Masturbation is the sexual stimulation of one's own genitals for sexual arousal or other sexual pleasure, usually to the point of orgasm. The stimulation may involve hands, fingers, everyday objects, sex toys such as vibrators, or combinations of these. Mutual masturbation is masturbation with a sexual partner, and may include manual stimulation of a partner's genitals (fingering or a handjob), or be used as a form of non-penetrative sex.
Masturbation is frequent in both sexes and at any age. Various medical and psychological benefits have been attributed to a healthy attitude toward sexual activity in general and to masturbation in particular. No causal relationship is known between masturbation and any form of mental or physical disorder. In the Western world, masturbation in private or with a partner is generally considered a normal and healthy part of sexual enjoyment.
Masturbation has been depicted in art since prehistoric times, and is both mentioned and discussed in very early writings. In the 18th and 19th centuries, some European theologians and physicians described it as "heinous", "deplorable", and "hideous", but during the 20th century these taboos generally declined. There has been an increase in discussion and portrayal of masturbation in art, popular music, television, films, and literature. Today, religions vary in their views of masturbation; some view it as a spiritually detrimental practice, some see it as not spiritually detrimental, and others take a situational view. The legal status of masturbation has also varied through history and masturbation in public is illegal in most countries. Animal masturbation has been observed in many species, both in the wild and in captivity.
The English word masturbation was introduced in the 18th century, based on the Latin verb masturbari, alongside the slightly earlier onanism. The Latin verb masturbari is of uncertain origin. Suggested derivations include an unattested word for penis, *mazdo, cognate with Greek mézea μέζεα, "genitals", or alternatively a corruption of an unattested *manusturpare ("to defile with the hand"), by association with turbare "to disturb".
While masturbation is the formal word for this practice, many other expressions are in common use. Terms such as playing with yourself, pleasuring oneself and slang such as wanking, jerking off, and frigging are common. Self-abuse and self-pollution were common in early modern times and are still found in modern dictionaries. A large variety of other euphemisms and dysphemisms exist which describe masturbation. For a list of terms, see the entry for masturbate in Wiktionary.
Masturbation involves touching, pressing, rubbing, or massaging a person's genital area, either with the fingers or against an object such as a pillow; inserting fingers or an object into the vagina or anus (see anal masturbation); and stimulating the penis or vulva with an electric vibrator, which may also be inserted into the vagina or anus. It may also involve touching, rubbing, or pinching the nipples or other erogenous zones while masturbating. Both sexes sometimes apply lubricants to reduce friction.
Some people get sexual pleasure by inserting objects, such as urethral sounds, into the urethra (the tube through which urine and, in men, semen, flows), a practice known as urethral play or "sounding". Other objects such as ball point pens and thermometers are sometimes used, although this practice can lead to injury or infection. Some people masturbate by using machines that simulate intercourse.
Men and women may masturbate until they are close to orgasm, stop for a while to reduce excitement, and then resume masturbating. They may repeat this cycle multiple times. This "stop and go" build-up, known as "edging", can achieve even stronger orgasms. Rarely, people quit stimulation just before orgasm to retain the heightened energy that normally comes down after orgasm.
The most common masturbation technique among males is to hold the penis with a loose fist and then to move the hand up and down the shaft. This type of stimulation is typically all that is required to achieve orgasm and ejaculation. The speed of the hand motion varies throughout the masturbation session.
Male masturbation techniques may differ between males who have been circumcised and those who have not. Some techniques which may work for one individual can be difficult or uncomfortable for another. For males who have not been circumcised, stimulation of the penis typically comes from the "pumping" of the foreskin, whereby the foreskin is held and slid up and down over the glans, which, depending on foreskin length, is completely or partially covered and then uncovered in a rapid motion. The outer foreskin glides smoothly over the inner foreskin. The glans itself may widen and lengthen as the stimulation continues, becoming slightly darker in colour, while the gliding action of the foreskin reduces friction. This technique may also be used by some circumcised men who have sufficient excess skin remaining from their circumcision.
For circumcised males, on whom the glans is mostly or completely uncovered, this technique creates more direct contact between the hand and the glans. To avoid friction, irritation and soreness from this resulting friction, some may prefer to use a personal lubricant, masturbation cream, or saliva.
The shaft skin can also be slid back and forth with just the index finger and thumb wrapped around the penis. A variation on this is to place the fingers and thumb on the penis as if playing a flute, and then shuttle them back and forth. Lying face down on a comfortable surface such as a mattress or pillow, the penis can be rubbed against it. This technique may include the use of a simulacrum, or artificial vagina.
Prostate massage is one other technique used for sexual stimulation, often in order to reach orgasm. The prostate is sometimes referred to as the "male G-spot" or P-spot. Some men can achieve orgasm through stimulation of the prostate gland, by stimulating it using a well-lubricated finger or dildo inserted through the anus into the rectum, and men who report the sensation of prostate stimulation often give descriptions similar to females' accounts of G-spot stimulation. Prostate stimulation can produce more intense orgasms than penile stimulation. Stimulating the prostate from outside, via pressure on the perineum, can be pleasurable as well.
Anal masturbation without any prostate stimulation, with fingers or otherwise, is also one other technique which some men enjoy. Since the muscles of the anus contract during orgasm, the presence of an object holding the sphincter open can strengthen the sensation of the contractions and intensify orgasm. The practice may be pleasurable because of the large number of nerve endings in the anal area, and because of the added stimulation gained from stretching the anal sphincter muscles while inserting the finger. A good quality personal lubricant is advisable to both increase the pleasurable sensation and aid insertion. Some people prefer to simply stimulate the outer ring of the anus, while others will follow this by inserting one or more fingers.
There are many other variations on male masturbation techniques. Men may also rub or massage the glans, the rim of the glans, and the frenular delta. Some men place both hands directly on their penis during masturbation, while others may use their free hand to fondle their testicles, nipples, or other parts of their body. The nipples are erogenous zones, and vigorous stimulation of them during masturbation usually causes the penis to become erect more quickly than it would otherwise. Some may keep their hand stationary while pumping into it with pelvic thrusts in order to simulate the motions of sexual intercourse. Some may lay in the prone position and rub their genitals against the bed sheet or other surface, a technique called prone masturbation. In a bath or shower a male may direct water via a handheld showerhead at his frenulum, testicles, or perineum. Others may also use vibrators and other sexual devices more commonly associated with female masturbation.
A somewhat controversial ejaculation control technique is to put pressure on the perineum, about halfway between the scrotum and the anus, just before ejaculating. This can, however, redirect semen into the bladder (referred to as retrograde ejaculation).
Female masturbation involves the stroking or rubbing of a woman's vulva, especially her clitoris, with an index or middle fingers, or both. Sometimes one or more fingers may be inserted into the vagina to stroke its frontal wall where the G-spot may be located. Masturbation aids such as a vibrator, dildo, or Ben Wa balls can also be used to stimulate the vagina and clitoris. Many women caress their breasts or stimulate a nipple with the free hand and anal stimulation is also enjoyed by some. Personal lubricant is sometimes used during masturbation, especially when penetration is involved, but this is not universal and many women find their natural lubrication sufficient.
Like males, common positions for female masturbation include lying on back or face down, sitting, squatting, kneeling, or standing. In a bath or shower a female may direct water via a handheld showerhead at her clitoris, vulva, or perineum. Lying face down one may use the hands, one may straddle a pillow, the corner or edge of the bed, a partner's leg or some scrunched-up clothing and "hump" the vulva and clitoris against it. Standing up, a chair, the corner of an item of furniture, or even a washing machine can be used to stimulate the clitoris through the labia and clothing. Some masturbate only using pressure applied to the clitoris without direct contact, for example by pressing the palm or ball of the hand against underwear or other clothing. In the 1920s, Havelock Ellis reported that turn-of-the-century seamstresses using treadle-operated sewing machines could achieve orgasm by sitting near the edge of their chairs.
Women can stimulate themselves sexually by crossing their legs tightly and clenching the muscles in their legs, creating pressure on the genitals. This can potentially be done in public without observers noticing. Thoughts, fantasies, and memories of previous instances of arousal and orgasm can produce sexual excitation. Some women can orgasm spontaneously by force of will alone, although this may not strictly qualify as masturbation as no physical stimulus is involved.
Sex therapists will sometimes recommend that female patients take time to masturbate to orgasm, for example to help improve sexual health and relationships, to help determine what is erotically pleasing to them, and because mutual masturbation can lead to more satisfying sexual relationships and added intimacy.
Mutual masturbation involves two or more people who sexually stimulate each other, usually with the hands. It can be practiced by people of any sexual orientation, and can be part of other sexual activity. It may be used as foreplay, or as an alternative to sexual penetration. When used as an alternative to penile-vaginal penetration, the goal may be to preserve virginity or to avoid risk of pregnancy.
