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The **mathematical sciences** are a group of areas of study that includes, in addition to mathematics, those academic disciplines that are primarily mathematical in nature but may not be universally considered subfields of mathematics proper.

Statistics, for example, is mathematical in its methods but grew out of bureaucratic and scientific observations,^{[1]} which merged with inverse probability and then grew through applications in some areas of physics, biometrics, and the social sciences to become its own separate, though closely allied, field. Theoretical astronomy, theoretical physics, theoretical and applied mechanics, continuum mechanics, mathematical chemistry, actuarial science, computer science, computational science, data science, operations research, quantitative biology, control theory, econometrics, geophysics and mathematical geosciences are likewise other fields often considered part of the mathematical sciences.

Some institutions offer degrees in mathematical sciences (e.g. the United States Military Academy, Stanford University, and University of Khartoum) or applied mathematical sciences (for example, the University of Rhode Island).

- Exact sciences – Sciences that admit of absolute precision in their results
- Formal science – Branch of science
- Relationship between mathematics and physics

- Division of Mathematical Sciences at the National Science Foundation, including a list of disciplinary areas supported
- Faculty of Mathematical Sciences at University of Khartoum, offers academic degrees in Mathematics, Computer Sciences and Statistics
- Programs of the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute
- Research topics studied at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences
- Mathematical Sciences in the U.S. FY 2016 Budget; a report from the AAAS