|Soviet Armed Forces|
|Ranks of the Soviet Military|
|History of the Soviet Military|
The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917. At that time the Imperial Russian Table of Ranks was abolished, as were the privileges of the pre-Soviet Russian nobility.
Immediately after the Revolution, personal military ranks were abandoned in favour of a system of positional ranks, which were acronyms of the full position names. For example, KomKor was an acronym of Corps Commander, KomDiv was an acronym of Division Commander, KomBrig stood for Brigade Commander, KomBat stood for Battalion Commander, and so forth. These acronyms have survived as informal position names to the present day.[when?]
Personal ranks were reintroduced in 1935, and general officer ranks were restored in May 1940. The ranks were based on those of the Russian Empire, although they underwent some modifications. Modified Imperial-style rank insignia were reintroduced in 1943.
The Soviet ranks ceased to be used after the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union, although the military ranks and insignia of the modern Russian Federation and Ukraine have been largely adopted from the Soviet system.
The early Red Army abandoned the institution of a professional officer corps as a "heritage of tsarism" in the course of the Revolution. In particular, the Bolsheviks condemned the use of the word "officer" and used the word "commander" instead. The Red Army abandoned epaulettes and ranks, using purely functional titles such as "Division Commander", "Corps Commander", and similar titles. In 1924 it supplemented this system with "service categories", from K-1 (lowest) to K-14 (highest). The service categories essentially operated as ranks in disguise: they indicated the experience and qualifications of a commander. The insignia now denoted the category, not the position of a commander. However, one still had to use functional titles to address commanders, which could become as awkward as "comrade deputy head-of-staff of corps". If one did not know a commander's position, one used one of the possible positions - for example: "Regiment Commander" for K-9. This rank system stayed on for a decade.
On September 22, 1935, the Red Army abandoned service categories and introduced personal ranks. These ranks, however, used a unique mix of functional titles and traditional ranks. For example, the ranks included "Lieutenant" and "Comdiv" (Комдив, Division Commander). Further complications ensued from the functional and categorical ranks for political officers (e.g., "Brigade Commissar", "Army Commissar 2nd Rank"), for technical corps (e.g., "Engineer 3rd Rank", "Division Engineer"), for administrative, medical and other non-combatant branches. Rank insignia then used both upside down chevrons on the sleeve and collar marks. The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union was also introduced.
On May 7, 1940, further modifications to the system took place. The ranks of "General" or "Admiral" replaced the senior functional ranks of Combrig, Comdiv, Comcor, Comandarm; the other senior functional ranks ("Division Commissar", "Division Engineer", etc.) remained unaffected. The Arm or Service distinctions remained (e.g. General of Cavalry, Marshal of Armoured Troops). On November 2, 1940, the system underwent further modification with the abolition of functional ranks for NCOs and the reintroduction of the Podpolkovnik (sub-colonel) rank.[page needed] For the most part the new system restored that used by the Imperial Russian Army at the conclusion of its participation in World War I.
In early 1942 all the functional ranks in technical and administrative corps became regularized ranks (e.g., "Engineer Major", "Engineer Colonel", "Captain Intendant Service", etc.). On October 9, 1942, the authorities abolished the system of military commissars, together with the commissar ranks, and they were completely integrated into the regular officer corps. The functional ranks remained only in medical, veterinary and legislative corps and Private became the basic rank for the enlisted and NCOs.
In early 1943 a unification of the system saw the abolition of all the remaining functional ranks. The word "officer" became officially endorsed, together with the epaulettes that superseded the previous rank insignia, styled like the Imperial Russian Army before, and Marshal and Chief Marshal ranks created for the various arms and branch commands of the Red Army and the Red Army Air Forces save for the infantry (even through the Artillery branch was the first to have one in 1942) with all Marshal and Chief Marshal ranks being equal to General of the Army.
The ranks and insignia of 1943 did not change much until the last days of the USSR; the contemporary Russian Ground Forces uses largely the same system. The old functional ranks of Combat (Battalion or Battery Commander), Combrig (Brigade Commander) and Comdiv (Division Commander) continue in informal use.[page needed]
After the war, the rank of Generalissimus of the Soviet Union was proposed to Joseph Stalin in his role as the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, however, he refused the proposal of the rank several times. The rank insignia featured the USSR arms above a large Marshal's Star surrounded by a wreath.
1963 saw all Starshina insignia in the Army and Air Force change to their final design.