Mutual masturbation can be practiced in pairs or groups with or without actually touching another person for example:
- Non-contact mutual masturbation - Two people masturbating in the presence of each other but not touching.
- Contact mutual masturbation - One person touching another person to masturbate. The other person may do the same during or after.
- Non-contact group - More than two people masturbating in the presence of each other in a group but not touching each other.
- Contact group - More than two people physically touching each other to masturbate as a group.
- Mutual masturbation foreplay - The manual stimulation of each other's genitals where the session eventually leads to sexual intercourse.
Frequency, age, and sex
Frequency of masturbation is determined by many factors, e.g., one's resistance to sexual tension, hormone levels influencing sexual arousal, sexual habits, peer influences, health and one's attitude to masturbation formed by culture; E. Heiby and J. Becker examined the latter. Medical causes have also been associated with masturbation.
Different studies have found that masturbation is frequent in humans. Alfred Kinsey's 1950s studies on US population have shown that 92% of men and 62% of women have masturbated during their lifespan. Similar results have been found in a 2007 British national probability survey. It was found that, between individuals aged 16 to 44, 95% of men and 71% of women masturbated at some point in their lives. 73% of men and 37% of women reported masturbating in the four weeks before their interview, while 53% of men and 18% of women reported masturbating in the previous seven days.
The Merck Manual says that 97% of men and 80% of women have masturbated and that, generally speaking, males masturbate more than females.
Masturbation is considered normal when performed by children, even in early infancy. In 2009, the Sheffield NHS Health Trust issued a pamphlet called "Pleasure" which discussed the health benefits of masturbation. This was done in response to data and experience from the other EU member states to reduce teen pregnancy and STIs (STDs), and to promote healthy habits.
In the book Human Sexuality: Diversity in Contemporary America, by Strong, Devault and Sayad, the authors point out, "A baby boy may laugh in his crib while playing with his erect penis". "Baby girls sometimes move their bodies rhythmically, almost violently, appearing to experience orgasm." Italian gynecologists Giorgio Giorgi and Marco Siccardi observed via ultrasound a female fetus possibly masturbating and having what appeared to be an orgasm.
Popular belief asserts that individuals of either sex who are not in sexually active relationships tend to masturbate more frequently than those who are; however, much of the time this is not true as masturbation alone or with a partner is often a feature of a relationship. Contrary to this belief, several studies actually reveal a positive correlation between the frequency of masturbation and the frequency of intercourse. A study has reported a significantly higher rate of masturbation in gay men and women who were in a relationship.
Female masturbation alters conditions in the vagina, cervix and uterus, in ways that can alter the chances of conception from intercourse, depending on the timing of the masturbation. A woman's orgasm between one minute before and 45 minutes after insemination favors the chances of that sperm reaching her egg. If, for example, she has had intercourse with more than one male, such an orgasm can increase the likelihood of a pregnancy by one of them. Female masturbation can also provide protection against cervical infections by increasing the acidity of the cervical mucus and by moving debris out of the cervix.
In males, masturbation flushes out old sperm with low motility from the male's genital tract. The next ejaculation then contains more fresh sperm, which have higher chances of achieving conception during intercourse. If more than one male has intercourse with a female, the sperm with the highest motility will compete more effectively.
The American Medical Association declared masturbation as normal by consensus in 1972. It does not deplete one's body of energy or produce premature ejaculation. The medical consensus is that masturbation is a medically healthy and psychologically normal habit. According to the Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, "It is considered abnormal only when it inhibits partner-oriented behavior, is done in public, or is sufficiently compulsive to cause distress."
Solo masturbation is a sexual activity that is nearly free of risk of sexually transmitted infection. With two or more participants, the risk of sexually transmitted infection, while not eliminated, remains lower than with most forms of penetrative sex. Support for such a view and for making masturbation part of the American sex education curriculum, led to the dismissal of US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders during the Clinton administration.
Masturbation among adolescents contributes to their developing a sense of mastery over sexual impulses, and it has a role in the physical and emotional development of prepubescents and pubescents.
Sex therapists sometimes recommend that female patients take time to masturbate to orgasm; for example, to help improve sexual health and relationships, to help determine what is erotically pleasing to them, and because mutual masturbation can lead to more satisfying sexual relationships and added intimacy. Encyclopædia Britannica endorses the use of masturbation inside sex therapy.
Mutual masturbation enables partners in a couple to reveal the "map to [their] pleasure centers," learning how they enjoy being touched. When intercourse is inconvenient or impractical, mutual masturbation affords couples the opportunity to obtain sexual release as often as desired.
It is held in many mental health circles that masturbation can relieve depression and lead to a higher sense of self-esteem. When one partner in a relationship wants more sex than the other, masturbation can provide a balancing effect and promote a more harmonious relationship.
In 2003, an Australian research team led by Graham Giles of The Cancer Council Australia found that males who masturbated frequently had a lower probability of developing prostate cancer, although they could not demonstrate a direct causation. A 2008 study concluded that frequent ejaculation between the ages of 20 and 40 was correlated with higher risk of developing prostate cancer, while frequent ejaculation in the sixth decade of life was found to be correlated with a lower risk.
A study published in 1997 found an inverse association between death from coronary heart disease and frequency of orgasm even given the risk that myocardial ischaemia and myocardial infarction can be triggered by sexual activity.
The association between frequency of orgasm and all cause mortality was also examined using the midpoint of each response category recorded as number of orgasms per year. The age adjusted odds ratio for an increase of 100 orgasms per year was 0.64 (0.44 to 0.95).
That is, a difference in mortality appeared between any two subjects when one subject ejaculated at around two times per week more than the other. Assuming a broad range average of between three and five ejaculations per week for healthy males, this would mean five to seven ejaculations per week. This is consistent with a 2003 paper that found the strength of these correlations increased with increasing frequency of ejaculation.
A 2008 study at Tabriz Medical University found that ejaculation reduces swollen nasal blood vessels, freeing the airway for normal breathing. The mechanism is through stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and is long lasting. The study author suggests: "It can be done [from] time-to-time to alleviate the congestion and the patient can adjust the number of intercourses or masturbations depending on the severity of the symptoms."
Some professionals consider masturbation equivalent to a cardiovascular workout. Though research remains scant, those suffering from cardiovascular disorders, particularly those recovering from heart attacks, should resume physical activity gradually and with the frequency and rigor which their physical status will allow. This limitation can serve as encouragement to follow through with physical therapy sessions to help improve endurance. In general, sex slightly increases energy consumption.
Those who insert objects as aids to masturbation risk them becoming stuck (e.g. as rectal foreign bodies). Men and women can fall prey to this problem. A woman went into a German hospital with two pencils in her bladder, having pierced her urethra after inserting them during masturbation.
A male whose penis is bluntly traumatized during intercourse or masturbation may, rarely, sustain a penile fracture or develop Peyronie's disease. Phimosis is "a contracted foreskin (that) may cause trouble by hurting when an attempt is made to pull the foreskin back". In these cases, any energetic manipulation of the penis can be problematic.
A small percentage of males have postorgasmic illness syndrome (POIS), which can cause severe muscle pain throughout the body and other symptoms immediately following ejaculation, whether due to masturbation or partnered sex. The symptoms last for up to a week. Some doctors speculate that the frequency of POIS "in the population may be greater than has been reported in the academic literature", and that many cases are undiagnosed.
Compulsive masturbation and other compulsive behaviors can be signs of an emotional problem, which may need to be addressed by a mental health specialist. As with any "nervous habit", it is more helpful to consider the causes of compulsive behavior, rather than try to repress masturbation.
Babies and toddlers will play with their genitals in much the same way as they play with their ears or toes. If such play becomes all-consuming, it may be necessary to look for an underlying cause of this, such as the child being tense and in need of comfort, or that others may be overreacting and thus reinforcing the habit. It could be caused by a low-grade urinary tract or yeast infection. The child may be overstimulated and in need of soothing, or understimulated and bored.
Alongside many other factors—such as medical evidence, age-inappropriate sexual knowledge, sexualized play and precocious or seductive behavior—excessive masturbation may be an indicator of sexual abuse.
The sexual stimulation of one's own genitals has been interpreted variously by different religions, the subject of legislation, social controversy, activism, as well as intellectual study in sexology. Social views regarding masturbation taboo have varied greatly in different cultures, and over history.
