Promoted 12 September 1945.
United Kingdom 1946 Royal Air Force Fighter Command, 1939-1940. D1418.jpg Sholto Douglas, 1st Baron Douglas of Kirtleside Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1893 1969 Promoted 1 January 1946.
United Kingdom 1946 Arthur Harris.2.jpg Sir Arthur Harris Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1892 1984 Promoted 1 January 1946, several months after retirement.[22]
United Kingdom 1950 Sir John Slessor Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1897 1979 Promoted 8 June 1950.
United Kingdom 1953 HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1921 - Honorary rank.
Appointed 15 January 1953.
United Kingdom 1954 Sir William Dickson Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1898 1987 Promoted 1 June 1954.
United Kingdom 1958 Dermot Boyle.jpg Sir Dermot Boyle Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1904 1993 Promoted 1 January 1958.
United Kingdom 1958 HRH Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1900 1974 Honorary rank.
Appointed 12 June 1958.
United Kingdom 1962 Sir Thomas Pike Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1906 1983 Promoted 6 April 1962.[23]
United Kingdom 1967 Charles Elworthy, Baron Elworthy Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1911 1993 Promoted 1 April 1967.[24]
United Kingdom 1971 Sir John Grandy Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1913 2004 Promoted and retired on the same day (1 April 1971).[25]
United Kingdom 1974 Sir Denis Spotswood Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1916 2001 Promoted and retired on the same day (31 March 1974).[26]
United Kingdom 1976 Sir Andrew Humphrey Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1921 1977 Promoted 6 August 1976.[27]
United Kingdom 1977 Neil Cameron, Baron Cameron of Balhousie Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1920 1985 Promoted 31 July 1977.[28]
United Kingdom 1982 Sir Michael Beetham Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1923 2015 Promoted and retired on the same day (14 October 1982).[29]
United Kingdom 1985 Sir Keith Williamson Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1928 2018 Promoted and retired on the same day (15 October 1985).[30]
United Kingdom 1988 David Craig, Baron Craig of Radley Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1929 - Promoted 14 November 1988.[31]
United Kingdom 1992 Les Aspin with Air Marshal Sir Peter Harding (cropped).jpg Sir Peter Harding Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1933 - Promoted 6 November 1992.[32] Resigned commission 14 June 1994.[33]
United Kingdom 2012 HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1948 - Honorary rank.
Appointed 16 June 2012.[34]
United Kingdom 2014 Stirrup in Istanbul.jpg Jock Stirrup, Baron Stirrup Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1949 - Honorary rank. Promoted 13 June 2014.[35]
Sri Lanka 2019 Roshan Goonetileke Marshal of the Air Force 1956 - Honorary rank . Promoted 07 August 2019.[36]

Other countries

The rank also exists or has existed (on paper) in Afghanistan, Bangladesh,[37] Brunei, Iran, South Korea, Nigeria,[38] Pakistan[39] and South Vietnam, but not all of these countries have used it. The Turkish Air Force maintains a rank of hava mareşalı (literally air marshal but equivalent to five-star rank). The Indonesian Air Force maintains the rank of marsekal besar (literally, "great marshal" and also a five-star rank) although no Indonesian Air Force officer has ever been promoted to the rank. The French Air Force, in common with the French Army has marshal of France as its most senior rank. However, unlike the French Army, the Air Force has never had one of its officers created a marshal of France.

The United States does not use the rank, instead using general of the air force which has only been held once and is currently retained only on paper. China also does not use a marshal rank, preferring first class general (kong jun yi ji shang jiang) which has never been held by an air force officer and was abolished in 1994. Spain uses the equivalent rank of captain general of the Air Force which is held only by HM King Felipe VI.

Fictional use

A marshal of the air force is mentioned in Roald Dahl's book The BFG. Dahl himself was a Royal Air Force officer during World War II.