In 1970 all Starshinas became full-time senior non-commissioned officers and enlisted personnel and the new NCO rank of Praporshchik became a Warrant Officer rank, with a new rank of Senior Praporshchik created for senior rank holders later in 1981. And in 1974, Generals of the Army had one star on their shoulder epaulets rather than four with surrounding wreaths. The final rank structure from these reforms stayed well until the Union's dissolution and are the basis for the current ranks of the Russian Ground Forces.
These ranks also became the basic ranks for the Soviet Air Forces in 1918 and the Soviet Air Defense Forces (from 1932 to 1949 component part of the Soviet Air Force and the Red Army, 1949 independent branch, and from 1954 a full-service arm of the Soviet Armed Forces), and from 1991 onward became the basis for the present ranks of the Russian Air Force (including the Air Defense Forces from 1998 onward) and from 2001, the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces (Formerly the Space Forces). The only exceptions were the use of the ranks of Marshal of Aviation and Chief Marshal of Aviation, which replaced the rank of General of the Army until the latter became the highest officer rank in 1993.
In 1918, the Soviet Navy was raised from the pro-Bolshevik sailors and officers of the Imperial Russian Navy as the Workers' and Peasants' Red Fleet by virtue of a decree by the Soviet Council of People's Commissars. The ranks and rates were, just like in their counterparts in the Army, personal positions for officers, Petty Officers and seaman rates. The former officers of the IRN who joined the ranks of this new navy retained their ranks with the abbreviation "b." meaning "former" while the new officers where addressed by their positional ranks. They stayed that way until 1925, when new ranks and rates were created. The rank insignia for the 1918–25 ranks were on the sleeve and cuff.
Most of the officer ranks were revived in 1935, save for the high-ranking officers, and the new PO rank of Squad Commander. The PO rank of Starshina was retained, however.
In 1939 all flag officer ranks were reinstated and Midshipman became the highest enlisted rating in the Navy, and in the course of the Great Patriotic War, all Redfleetmen became Seamen in another rank change. In 1943 all naval rank insignia became uniform in the fleet and ground forces. In a unique way, the ranks of the Soviet Naval Infantry, Soviet Naval Aviation and the other ground services remained absolutely army-styled similar to their Red Army counterparts but the rank insignia became uniform. The Admiral of the Fleet rank was also created by then. The rank insignia were now also seen on epaulettes: black on duty dresses and dark blue and gold on all full and ceremonial dresses for the fleet forces, with air force blue borders for the aviation branch and red borders for the coastal defense and naval infantry branch. In 1952 the senior enlisted rating's insignia (until 1972, Midshipman and from then on, Chief Ship Petty Officer) changed to its final design.
1955 saw the renaming of the Admiral of the Fleet rank into that of Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union, and was now equivalent to that of a Marshal of the Soviet Union. The shoulder insignia for fleet admirals and all officers' sleeve insignia changed in the following decade as the Admiral of the Fleet rank was revived, by now between Admirals and Admirals of the Fleet of the Soviet Union.
1972 saw Midshipmen's status raised to warrant officers with Chief Ship Petty Officers replacing their former roles as the highest enlisted ratings.
The Red Army abolished all personal officer and general ranks, retaining only personal positions. Thus, a komvzvoda (platoon commander) was a position for an officer who would typically hold a lieutenant or senior lieutenant rank, kombat (battalion commander) was an equivalent of captain or major, and kompolka was an equivalent of lieutenant colonel or colonel.
Even though traditional personal ranks for Red Army officers were re-established in 1935, general ranks were not introduced until 1940, probably because they were associated with the White Army movement. So, in 1935–1940 the personal rank system in the Red Army consisted of the following General-grade ranks:
When the Marshal of the Soviet Union was introduced later in 1935, it became the highest rank in the Red Army, extending an already complex rank system.
However, when personal General ranks were introduced in 1940, the updated rank system did not feature a Brigadier-grade rank, mirroring a situation in the Russian Imperial Russian army where the Brigadier rank ceased to exist in the early 19th century. Most of the officers holding the kombrig rank were demoted to Colonels, and only a few were promoted to major general.