There are depictions of male and female masturbation in prehistoric rock paintings around the world. From the earliest records, the ancient Sumerians had very relaxed attitudes toward sex. The Sumerians widely believed that masturbation enhanced sexual potency, both for men and for women, and they frequently engaged in it, both alone and with their partners. Men would often use puru-oil, a special oil probably mixed with pulverized iron ore intended to enhance friction. Masturbation was also an act of creation and, in Sumerian mythology, the god Enki was believed to have created the Tigris and Euphrates rivers by masturbating and ejaculating into their empty riverbeds. The ancient Egyptians also regarded masturbation by a deity as an act of creation; the god Atum was believed to have created the universe by masturbating to ejaculation.
The ancient Greeks also regarded masturbation as a normal and healthy substitute for other forms of sexual pleasure. Most information about masturbation in ancient Greece comes from surviving works of ancient Greek comedy and pottery. Masturbation is frequently referenced in the surviving comedies of Aristophanes, which are the most important sources of information on ancient Greek views on the subject. In ancient Greek pottery, satyrs are often depicted masturbating. According to the Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers by the third-century AD biographer Diogenes Laërtius, Diogenes of Sinope, the fourth-century BC Cynic philosopher, often masturbated in public, which was considered scandalous. When people confronted him over this, he would say, "If only it were as easy to banish hunger by rubbing my belly."
Among non-western perspectives on the matter, some teachers and practitioners of Traditional Chinese medicine, Taoist meditative and martial arts say that masturbation can cause a lowered energy level in men. Within the African Congo Basin, the Aka, Ngandu, Lesi, brbs, and Ituri ethnic groups all lack a word for masturbation in their languages and are confused by the concept of masturbation.
Development of the contemporary Western world view
Onanism is a hybrid term which combines the proper noun, Onan, with the suffix, -ism. Notions of self-pollution, impurity and uncleanness were increasingly associated with various other sexual vices and crimes of the body (such as fornication, sodomy, adultery, incest and obscene language); in reaction to the 17th-century libertine culture, middle-class moralists increasingly campaigned for a reformation of manners and a stricter regulation of the body. Paradoxically, a crime that was secret and private became a popular and fashionable topic. Moreover, writers tended to focus more on the perceived links with mental and physical illnesses that were deemed to be associated with the sense of moral outrage. Attention increasingly shifted to the prevention and cure of this illness which perilously sapped men of their virility
The first use of the word "onanism" to consistently and specifically refer to masturbation is a pamphlet first distributed in London in 1716, titled "Onania, or the Heinous Sin of self-Pollution, And All Its Frightful Consequences, In Both Sexes, Considered: With Spiritual and Physical Advice To Those Who Have Already Injured Themselves By This Abominable Practice." The Online Etymology Dictionary, however, claims the earliest known use of onanism occurred in 1727. In 1743–45, the British physician Robert James published A Medicinal Dictionary, in which he described masturbation as being "productive of the most deplorable and generally incurable disorders" and stated that "there is perhaps no sin productive of so many hideous consequences". One of the many horrified by the descriptions of malady in Onania was the notable Swiss physician Samuel-Auguste Tissot. In 1760, he published L'Onanisme, his own comprehensive medical treatise on the purported ill-effects of masturbation. Though Tissot's ideas are now considered conjectural at best, his treatise was presented as a scholarly, scientific work in a time when experimental physiology was practically nonexistent.
Immanuel Kant regarded masturbation as a violation of the moral law. In The Metaphysics of Morals (1797), he made the a posteriori argument that "such an unnatural use of one's sexual attribute" strikes "everyone upon his thinking of it" as "a violation of one's duty to himself", and suggested that it was regarded as immoral even to give it its proper name (unlike the case of the similarly undutiful act of suicide). He went on, however, to acknowledge that "it is not so easy to produce a rational demonstration of the inadmissibility of that unnatural use", but ultimately concluded that its immorality lay in the fact that "a man gives up his personality … when he uses himself merely as a means for the gratification of an animal drive".
By 1838, Jean Esquirol had declared in his Des Maladies Mentales that masturbation was "recognized in all countries as a cause of insanity." Doctor John Harvey Kellogg and Rev. Sylvester Graham were among those who proposed that circumcision and eating a bland, meatless diet would curb masturbation. The medical literature of the time also described more invasive procedures including electric shock treatment, infibulation, restraining devices like chastity belts and straitjackets, cauterization or – as a last resort – wholesale surgical excision of the genitals.
Medical attitudes toward masturbation began to change towards the end of the 19th century when H. Havelock Ellis, in his seminal 1897 work Studies in the Psychology of Sex, questioned Tissot's premises.
In 1905, Sigmund Freud addressed masturbation in his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality and associated it with addictive substances. He described the masturbation of infants at the period when the infant is nursing, at four years of age, and at puberty. At the same time, the supposed medical condition of hysteria—from the Greek hystera or uterus—was being treated by what would now be described as medically administered or medically prescribed masturbation for women. In 1910, the meetings of the Vienna psychoanalytic circle discussed the moral or health effects of masturbation, but its publication on the matter was suppressed. Concerning Specific Forms of Masturbation is a 1922 essay by another Austrian, the psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Wilhelm Reich. In the seven and a half page essay Reich accepts the prevalent notions on the roles of unconscious fantasy and the subsequent emerging guilt feelings which he saw as originating from the act itself.
By 1930, Dr. F. W. W. Griffin, editor of The Scouter, had written in a book for Rover Scouts stating that the temptation to masturbate was "a quite natural stage of development" and, citing Ellis' work, held that "the effort to achieve complete abstinence was a very serious error." The work of sexologist Alfred Kinsey during the 1940s and 1950s, most notably the Kinsey Reports, insisted that masturbation was an instinctive behaviour for both males and females. In the US, masturbation has not been a diagnosable condition since DSM II (1968).
Thomas Szasz stated in 1973 the shift in scientific consensus: "Masturbation: the primary sexual activity of mankind. In the nineteenth century it was a disease; in the twentieth, it's a cure." In 2019, Encyclopædia Britannica endorses his conclusion (namely masturbation as a cure inside sex therapy).
Dörner and others wrote in their now classic book (1978): "Self-satisfaction is therefore a priceless good for the success of sexual pleasure, but also for other partnership and sexual relationships: for only if I can offer something to myself can I also offer it to someone else. ... Not self-satisfaction, but feelings closely correlated with it need among others help through counseling, respectively therapy!"
In the 1980s, Michel Foucault was arguing masturbation taboo was "rape by the parents of the sexual activity of their children". However, in 1994, when the Surgeon General of the United States Dr. Joycelyn Elders mentioned as an aside that it should be mentioned in school curricula that masturbation was safe and healthy, she was forced to resign, with opponents asserting that she was promoting the teaching of how to masturbate.
Both practices and cultural views of masturbation have continued to evolve in the 21st century, partly because the contemporary lifeworld is increasingly technical.[according to whom?] For example, digital photographs or live video may be used to share masturbatory experiences either in a broadcast format (possibly in exchange of money, as with performances by "camgirls" and "camboys"), or between members of a long-distance relationship. Teledildonics is a growing field. Masturbation has been depicted as a not-uncomplicated part of "Love in the 21st Century" in the BBC drama by the same name.
In modern culture
Even though many medical professionals and scientists have found large amounts of evidence that masturbating is healthy and commonly practiced by males and females, stigma on the topic still persists today. In November 2013, Matthew Burdette, after being filmed masturbating, committed suicide.
Proving that these ancient stigmas against masturbation are still alive and felt by women and men, researchers in 1994 found that half of the adult women and men who masturbate feel guilty about it (Laumann, et al., 1994. p.85). Another study in 2000 found that adolescent young men are still frequently afraid to admit that they masturbate (Halpern, et al., 2000, 327).
Male masturbation may be used as a method to obtain semen for third party reproductive procedures such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilisation which may involve the use of either partner or donor sperm.
At a sperm bank or fertility clinic, a special room or cabin may be set aside so that semen may be produced by male masturbation for use in fertility treatments such as artificial insemination. Most semen used for sperm donation, and all semen donated through a sperm bank by sperm donors, is produced in this way. The facility at a sperm bank used for this purpose is known as a masturbatorium (US) or men's production room (UK). A bed or couch is usually provided for the man, and pornographic films or other material may be made available.
In the UK in 2009, a leaflet was issued by the National Health Service in Sheffield carrying the slogan, "an orgasm a day keeps the doctor away". It also says: "Health promotion experts advocate five portions of fruit and veg a day and 30 minutes' physical activity three times a week. What about sex or masturbation twice a week?" This leaflet has been circulated to parents, teachers and youth workers and is meant to update sex education by telling older school students about the benefits of enjoyable sex. Its authors have said that for too long, experts have concentrated on the need for "safe sex" and committed relationships while ignoring the principal reason that many people have sex. The leaflet is entitled Pleasure. Instead of promoting teenage sex, it could encourage young people to delay losing their virginity until they are certain they will enjoy the experience, said one of its authors.