See also

References

  1. ^ CAP 6 Dress Orders for the Royal Canadian Air Force. Ottawa: RCAF, 1958. pp. 3–62.
  2. ^ "King became first Marshal of the RAAF". Australian Department of Defence. RAAF Air Power Development Centre. 2017 [1938]. Archived from the original on 1 April 2017.
  3. ^ "No. 40137". The London Gazette. 2 April 1954. p. 1959. Announcement of the appointment of HRH Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, as admiral of the fleet in the Royal Australian Navy, field marshal in the Australian Military Forces and marshal of the Royal Australian Air Force.
  4. ^ "INCAER - Página inicial".
  5. ^ "Marechal-do-Ar Eduardo Gomes, Patron of the Brazilian Air Force - HISTORY OF THE BRAZILIAN AIR FORCE".
  6. ^ The Who's who of the Allied Governments. 2. Allied Publications. 1942. p. 62.
  7. ^ "Marshal of IAF Arjan Singh cremated with full state honour".
  8. ^ "India". Archived from the original on 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
  9. ^ a b Jordan Archived 2008-12-07 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Sultan Abdul Halim
  11. ^ "No. 47237". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 June 1977. p. 7127.
  12. ^ http://www.archontology.org/nations/portugal/port010/craveiro.php
  13. ^ Portugal
  14. ^ Royal Gazette, Announcement of Royal Decree, Volume 58, Page 981, 28 July 2484 B.E.
  15. ^ Royal Gazette, Announcement from the Secretariat of the Cabinet pertaining to the awarding of military ranks, Volume 71, Chapter 47, Page 1672, 27 July 2497 B.E.
  16. ^ Royal Gazette, Announcement from the Secretariat of the Cabinet pertaining to the awarding of military ranks, Volume 76, Chapter 28, Page 12, 28 February 2502 B.E.
  17. ^ Royal Gazette, Announcement from the Secretariat of the Cabinet pertaining to the awarding of military ranks, Volume 77, Chapter 43, Page 2474, 24 May 2503 B.E.
  18. ^ Royal Gazette, Announcement from the Office of the Prime Minister pertaining to the awarding of military ranks, Volume 81, Chapter 3, Page 1, 11 January 2507 B.E.
  19. ^ Royal Gazette, Announcement from the Office of the Prime Minister pertaining to the awarding of military ranks, Volume 90, Chapter 64, Page 1, 6 June 2516 B.E.
  20. ^ Royal Gazette, Announcement from the Office of the Prime Minister pertaining to the awarding of military ranks, Volume 109, Chapter 111, Page 1, 4 August 2535 B.E.
  21. ^ Baron Newall
  22. ^ Barrass, Malcolm (2007-09-29). "Marshal of the RAF Sir Arthur Harris". Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 2008-03-31.
  23. ^ Barrass, Malcolm (2007-09-01). "Marshal of the RAF Sir Thomas Pike". Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 2008-04-20.
  24. ^ Barrass, Malcolm (2007-06-16). "Marshal of the RAF The Lord Elworthy of Timaru". Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
  25. ^ Barrass, Malcolm (2007-06-16). "Marshal of the RAF Sir John Grandy". Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 2008-04-01.
  26. ^ Barrass, Malcolm (2007-10-07). "Marshal of the RAF Sir Denis Spotswood". Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 2008-04-02.
  27. ^ Probert, Henry (1991). High Commanders of the Royal Air Force. London: HMSO. p. 133. ISBN 0-11-772635-4.
  28. ^ Probert, p. 135.
  29. ^ Probert, p. 137.
  30. ^ Probert, p. 139.
  31. ^ Probert, p. 141.
  32. ^ "No. 53103". The London Gazette (Supplement). 9 November 1992. p. 18862.
  33. ^ "No. 53814". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 October 1994. p. 14206.
  34. ^ "Prince Charles awarded highest rank in all three armed forces," Daily Telegraph, 16 June 2012. Accessed 18 June 2012.
  35. ^ "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
  36. ^ "President awards honorary ranks to a Retired Admiral and Retired Air Chief Marshal - Sri Lanka Latest News". 2019-08-07.
  37. ^ http://www.bangladeshnavy.org/ranks.html
  38. ^ http://www.nigerianairforce.net/AboutNAF/ColoursWings.aspx
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-03-04. Retrieved 2009-05-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)