Max Valier


Max Valier
Max Valier AWS 3002.jpg
Valier as depicted in Air Wonder Stories, February 1930.
Born(1895-02-09)9 February 1895
Died17 May 1930(1930-05-17) (aged 35)
Alma materUniversity of Innsbruck
Scientific career
Valier's birthplace.
Valier in a rocket car, c. 1930.

Max Valier (9 February 1895 – 17 May 1930) was an Austrian rocketry pioneer. He was a leading figure in the world's first large-scale rocket program, Opel-RAK, and helped found the German Verein für Raumschiffahrt (VfR – "Spaceflight Society") that would bring together many of the minds that would later make spaceflight a reality in the 20th century.


Valier was born in Bozen (Bolzano) in the County of Tyrol (now South Tyrol) and in 1913 enrolled to study physics at the University of Innsbruck. He also trained as a machinist at a nearby factory. His studies were interrupted by the First World War, during which he served in the Austro-Hungarian army's air corps as an aerial observer.

After the war, Valier did not return to his studies, but became a freelance science writer. In 1923, he read Hermann Oberth's landmark book Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen (The Rocket into Interplanetary Space) and was inspired to write a similar work to explain Oberth's ideas in terms that could be understood by lay persons. With Oberth's assistance, he published Der Vorstoß in den Weltenraum (The Advance into Space) the following year. It was an outstanding success, going through six editions before 1930. He followed this with numerous articles on the subject of space travel, with titles like "Berlin to New York in One Hour" and "A Daring Trip to Mars".

Opel RAK.1 - World's first public flight of a manned rocket-powered plane on September 30, 1929

In 1928 and 1929, he worked with Fritz von Opel on a number of rocket-powered cars and aircraft within the world's first large-scale rocket program Opel-RAK.[1] For von Opel, these experimentations had also a very positive public relations effect for the Opel company, and for Valier, they were a way of further raising interest in rocketry amongst the general population. Friedrich Sander in these endeavours was chosen as the supplier of solid-fuel rocket motors. Valier's and von Opel's activities led to land and rail vehicle speed records and eventually to the world's first rocket plane. The first public flight took place on September 30, 1929, piloted by von Opel. After the Opel RAK.1 flight the collaboration between Valier and von Opel came to an end, von Opel left Germany in 1930, emigrated to the US and eventually to France and Switzerland. Valier then continued the rocket development on his own.

By the late 1920s, the VfR was focusing its efforts on liquid-fuelled rockets. Their first successful test firing with liquid fuel (five minutes) occurred in the Heylandt plant on 25 January 1930. On 19 April 1930 Valier performed the first test drive of a rocket car with liquid propulsion, the Valier-Heylandt Rak 7.

Valier was killed less than a month later when an alcohol-fuelled rocket exploded on his test bench in Berlin. His protégé Arthur Rudolph went on to develop an improved and safer version of Valier's engine.


Max Valier is still remembered in South Tyrol as one of the most famous inventors and scientists of this province, and a number of institutions bear his name:

  • The South-Tyrolean amateur astronomy society Amateurastronomen Max Valier and their public astronomical observatory "Max Valier" in Gummer (BZ Italy)[2]
  • The Technological Institute "Max Valier" in Bolzano, Italy
  • The Max Valier X-ray telescopic satellite launched in 2017 orbits the earth transmitting Morse Code on 145.96MHz and 437.325MHz. "73 de ii3mv max valier sat tnx manfred es christa fuchs" [3]


  1. ^ "Das RAK-Protokoll", a 25 minutes documentary on the Opel RAK program
  2. ^ Max Valier astronomical observatory/Peter Anich solar observatory (in German), Amateurastronomen Max Valier
  3. ^ "Max Valier Satellit – Home". Retrieved 2021-10-22.
  • Data pages, Historic American Engineering Record for the Marshall Space Flight Center, United States Library of Congress

External links