The Spanish region of Extremadura launched a programme in 2009 to encourage "sexual self-exploration and the discovery of self-pleasure" in people aged from 14 to 17. The €14,000 campaign includes leaflets, flyers, a "fanzine", and workshops for the young in which they receive instruction on masturbation techniques along with advice on contraception and self-respect. The initiative, whose slogan is, "Pleasure is in your own hands" has angered local right-wing politicians and challenged traditional Roman Catholic views. Officials from the neighbouring region of Andalucia have expressed an interest in copying the programme.
The text book Palliative care nursing: quality care to the end of life states, "Terminally ill people are likely no different from the general population regarding their masturbation habits. Palliative care practitioners should routinely ask their patients if anything interferes in their ability to masturbate and then work with the patient to correct the problem if it is identified."
The prosecution of masturbation has varied at different times, from complete illegality to virtually unlimited acceptance. In a 17th-century law code for the Puritan colony of New Haven, Connecticut, "blasphemers, homosexuals and masturbators" were eligible for the death penalty.
Often, masturbation in the sight of others is prosecuted under a general law such as public indecency, though some laws make specific mention of masturbation. In the UK, masturbating in public is illegal under Section 28 of the Town Police Clauses Act 1847. The penalty may be up to 14 days in prison, depending on a range of circumstantial factors. In the US, laws vary from state to state. In 2010, the Supreme Court of Alabama upheld a state law criminalizing the distribution of sex-toys. In the city of Charlotte, North Carolina, masturbating in public is a class 3 misdemeanour. In 2013, a man found masturbating openly on a beach in Sweden was cleared of charges of sexual assault, the court finding that his activities had not been directed towards any specific person.
In many jurisdictions, masturbation by one person of another is considered digital penetration which may be illegal in some cases, such as when the other person is a minor.
There is debate whether masturbation should be promoted in correctional institutions. Restrictions on pornography, used to accompany masturbation, are common in American correctional facilities. Connecticut Department of Corrections officials say that these restrictions are intended to avoid a hostile work environment for correctional officers. Other researchers argue allowing masturbation could help prisoners restrict their sexual urges to their imaginations rather than engaging in prison rape or other non-masturbatory sexual activity that could pose sexually transmitted disease or other health risks.
Religions vary broadly in their views of masturbation, from considering it completely impermissible (as in Roman Catholicism) to encouraging and refining it (as, for example, in some Neotantra and Taoist sexual practices).
Rites of passage
The Sambia tribe of New Guinea has rituals and rites of passage surrounding manhood which lasts several years and involves ejaculation through fellatio often several times a day. Semen is valued and masturbation is seen as a waste of semen and is therefore frowned upon even though frequent ejaculation is encouraged. The capacity and need to ejaculate is developed or nurtured for years from an early age but through fellatio so that it can be consumed rather than wasted. Semen is ingested for strength and is considered in the same line as mothers' milk.[better source needed]
Other cultures have rites of passage into manhood that culminate in the first ejaculation of a male, usually by the hands of a tribal elder. In some tribes such as the Agta, Philippines, stimulation of the genitals is encouraged from an early age. Upon puberty, the young male is then paired off with a "wise elder" or "witch doctor" who uses masturbation to build his ability to ejaculate in preparation for a ceremony. The ceremony culminates in a public ejaculation before a celebration. The ejaculate is saved in a wad of animal skin and worn later to help conceive children. In this and other tribes, the measure of manhood is actually associated more with the amount of ejaculate and his need than penis size.
In popular music, there are various songs that deal with masturbation. Some of the earliest examples are "My Ding-a-Ling" by Chuck Berry and "Mary Ann with the Shaky Hand" and "Pictures of Lily" by The Who.
More recent popular songs include "Rosie" by Jackson Browne, "Una luna de miel en la mano" by Virus, "I Touch Myself" by the Divinyls, "Very Busy People" by The Limousines, "Dancing With Myself" by Billy Idol, "Everyday I Die" by Gary Numan, "You're Makin' Me High" by Toni Braxton, "Holding My Own" by The Darkness, "Nickelodeon Girls" by Pink Guy, "Vibe On" by Dannii Minogue, "Orgasm Addict" by the Buzzcocks, "Captain Jack" by Billy Joel, "Blister in the Sun" by Violent Femmes, "Longview" by Green Day, "M+Ms" by Blink-182, "Wow, I Can Get Sexual Too" by Say Anything, "Touch of My Hand" by Britney Spears, "Fingers" and "U + Ur Hand" by P!nk, "So Happy I Could Die" by Lady Gaga, "Masturbating Jimmy" by The Tiger Lillies, "When Life Gets Boring " by Gob, "Get a Grip" by Semisonic, and "Darling Nikki" by Prince. The 1983 recording "She Bop" by Cyndi Lauper, was one of the first fifteen songs ever required to carry Parental Advisory sticker for sexual content. In a 1993 interview on The Howard Stern Show, Lauper claimed she recorded the vocal track in the nude. The song "Masturbates" by rock group Mindless Self Indulgence also deals with the concept of auto-erotic activity in a punk framework.
The 1858 schoolboys' novel Eric, or, Little by Little was a tract against masturbation, but did not mention the subject except extremely obliquely as "Kibroth-Hattaavah" a place mentioned in the Old Testament where those that lusted after meat were buried.
In October 1972, an important censorship case was held in Australia, leading to the banning of Philip Roth's novel Portnoy's Complaint in that country due to its masturbation references. The censorship led to public outcry at the time.
Further portrayals and references to masturbation have occurred throughout literature, and the practice itself has even contributed to the production of literature among certain writers, such as Wolfe, Balzac, Flaubert and John Cheever. Perhaps the most famous fictional depiction of masturbation occurs in the "Nausicaa" episode of Ulysses by James Joyce. Here the novel's protagonist Bloom brings himself to covert climax during a public fireworks display after being aroused by a young woman's coy exhibitionism.
In the Seinfeld episode "The Contest", the show's main characters enter into a contest to see who can go the longest without masturbating. Because Seinfeld's network, NBC, did not think masturbation was a suitable topic for prime-time television, the word is never used. Instead, the subject is described using a series of euphemisms. "Master of my domain" became a part of the American lexicon from this episode.
Another NBC show, Late Night with Conan O'Brien, had a character known as the Masturbating Bear, a costume of a bear with a diaper covering its genitals. The Masturbating Bear would touch his diaper to simulate masturbation. Prior to leaving Late Night to become host of The Tonight Show, Conan O'Brien originally retired the character due to concerns about its appropriateness in an earlier time slot. The Masturbating Bear however made his Tonight Show debut during the final days of Conan O'Brien's tenure as host of the Tonight Show. It was clear by then that Conan O'Brien was being removed from the show and he spent his last shows pushing the envelope with skits that typically would not be appropriate for the Tonight Show, one of which was the Masturbating Bear. After much debate on whether or not he would be able to be used on Conan O'Brien's new TBS show, Conan, the Masturbating Bear made an appearance on the very first episode.
In March 2007 the UK broadcaster Channel 4 was to air a season of television programmes about masturbation, called Wank Week. (Wank is a Briticism for masturbate.) The series came under public attack from senior television figures, and was pulled amid claims of declining editorial standards and controversy over the channel's public service broadcasting credentials. However, its constituent films may yet be shown by the channel at a later date.[needs update]
In Monty Python’s The Meaning of Life (1983), the song “Every Sperm Is Sacred” is a satire of Catholic teachings on reproduction that forbid masturbation (and contraception) by artificial means. In Talking Cock by comedian Richard Herring, the sketch is used to ridicule those who condemn masturbation (and sex) for any purpose other than procreation.
In American Pie (1999), Nadia (Shannon Elizabeth) discovers Jim's (Jason Biggs) pornography collection and while half-naked sitting on his bed masturbates to it. In American Reunion (2012), Noah (Eugene Levy) attempts to explain the potential joys and difficulties of Jim explaining masturbation to his future son.
Depictions of male and female masturbation are common in pornography, including gay pornography. Am Abend (1910), one of the earliest pornographic films that have been collected at the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, starts with a female masturbation scene. Solo performances in gay pornography have been described in 1985 as "either or both active (tense, upright) and/or passive (supine, exposed, languid, available)", whereas female solo performances are said to be "exclusively passive (supine, spread, seated, squatted, orifices offered, etc.)". Solo pornography recognized with AVN Awards include the All Alone series and All Natural: Glamour Solos.
Masturbatory behavior has been documented in a very wide range of species. Individuals of some species have been known to create tools for masturbation purposes.
- Robinson, Jennifer (4 March 2010). "Masturbation – Is Masturbation Normal or Harmful? Who Masturbates? Why Do People Masturbate?". WebMD. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Lehmiller JJ (2017). The Psychology of Human Sexuality. John Wiley & Sons. p. 402. ISBN 978-1119164708.
