Artist's rendering of the Mercury-P spacecraft
|Mission type||Planetary reconnaissance|
|Operator||Russian Federal Space Agency|
|BOL mass||8,120 kg|
|Landing mass||710 kg |
|Payload mass||Lander: 40 kg  |
Orbiter: 50 kg
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||Circa 2024 |
Mercury-P (Russian: Меркурий-П) is a mission concept for an orbiter and lander by the Russian Federal Space Agency to study the planet Mercury. The initial study suggested a launch in 2024,  but because of crash of the Phobos-Grunt spacecraft, the implementation period was postponed to the 2030s. The letter P in Mercury-P, stands for the Russian word 'posadka', meaning landing.
Mercury-P would be the first soft lander on Mercury. A proposed flight scenario for the mission included a flyby of Venus, the insertion of the spacecraft into the orbit around Mercury and the delivery of a lander on its surface. The Institute of Space Research studied the possibility of "recycling" hardware developed for the Phobos-Grunt, Mars-NET, Mars-96, and Solar Sail spacecraft, with proposed upgrades of the hardware. As of 2012[update], Russian scientists have conducted a preliminary concept study of the project, and compiled a list of the required scientific payload.