Mihajlo Svilojević (Serbian: Михајло Свилојевић), sometimes crni ban Mihail,[1] is a hero of Serbian epic poetry[2] based on the historical figure of Michael Szilágyi.

Background

In 1459, the Ottomans conquered the Serbian Despotate and appeared on the border of the Kingdom of Hungary in the region near the Sava and Danube Rivers. Many notable Hungarian noblemen who distinguished themselves in the struggle against the Ottomans during the 15th century became heroes of Serbian epic poetry. One of them was Michael Szilágyi, who became the epic character Mihajlo Svilojević. Other popular heroes of Serbian epic poetry based on Hungarian noblemen include Vuča General, Filip Mađarinin, and Sibinjanin Janko.[3]

Poetry

Svilojević is mentioned in the epic poem "Osman", Ivan Gundulić's masterpiece written at the beginning of the 17th century.[4] He is the main subject of many Serbian epic poems, including the bugarštica "Popevka od Svilojevića" (English: The Song of Svilojević) found in the 17th century[5] among the papers of Petar Zrinski after his death.[6] This poem was motivated by a historical event, the 1460 capture and imprisonment of Michael Szilágyi.[7] It was published in 1851 by Franz Miklosich, who assumed that Zrinski personally wrote down the song. Some scholars believed that Zrinski did it in 1661 during his imprisonment before his execution. Later research refuted this assumption and estimated that the poem was recorded in 1663. This poem would later serve as a basis of the poem about Jurišić Janko composed by Vuk Karadžić at the beginning of the 19th century.[8] Based on the manuscript written by Đorđe Sremac, Serbian historian Mihailo Dinić concluded that "Popevka od Svilojevića" was based on a song from the first half of the 15th century, which centered on Szilágyi's capture and his conflict with the Ottoman Sultan.[9] Although earlier songs present Kosovo as the location of Svilojević's capture, probably based on his first capture during the Second Battle of Kosovo; however, the historical event actually happened in Banat.[10] "Popevka" is the only song with Svilojević as the main hero. In all other songs his role is marginal and his purpose is to complete "three good heroes" which was a frequent motif of the Serbian epic poetry. In other poems recorded during the 17th and 18th centuries on the Dalmatian coast, Svilojević was not the main hero but one of "three good heroes" connected to the Battle of Kosovo, the Second Battle of Kosovo, or some other important event. In more recent poetry, the glory of Svilojević faded and he became a marginal character, a guest at the weddings of other heroes.[11]

Notes

  1. ^ Božidar Blagojević (1984). Zbornik radova sa naučnih skupova u Negotinu i Kladovu povodom obeležavanja 170 godina od pogibije Hajduk-Veljka Petrovića i 150 godina oslobođenja od Turaka. Izd. Međuopštinska konferencija SSRN Zaječar, Balkanološki institut SANU. p. 36. Retrieved 10 September 2013. ... наше народне песме га зову понекад "црни бан Михаил" а турске хронике "Кара Михал"
  2. ^ Antiquité vivante. Društvo za antički studii na SRM, Seminar na klasična filologija, Filosofski fakultet. 1978. p. 261. Retrieved 9 September 2013. Име Јанка Хуњадија (Сибињанин Јанко) овековечила је српска епопеја као име јунака којег је ставила поред Марка Краљевића и Милоша Обилића. Ту је и Михајло Свилојевић (ујак краља Матије), Михајло Силађи, болани Дојчин
  3. ^ Zoran Kolundžija (2008). Vojvodina: Od najstarijih vremena do velike seobe. Prometej. p. 156. Од стране Мађара борили су се и остали, у успомени нашег народа, Вуча ђенерал, Филип Мађарин, Сибињанин Јанко, Михајло Свилојевић и Дојчин Петар.
  4. ^ Stojan Novaković (1879). "Leđan grad i Poljaci u srpskoj narodnoj poeziji". Letopis Matice srpske (in Serbian). Novi Sad: Matica Srpska. 120: 159–174. Retrieved 9 September 2013. ...poznati stihovi iz Gundulićeva "Osmana"..Prosv'jetlit' se j' u njih haj'o, kud god sv'jetli sunce žarko, Svilojević još Mihajo i Kraljević junak Marko.
  5. ^ Suvajdžić 2004, p. introduction

    Ovaj model je prisutan već u izvrsnoj bugarštici “Popevka od Svilojevića” iz 17. veka, projektovan na tlocrtu istorijske sudbine Mihaila Svilojevića, u kontekstu njegove smrti u turskom zarobljeništvu.

  6. ^ Radovan Samardžić (1986). Istorija srpskog naroda: pt. 1. Srbi u XVIII veku. Srpska knjiiževna zadruga. p. 114. Две деценије, по прилици, после записа Попевке од Свилојевића, који се приписује Петру Зринском, забележене су у Дубровнику још три старе песме. Све три су појединачни записи, а дугујемо их двојици најзнатнијих ерудита
  7. ^ Suvajdžić 2004, p. 28
  8. ^ Suvajdžić 2004, pp. 27, 28
  9. ^ Suvajdžić 2004, p. 31
  10. ^ Suvajdžić 2004, p. 31
  11. ^ Suvajdžić 2004, p. 32

References

  • Suvajdžić, Boško (2004), "Three good heroes" (PDF), Prilozi za književnost, jezik, istoriju i folklor, 70, retrieved 9 September 2013