Masturbation refers to all solo forms of self-stimulation focusing on the genitals. Masturbation practices vary widely depending upon the individual's body and personal preferences. For instance, masturbation among women may involve manipulation of the clitoris and labia, stimulation of the breasts, or vaginal penetration with a sex toy. [...] Among men, masturbation most frequently involves using one or both hands to stimulate the penis. Of course, men sometimes utilize sex toys too (e.g., masturbation sleeves, butt-plugs, etc.).
- Nadal KL (2017). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Psychology and Gender. SAGE. p. 1123. ISBN 978-1483384276.
Masturbation is the act of touching or otherwise stimulating one's own body, particularly one's genitals, for the purpose of sexual pleasure and/or orgasm. The term is most commonly used to describe solitary masturbation, in which people provide themselves with sexual stimulation while they are physically alone. Mutual masturbation is when two or more people manually stimulate their own body or each other's bodies.
- Bruess CE, Schroeder E (2013). Sexuality Education Theory And Practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 151. ISBN 978-1449649289.
- Upton D (2014). Nursing & Health Survival Guide: Health Promotion. Routledge. p. 52. ISBN 978-1317906179.
- Coleman, Eli (2012) . Bockting, Walter O.; Coleman, Eli (eds.). Masturbation as a Means of Achieving Sexual Health (PDF). New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-7890-2047-5. OCLC 50913590. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2015.
Despite the scientific evidence indicating that masturbation is generally a normal variant of sexual expression and that it does not seem to have a causal relationship with sexual pathology, negative attitudes about masturbation persist and it remains stigmatized.
- Messer, Drew C.; Walker, C. Eugene (6 December 2012) . "Masturbation". In Ollendick, Thomas H.; Schroeder, Carolyn S. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Clinical Child and Pediatric Psychology. Boston, MA: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 359. ISBN 978-1-4615-0107-7. OCLC 913623298. Note: Messer's and Walker's article cannot be protected by copyright.
- Hallikeri, Vinay R.; Gouda, Hareesh S.; Aramani, Sunil C.; Vijaykumar, A.G.; Ajaykumar, T.S. (July–December 2010). "MASTURBATION—AN OVERVIEW". Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology. 27 (2): 46–49. ISSN 0971-1929. Archived from the original on 21 August 2016.
Today, masturbatory act is considered as a healthy practice when done in private and an offence if done in the public in most of the countries.
- Poiani, Aldo (19 August 2010). Animal Homosexuality: A Biosocial Perspective. Cambridge University Press. pp. 232–235, 394. ISBN 978-1-139-49038-2.
- "Breeding Soundness Examination of the Stallion". Petplace.com. 10 December 2014. Archived from the original on 5 September 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Bagemihl, Bruce (1999). Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-19239-6. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
(masturbate OR masturbation).
- Dally, Peter (1975). The Fantasy Factor. George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Limited. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-297-76945-3.
- OED, s.v. masturbation(subscription required)
- Darby, Robert (1 September 2004). "A Post-Modernist Theory of Wanking: Solitary Sex: A Cultural History of Masturbation. By Thomas Laqueur (New York: Zone Books, 2003. 501pp.)". Journal of Social History. Oxford University Press (OUP). 38 (1): 205–210. doi:10.1353/jsh.2004.0083. ISSN 0022-4529.
- Shamans Sex Beasts and Abuse: Mother-Son Relationships in Popular and Cult Cinema. Charles Jason Lee. Film International, May 2005
- "Go Ask Alice!: "Cock-stuffing"". goaskalice.columbia.edu. 18 February 2005. Archived from the original on 19 February 2005. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- Various authors (21 April 2006). "Urethral Sound". Body Modification Ezine. Retrieved 29 July 2006.
- McPartlin, Daniel; Klausner, Adam P.; Berry, Tristan T.; Mulcahy, Maurice (9 September 2005). "Case report: A foreign body in the urethra". International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. 4 (11): 1052–4. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2013.07.017. PMC 3825963. PMID 24055017.
- "Sex Editorials". 16 March 2004. Archived from the original on 1 January 2012. Retrieved 15 January 2012. "The Stop-And-Go Masturbation Technique for Men and Women"
- Woods, Margo. "Masturbation, Tantra and Self-love" (PDF). Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- Saleh, Naveed (16 October 2014). "Hitting the P-Spot". Psychology Today. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- Rosenthal, Martha (2012). Human Sexuality: From Cells to Society. Cengage Learning. pp. 133–135. ISBN 978-0618755714. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- Ladas, AK; Whipple, B; Perry, JD (1982). The G spot and other discoveries about human sexuality. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. ISBN 978-0440130406.
- Sinclair Intimacy Institute. "Discovery: Health". Archived from the original on 13 June 2002.
- Kinsey Confidential. "Prone masturbation a threat?". Indiana Daily Student. Retrieved 30 March 2017.
- Keesling, Barbara (November 1999). "Beyond Orgasmatron". Psychology Today. Retrieved 29 July 2006.
- Ellis, Havelock (1927), Studies in the Psychology of Sex (3rd edition), Volume I,; Auto-Eroticism: A Study of the Spontaneous Manifestations of the Sexual Impulse; section I; "The Sewing-machine and the Bicycle:" quotes one Pouillet as saying "it is a well-recognized fact that to work a sewing-machine with the body in a certain position produces sexual excitement leading to the orgasm. The occurrence of the orgasm is indicated to the observer by the machine being worked for a few seconds with uncontrollable rapidity. This sound is said to be frequently heard in large French workrooms, and it is part of the duty of the superintendents of the rooms to make the girls sit properly."
- Studies in the Psychology of Sex, v. I, by Havelock Ellis at Project Gutenberg
- Koedt, Anne (1970). "The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm". Chicago Women's Liberation Union. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- "The Kinsey Institute - Kinsey Study Data [Research Program]". kinseyinstitute.org. 6 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 March 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
- Shuman, Tracy (February 2006). "Your Guide to Masturbation". WebMD, Inc./The Cleveland Clinic Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Retrieved 29 July 2006.
- Knowles, Jon (November 2002). "Masturbation — From Stigma to Sexual Health" (PDF). Katharine Dexter McCormick Library/Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc. Retrieved 29 July 2006.
- See here  and pages 47–49 for views on what constitutes virginity loss and therefore sexual intercourse or other sexual activity; source discusses how gay and lesbian individuals define virginity loss, and how the majority of researchers and heterosexuals define virginity loss/"technical virginity" by whether or not a person has engaged in penile-vaginal sex. Laura M. Carpenter (2005). Virginity Lost: An Intimate Portrait of First Sexual Experiences. NYU Press. pp. 295 pages. ISBN 978-0-8147-1652-6. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
- Bryan Strong; Christine DeVault; Theodore F. Cohen (2010). The Marriage and Family Experience: Intimate Relationship in a Changing Society. Cengage Learning. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-534-62425-5. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
Most people agree that we maintain virginity as long as we refrain from sexual (vaginal) intercourse. ...But occasionally we hear people speak of 'technical virginity' … Other research, especially research looking into virginity loss, reports that 35% of virgins, defined as people who have never engaged in vaginal intercourse, have nonetheless engaged in one or more other forms of heterosexual activity (e.g. oral sex, anal sex, or mutual masturbation). … Data indicate that 'a very significant proportion of teens ha[ve] had experience with oral sex, even if they haven't had sexual intercourse, and may think of themselves as virgins'.
- "Mutual Masturbation". 12 June 2006. Archived from the original on 22 May 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2010. — A biographical collection of data for a sociological repository on the topic of mutual masturbating to study changes on the activity over time.
- Heiby, Elaine; Becker, James D. (April 1980). "Effect of filmed modeling on the self-reported frequency of masturbation". Arch. Sex. Behav. 9 (2): 115–21. doi:10.1007/BF01542263. PMID 7396686.
- De Alwis, AC; Senaratne, AM; De Silva, SM; Rodrigo, VS (September 2006). "Bladder calculus presenting as excessive masturbation". Ceylon Med. J. 51 (3): 121–2. doi:10.4038/cmj.v51i3.1258. PMID 17315592.
- Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Duvenci, Sirin; Ozyurt, Emin; Ozkara, Cigdem (2004). "Excessive masturbation after epilepsy surgery". Epilepsy & Behavior. 5 (1): 133–136. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2003.10.009. ISSN 1525-5050. PMID 14751219.
- Lopez-Meza, Elmer; Corona-Vasquez, Teresa; Ruano-Calderon, Luis A.; Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus (2005). "Severe impulsiveness as the primary manifestation of multiple sclerosis in a young female". Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 59 (6): 739–742. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.2005.01446.x. ISSN 1323-1316. PMID 16401253.
- Gerressu, Makeda; Mercer, Catherine H.; Graham, Cynthia A.; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M. (27 February 2007). "Prevalence of Masturbation and Associated Factors in a British National Probability Survey". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 37 (2): 266–278. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9123-6. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 17333329.
- Brown, MD, George R. "Overview of Sexuality". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Slap, MD, Gail B.; Cataldo, RN, Ed.D., Laura Jean (7 June 2011). "Masturbation". In Longe, Jacqueline L. (ed.). The Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health: Infancy Through Adolescence. 4 (Second ed.). Detroit, Mich.: Cengage Gale. p. 1404. ISBN 978-1-4144-8641-3. OCLC 712621295.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Hansen, J.K.; Balslev, T. (November 2009) . "Hand activities in infantile masturbation: a video analysis of 13 cases". European Journal of Paediatric Neurology. 13 (6): 508–10. doi:10.1016/j.ejpn.2008.10.007. ISSN 1090-3798. PMID 19010071.
Infantile masturbation is considered a variant of normal behaviour.
- Nikkhah, Roya (12 July 2009). "NHS tells school children of their 'right' to 'an orgasm a day'". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- Giorgi, Giorgio; Siccardi, Marco (September 1996). "Ultrasonographic observation of a female fetus' sexual behavior in utero". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 175 (3 Pt 1): 753. doi:10.1053/ob.1996.v175.aob17503a10. PMID 8828451.
- Heilborn, Maria Luiza; Cabral, Cristiane S. (2006). "Sexual practices in youth: analysis of lifetime sexual trajectory and last sexual intercourse". Cadernos de Saúde Pública. 22 (7): 1471–1481. doi:10.1590/s0102-311x2006000700011. ISSN 0102-311X. PMID 16791346.
- Menon, Anuradha; McAllister-Williams, R. Hamish; Watson, Stuart (4 October 2005). "Increased libido associated with quetiapine". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 20 (1): 125–127. doi:10.1177/0269881106059732. ISSN 0269-8811. PMID 16354735.
- Burleson, Mary H; Trevathan, Wenda R; Gregory, W.Larry (2002). "Sexual behavior in lesbian and heterosexual women: relations with menstrual cycle phase and partner availability". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 27 (4): 489–503. doi:10.1016/s0306-4530(01)00066-x. ISSN 0306-4530. PMID 11912001.
- Coon, Dennis; Mitterer, John O. (1 January 2014). Psychology: Modules for Active Learning. Cengage Learning. p. 406. ISBN 978-1-305-16173-3.
- Coon, Dennis; Mitterer, John O.; Martini, Tanya S. (5 December 2016). Psychology: Modules for Active Learning. Cengage Learning. p. 407. ISBN 978-1-337-51708-9.
- Baker, Robin (June 1996). Sperm Wars: The Science of Sex. Diane Books Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7881-6004-2.
- Baker, Robin R.; Bellis, Mark A. (November 1993). "Human sperm competition: Ejaculate manipulation by females and a function for the female orgasm". Animal Behaviour. 46 (5): 87, 23p. doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1272.
- Thomsen, Ruth (October 2000). Sperm Competition and the Function of Masturbation in Japanese Macaques (Text.PhDThesis). Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
- Baker, Robin R.; Bellis, Mark A. (November 1993). "Human sperm competition: Ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation". Animal Behaviour. 46 (5): 861, 25p. doi:10.1006/anbe.1993.1271.
- Shackelford, Todd K.; Goetz, Aaron T. (February 2007). "Adaptation to Sperm Competition in Humans" (PDF). Current Directions in Psychological Science. 16 (1): 47–50. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00473.x.
- Planned Parenthood Federation of America (March 2003). "Masturbation: From myth to sexual health". Contemporary Sexuality. 37 (3): v. ISSN 1094-5725. OCLC 37229308.
Finally, the American medical community pronounced masturbation as normal in 1972 American Medical Association publication, Human Sexuality (Rowan, 2000).
- McKinley Health Center (2 April 2008). "Masturbation: Questions and Answers" (PDF). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 December 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- Strassberg, Donald S.; Mackaronis, Julia E.; Perelman, Michael A. (2015). "Sexual dysfunctions". In Blaney, Paul H.; Krueger, Robert F.; Millon, Theodore (eds.). Oxford textbook of psychopathology (Third ed.). NY: Oxford University Press. pp. 441–442. ISBN 978-0-19-981177-9. OCLC 879552995.
- Porter, Robert S.; Kaplan, Justin L., eds. (2011). "Chapter 165. Sexuality and Sexual Disorders". The Merck Manual of Diagnosis & Therapy (19th ed.). Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., A Subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc. ISBN 978-0-911910-19-3.
- Patton, Michael S. (June 1985). "Masturbation from Judaism to Victorianism". Journal of Religion and Health. 24 (2): 133–146. doi:10.1007/BF01532257. ISSN 0022-4197. PMID 24306073.
Social change in attitudes toward masturbation has occurred at the professional level only since 1960 and at the popular level since 1970.  ... onanism and masturbation erroneously became synonymous...  ... there is no legislation in the Bible pertaining to masturbation. 
- Boulware, Jack (9 May 2000). "Sex educator says most people masturbate". Salon.com. Retrieved 27 August 2014. apud "Masturbation: Current medical opinions". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- Szasz, Thomas S. (1974) . "Sex". The Second Sin. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7100-7757-8. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
Masturbation: the primary sexual activity of mankind. In the nineteenth century it was a disease; in the twentieth, it's a cure.
- Shpancer, Noah (29 September 2010). "The Masturbation Gap. The pained history of self pleasure". Psychology Today. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
The publication of Kinsey's and Masters and Johnson's research revealed that masturbation was both common and harmless. Many studies have since confirmed this basic truth, revealing in addition that masturbation is neither a substitute for "real" sex nor a facilitator of risky sex.
- Coon, Dennis; Mitterer, John O. (2014). "11. Gender and Sexuality". Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior (14 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 363. ISBN 978-1-305-54500-7.
Is there any way that masturbation can cause harm? Seventy years ago, a child might have been told that masturbation would cause insanity, acne, sterility, or other such nonsense. "Self-abuse," as it was then called, has enjoyed a long and unfortunate history of religious and medical disapproval (Caroll, 2013). The modern view is that masturbation is a normal sexual behavior (Hogarth & Ingham, 2009). Enlightened parents are well aware of this fact. Still, many children are punished or made to feel guilty for touching their genitals. This is unfortunate because masturbation itself is harmless. Typically, its only negative effects are feelings of fear, guilt, or anxiety that arise from learning to think of masturbation as "bad" or "wrong." In an age when people are urged to practice "safer sex," masturbation remains the safest sex of all.
- Sigel, Lisa Z. (Summer 2004). "Masturbation: The History of the Great Terror by Jean Stengers; Ann Van Neck; Kathryn Hoffmann". Journal of Social History. 37 (4): 1065–1066. doi:10.1353/jsh.2004.0065. ISSN 0022-4529. JSTOR 3790078.
Stengers and Van Neck follow the illness to its fairly abrupt demise; they liken the shift to finally seeing the emperor without clothes as doctors began to doubt masturbation as a cause of illness at the turn of the twentieth century. Once doubt set in, scientists began to accumulate statistics about the practice, finding that a large minority and then a large majority of people masturbated. The implications were clear: if most people masturbated and did not experience insanity, debility, and early death, then masturbation could not be held accountable to the etiology that had been assigned it. Masturbation quickly lost its hold over the medical community, and parents followed in making masturbation an ordinary part of first childhood and then human sexuality.
- Wood, Kate (March 2005). "Masturbation as a Means of Achieving Sexual Health by Walter Bockting; Eli Coleman". Culture, Health & Sexuality. 7 (2): 182–184. ISSN 1369-1058. JSTOR 4005453.
In the collection's introductory chapter, Eli Coleman describes how Kinsey's research half a century ago was the first in a series of studies to challenge widely prevalent cultural myths relating to the 'harmful' effects of masturbation, revealing the practice to be both common and non-pathological. Subsequent research, outlined by Coleman in this chapter, has shown masturbation to be linked to healthy sexual development, sexual well-being in relationships, self-esteem and bodily integrity (an important sexual right). As such, the promotion and de-stigmatization of the practice continue to be important strategies within sexology for the achievement of healthy sexual development and well-being.
The collection concludes with two surveys among US college students. The first of these was based on limited quantitative questions relating to masturbation. The findings suggest that masturbation is not a substitute for sexual intercourse, as has often been posited, but is associated with increased sexual interest and greater number of partners. The second of these surveys asks whether masturbation could be useful in treating low sexual desire, by examining the relationship between masturbation, libido and sexual fantasy.
- George R. Brown, MD (July 2019). "Overview of Sexuality". Merck Manuals Professional Version. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- "Is Masturbation Good For You?". www.plannedparenthood.org. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
- Jelq, Jeff. "JackinLibrary: Joycelyn Elders". Jackinworld.com. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Datta, Parul (2007). Pediatric Nursing. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. p. 189. ISBN 9788180619700. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (9 January 2014). "Masturbation". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- Daniels, Chris; Levatter, Jes (19 April 2007). "Masturbation key to healthy, functional sexual relationships". The Badger Herald, Daily campus newspaper. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Badger Herald, Inc. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- Wells, Ken R. "Masturbation Information on Healthline". Healthline.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Giles, G.G.; Severi, G.; English, D.R.; McCredie, M.R.E.; Borland, R.; Boyle, P.; Hopper, J.L. (23 July 2003). "Sexual factors and prostate cancer". BJU International. Wiley. 92 (3): 211–216. doi:10.1046/j.1464-410x.2003.04319.x. ISSN 1464-4096. PMID 12887469.
- Dimitropoulou, Polyxeni; Easton, Douglas; Pocock, Richard; Dearnaley, David P.; Guy, Michelle; Edwards, Steven; O'Brien, Lynne; Hall, Amanda; Wilkinson, Rosemary; Eeles, Rosalind; Muir, Kenneth R.; Lophatananon, Artitaya (11 November 2008). "Sexual activity and prostate cancer risk in men diagnosed at a younger age". BJU International. 103 (2): 178–185. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08030.x. PMID 19016689.
- Smith, George Davey; Frankel, Stephen; Yarnell, John (20 December 1997). "Sex and death: are they related? Findings from the Caerphilly cohort study". BMJ. 315 (7123): 1641–1644. doi:10.1136/bmj.315.7123.1641. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 2128033. PMID 9448525.
- Robson, David (April 2008). "Masturbation could bring hay fever relief for men". New Scientist. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
- Sutherland, Tammy (8 June 2015). "Six healthy reasons to masturbate". Best Health Magazine. Reader's Digest Magazines (Canada). Retrieved 4 July 2013.
Just as people fall into a deep sleep after sex with a partner, because blood pressure is lowered and relaxation is increased through the release of endorphins, masturbation is a good sleeping pill," says Golden. "It is relied on by many as a nightly occurrence.
- Doheny, Kathleen; Katz, Marina. "Five Things You Didn't Know About Masturbation". WebMD. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
Masturbation can help you relax.
- Wenner, Melinda (2006). "Why do guys get sleepy after sex?". NYU Journalism (New York University). Retrieved 4 July 2013.
The bottom line is this: there are many potential biochemical and evolutionary reasons for post-sex sleepiness, some direct and some indirect
- Graber, Benjamin; Balogh, Scott; Fitzpatrick, Denis; Hendricks, Shelton (June 1991). "Cardiovascular changes associated with sexual arousal and orgasm in men". Sexual Abuse. 4 (2): 151–165. doi:10.1007/BF00851611. ISSN 1079-0632.
- Redmon, Kevin Charles (1 February 2013). "Bad news: Sex doesn't burn that many calories". Salon.com. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- Casazza, Krista; et al. (31 January 2013). "Myths, Presumptions, and Facts about Obesity". N. Engl. J. Med. 368 (5): 446–454. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa1208051. PMC 3606061. PMID 23363498.
- Wegner, HE; Franke M; Schick V. (May 1997). "Endoscopic removal of intravesical pencils using percutaneous nephrolithotomy sheath and forceps". Journal of Urology. 157 (5): 1842. doi:10.1016/s0022-5347(01)64878-x. PMID 9112540.
- Santucci, Richard A. (6 June 2018). "Penile Fracture and Trauma: Background, History of the Procedure, Epidemiology". Medscape Reference. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
- El Atat, R.; Sfaxi, M.; Benslama, R.; Amine, D.; Ayed, M.; Mouelli, B.; Chebil, M.; Zmerli, S. (January 2008). "Fracture of the penis: management and long-term results of surgical treatment. Experience in 300 cases". Journal of Trauma. 64 (1): 121–125. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31803428b3. ISSN 0022-5282. PMID 18188109.
- Asgari, S.; Roshani, A.; Falahatkar, S.; Mokhtari, G.; Pourreza, F. (2007). "MP-21.01: Report on the early and late complications of 169 penile fractures". Urology. 70 (3): 160–161. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2007.06.119.
- Fitkin J, Ho GT (August 1999). "Peyronie's disease: current management". Am. Fam. Physician. 60 (2): 549–52, 554. PMID 10465229.
- Nørby, Bettina; Frimodt-Møller, Poul Christian (29 April 2015). "article on Foreskin contraction (phimosis)". Netdoctor.co.uk. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Balon R, Segraves RT, eds. (2005). Handbook of Sexual Dysfunction. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8247-5826-4.
- Wylie KR, ed. (2015). ABC of Sexual Health. John Wiley & Sons. p. 75. ISBN 978-1-118-66556-5. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Postorgasmic illness syndrome". Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD). National Institutes of Health. 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
- Ashby J, Goldmeier D (May 2010). "Postorgasm illness syndrome--a spectrum of illnesses". J. Sex. Med. 7 (5): 1976–81. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01707.x. PMID 20214722.
- McMahon CG (October 2014). "Post-Orgasmic Illness Syndrome" (PDF). 16th World Meeting on Sexual Medicine.
- Office of Health Education. "Masturbation". University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Children's Medical Office of North Andover, P.C. "Masturbation in Early Childhood". Chmed.com. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Myers, John E. B. (2005). Myers on Evidence in Child, Domestic and Elder Abuse Cases, Volume 1. Aspen Publishers. p. 385. ISBN 9780735556683. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
Jon Conte and his colleagues were interested to learn what factors are important to mental health professionals who regularly evaluate children for sexual abuse. The evaluators were asked to rank the importance of forty-one indicators of sexual abuse. The following indicators were thought important by more than ninety percent of evaluators: medical evidence of abuse, age-inappropriate sexual knowledge, sexualized play during the interview, precocious or seductive behavior, excessive masturbation, child's description is consistent over time, child's description reveals pressure or coercion.
- Coulborn Faller, Kathleen (2003). Understanding and Assessing Child Sexual Maltreatment. Sage Publications. p. 39. ISBN 9780761919964. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
Six different types of sexual behavior that signal possible sexual abuse will be described in this section: (a) excessive masturbation, (b) sexual interaction with peers, (c) sexual aggression toward younger or more naive children, (d) sexual accosting of older people or adults, (e) seductive behavior, and (f) promiscuity.
- Stafford, Emma (2011). "Clutching the chickpea: private pleasures of the bad boyfriend". In Lambert, S. D. (ed.). Sociable Man: Essays on Ancient Greek Social Behaviour in Honour of Nick Fisher. Swansea, Wales: Classical Press of Wales. pp. 337–364. ISBN 978-1-910589-21-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- March, Jennifer R. (2014) . "Satyrs and Silens". Dictionary of Classical Mythology. Oxford, England and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Oxbow Books. pp. 435–436. ISBN 978-1-78297-635-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Dening, Sarah (1996). "Chapter 3: Sex in Ancient Civilizations". The Mythology of Sex. London, England: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-02-861207-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Leick, Gwendolyn (2013) , Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature, New York City, New York: Routledge, p. 32, ISBN 978-1-134-92074-7CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Rosenfeld, Jennie (2008). Talmudic Re-readings: Toward a Modern Orthodox Sexual Ethic. ProQuest. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-549-43458-0.
- Miller, James (4 January 2011). Examined Lives: From Socrates to Nietzsche. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-4299-5716-8.
- Allen, Robert H. (2006). The Classical Origins of Modern Homophobia. Jefferson, North Carolina: MacFarland & Company. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-7864-2349-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Calhoun, Alison (2015). Montaigne and the Lives of the Philosophers: Life Writing and Transversality in the Essais. Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-61149-480-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hewlett, Barry S.; Hewlett, Bonnie L. "SEX AND SEARCHING FOR CHILDREN AMONG AKA FORAGERS AND NGANDU FARMERS OF CENTRAL AFRICA. (African Study Monographs, 31(3): 107-125, October 2010)" (PDF). jambo.africa.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Retrieved 9 June 2017.
- "Onanism." The Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 16 July. 2017. <http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=Onanism>
- See Traité contre l’impureté (1707) and The Nature of Uncleanness (1708); Ian McCormick ed. Sexual Outcasts: Onanism. Vol. 4. (London and New York: Routledge, 2000). pp. 1-10.
- Stengers, Jean; van Neck, Anne. Masturbation: the history of a great terror. New York: Palgrave, 2001. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-312-22443-5.
- Kant, Emmanuel (18 April 1996). Gregor, Mary J. (ed.). The Metaphysics of Morals. Cambridge University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-521-56673-5. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- E.H. Hare (1962) Masturbatory Insanity: The History of an Idea, Journal of Mental Science 108:4 (issue #452)
- William Dufty (1975) Sugar Blues, pages 65,6
- Kellogg, John Harvey (1910). Plain Facts for Old And Young. Battle Creek, Mich. p. 325. hdl:2027/ucw.ark:/13960/t53f53t5w.
- Stengers, Jean; van Neck, Anne (2001). Masturbation: the history of a great terror. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-22443-1.
- Bennett, David (1999). "Burghers, Burglars, and Masturbators: The Sovereign Spender in the Age of Consumerism". New Literary History. 30 (2): 269–294. doi:10.1353/nlh.1999.0018. ISSN 1080-661X.
- Ley, David J. (10 July 2014). The Myth of Sex Addiction. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-4422-1305-0.
- Ornella Moscucci, "Male masturbation and the offending prepuce," at: "Circumcision Information and Resource Pages". Archived from the original on 6 August 2001. Retrieved 3 July 2011. (It is an excerpt from "Sexualities in Victorian Britain.") apud Masturbation: Current medical opinions Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. New URL: http://sites.google.com/site/completebaby/repression
- Dörner, Klaus; Plog, Ursula; Teller, Christine; Wendt, Frank (2014). Manual de psihiatrie socială și psihoterapie (in Romanian). Trei. p. 116. ISBN 978-606-719-248-3. Cf. Dörner, Klaus; Plog, Ursula; Teller, Christine; Wendt, Frank (2002) . Irren ist menschlich: Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie, Psychotherapie (in German). Psychiatrie-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-88414-333-9.
- "Love in the 21st Century - Episode Guide - Channel 4". channel4.com. 16 June 2009. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
- Scowen, Peter. "We need to talk about masturbation, the last great sexual taboo". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- "Matthew Burdette: Boy Scout, 14, took his own life after being 'bullied' over 'viral video'". Irish Independent. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- Scowen, Peter. "Bullying, shame, suicide – why is masturbation still stigmatized?". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
- Planned Parenthood, Masturbation—From Stigma to Sexual Health
- "Donor insemination – how does it work?". Hfea.gov.uk. 14 April 2009. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "Sperm donation Definition – Tests and Procedures". Mayo Clinic. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- OHasan. "What Does Sperm Donation Involve?". Web.stanford.edu. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- Grimston, Jack (12 July 2009). "Pupils told: Sex every day keeps the GP away - Times Online". The Sunday Times. Archived from the original on 16 July 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2019.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- Tremlett, Giles (12 November 2009). "Spanish region takes hands-on approach to sex education". London: Guardian News and Media. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
- Matzo, Marianne; Witt Sherman, Deborah (2006). Palliative care nursing: quality care to the end of life. Springer Publishing. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-8261-5791-1. Retrieved 26 May 2010.
- James, Lawrence (15 September 1997). The Rise and Fall of the British Empire. St. Martin's Griffin. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-312-16985-5. The context is a discussion of the social habits of the early North American colonists.
- "Masturbation laws around the world: the penal code". The Guardian. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "1568 MONTGOMERY HIGHWAY INC v. CITY OF HOOVER". 5 March 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- Withnall, Adam (19 September 2013). "Swedish court rules that it is 'okay' to masturbate in public". The Independent. London. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Eaton-Robb, Pat (8 October 2011). "Connecticut Prisoners Express Anger Over Porn Ban". Associated Press.
- Johns, David Merritt (10 January 2012). "Free Willy". Slate.
- "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Archived from the original on 7 October 2007. Retrieved 8 October 2007.
Both the Magisterium of the Church, in the course of a constant tradition, and the moral sense of the faithful have been in no doubt and have firmly maintained that masturbation is an intrinsically and gravely disordered action."The deliberate use of the sexual faculty, for whatever reason, outside of marriage is essentially contrary to its purpose". For here sexual pleasure is sought outside of "the sexual relationship which is demanded by the moral order and in which the total meaning of mutual self-giving and human procreation in the context of true love is achieved".
- Moffatt, Michael (4 October 1999). "The Sambia". Faculty.mdc.edu. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2013.
- Hewlett, B.S. (1996). "Diverse contexts of human infancy". In Ember, C.; Ember, M. (eds.). Cross-Cultural Research for Social Science. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall.
- Townshend, Pete (1971). "Meaty Beaty Big and Bouncy". Printed article. Rolling Stone or one of the similar magazines (Melody Maker, NME, etc.). Archived from the original on 23 January 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2009. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help) "Merely a ditty about masturbation and the importance of it to a young man. I was really diggin' at my folks who, when catching me at it, would talk in loud voices in the corridor outside my room. 'Why can't he go with girls like other boys?'"
- McLean, Craig (25 March 2006). "Pink: The outspoken pop star on fame and growing up". The Independent. London. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
- Macdonald, Cameron (23 January 2006). "Treating Dandruff by Decapitation — Playing God". Stylus Magazine.
- "Cyndi Lauper Biography". Monsters and Critics. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- "Don Chipp: larrikin, censor, and party founder". Crikey. August 2006.
- Currey, Mason (30 April 2013). "Daily Rituals". Slate. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Chaney, Jen (17 May 2005). "'Seinfeld,' Four: It's Real and It's Spectacular". The Washington Post.
- "The masturbating bear is coming back!!!". warmingglow.uproxx.com. 27 May 2009. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- Stableford, Dylan (21 January 2010). "'Conan Finally Unleashes 'Masturbating Bear". Thewrap.com. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- "Conan: Masturbating Bear Gets a New Job". Tbs.com. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
- Deans, Jason (2 February 2007). "'Wank week' postponed". Media Guardian. London. Retrieved 2 November 2007.
- Herring, Richard (2004). Talking Cock: A Celebration of Man and His Manhood. Thunder's Mouth Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-56025-608-3.
- "All of the Embarrassing Sex Moments in the American Pie Movies, Ranked". Complex. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- Lewis, Jon (September 2002). Hollywood V. Hard Core: How the Struggle Over Censorship Created the Modern Film Industry. NYU Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-8147-5143-5.
- Staiger, Janet (1995). Bad Women: The Regulation of Female Sexuality in Early American Cinema. University of Minnesota Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-4529-0267-8.
- Waugh, Tom (March 1985). "Men's pornography gay vs. straight". Jump Cut (30): 30–35. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
- "2010 Winners Archived 7 December 2013 at Archive.today", AVN Awards, URL accessed 25 November 2012.
- AVN – AVN Announces the 2012 AVN Award Winners. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- DeMartino, Manfred F. (1979). Human Autoerotic Practices. New York: Human Sciences Press. ISBN 978-0-87705-373-6.
- Marcus, Irwin M. (1975). Masturbation: From Infancy to Senescence. New York: International Universities Press. ISBN 978-0-8236-3150-6.
- Hurlbert, David Farley; Whittaker, Karen Elizabeth (1991). "The Role of Masturbation in Marital and Sexual Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Female Masturbators and Nonmasturbators". Journal of Sex Education & Therapy. 17 (4): 272–282. doi:10.1080/01614576.1991.11074029.
- Theobald, Stephanie (2018). Sex Drive. London: Unbound Press. ISBN 978-1-78352-681-9.
- The dictionary definition of onanism at Wiktionary
- Messer, Drew C.; Walker, C. Eugene (6 December 2012) . "Masturbation" (PDF). In Ollendick, Thomas H.; Schroeder, Carolyn S. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Clinical Child and Pediatric Psychology. Boston, MA: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 359–360. ISBN 978-1-4615-0107-7. OCLC 913623298. Note: Messer's and Walker's article cannot be protected by copyright.
- Fox, Douglas (16 July 2003). "Masturbating may protect against prostate cancer". New Scientist. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- Robson, David (1 April 2009). "Masturbation could bring hay fever relief for men". New Scientist. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- Masturbation: Questions and Answers, McKinley Health Center, © The Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois, 2008.
- Do You Masturbate Too Much? on YouTube (Prof. Debby Herbenick for Men's Health)
- Masturbation PSA. Masturbation Is A Personal Choice on YouTube (University of Guelph students enrolled in FRHD 4200 Issues in Human Sexuality created Public Service Announcement (PSA) on the health benefits of masturbation.)
- Masturbation PSA. Masturbation - There Is No Shame In Loving Yourself.Group 5.mov on YouTube (University of Guelph students enrolled in FRHD 4200 Issues in Human Sexuality created Public Service Announcement (PSA) on the health benefits of masturbation.)