Another peculiarity of this new system was the absence of a full General rank, which until the 19th century was called General-en-Chef in the Russian Imperial army, and then was renamed General of the Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery. Curiously, the initial draft of the new rank system submitted by People's Commissar of Defence Marshal Voroshilov was more in line with Russian military tradition. In a memorandum submitted on 17 March 1940 to the Politburo and Sovnarkom, Voroshilov made the following proposal:[better source needed]
After discussing this question with my deputies, we conclude that our army needs to have the same number of General ranks as it was in the Tsarist army and as it exists in other European armies such as German, French and British. At present we have five General-grade ranks (kombrig, komdiv, komcor, komandarm 2nd rank and komandarm 1st rank). We find it necessary to join the military ranks of komdiv and komcor into a single Lieutenant General rank, and to similarly join the military ranks of komandarm 2nd rank and komandarm 1st rank into a single rank of General of the Infantry (artillery, cavalry, aviation, armoured troops etc.). To follow [them] is the highest military rank in the Red Army, the Marshal of the Soviet Union, which corresponds to similar ranks in foreign capitalist armies. We believe there is no need for additional military ranks above Marshal.
However, in the final document the two komandarm ranks were replaced with Colonel General and General of the Army, with the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union on top of them. In the end, the number of General-grade ranks did not reduce at all even with the abolition of Brigadier-grade kombrig rank, contrary to the initial proposal by Voroshilov.
After the introduction of this new system, most existing kombrigs were ranked as colonel, although some were ranked as general; existing komdivs were mostly ranked as major general, komcors and Army Commanders 2nd rank were mostly ranked Lieutenant General, and Army Commanders 1st rank were ranked as Colonel General or General of the Army (a notable exception is Georgy Zhukov who was promoted to General of the Army directly from komcor rank). Later in 1943, the ranks of Marshal and Chief Marshal of a service branch were introduced in aviation, artillery, communications troops, and armoured troops; both equivalent to General of the Army.
The final personal rank structure (for the Army and the Air Force) was thus as follows:
Eventually, the Soviet system of general ranks included commonplace Major General, Lieutenant General, however the position in between Lieutenant General and General of the Army was occupied by the Colonel General, which in the Soviet system is the equivalent of a full General rank in other nations.
This unusual rank structure makes rank comparisons difficult; Marshal of the Soviet Union is arguably not the equivalent to NATO five-star general ranks such as British Field Marshal or American General of the Army, but is instead an honorary rank analogous to the Marshal of France, although without associated state functions.
In the Soviet Navy before 1935 the ranks were personal positions. Since that year the general officer rank structure became as follows:
From 1940, the rank structure for high officers of the Navy became:
In 1943, the rank structure slightly changed into the final rank formation which remained until the dissolution of the Navy in 1991 with more changes in 1955 and 1962:
Ranks in the shore services mirrored the changes in the Red Army save that Colonel General became the highest rank for troops in those services.
The Russian Navy still uses this, except that Marshal of the Russian Federation is the highest rank of precedence, and the rank below that, Admiral of the Fleet, is the highest deck rank for officers.
From 1919 to 1922, colour of collar patch indicating the corps:
From 1922 to 1923, the rank insignia have four colours:
From 1924 to 1934, the rank insignia have two colours. The colour of collar patch and the colour of collar patch's edge indicating the corps:
From 1935 to 1942, the rank insignia have two colours. The colour of collar patch and colour of collar patch's edge indicating the corps:
From 1943 to 1955, the rank insignia have two colours. Colour of shoulder board and edge colour indicating the corps:
From December 1955 to 1970, the colours were changed to:
From 1970 to 1991(93):
In March 1956, general officers' stars were changed to gold.
Beside the official rank system in the armed forces, there was another system that was developed and established within the military culture. The military culture of the Soviet Union was driven by a "seniorship" (Russian: Дедовщина, Dyedovshchina). The concept of "Dyedovshchina" is usually pertains to soldiers in their first two-year obligatory tour in the armed forces, particularly in the Army.
The Soviet ranks and insignia (post-1943) are based on the ranks of the Imperial Russia, which influenced the rank systems in the imperial Japan, Thailand, Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria. While the first three later took its own course of development, the Bulgarian remains under the influence of the Russian and the (post-)Soviet tradition until now.
The rank systems in the pro-Soviet states of Mongolia and Tuva developed under the Soviet influence, following the pattern change in 1943.
The Soviet influence on the rank and insignia of other countries reached the apex after WW2, when most countries of East Europe changed their traditional insignia to the Soviet design. Yugoslavia abandoned the Soviet-style insignia in 1951, following the breakaway from Stalin's block; other countries quickly reverted to previous designs shortly after Stalin's death (1956–1958). Out of the Warsaw block countries, only Poland remained loyal to the pre-war uniform and ranks style. Albania kept the Soviet-based system until 1966, when ranks and insignia were abolished completely. Romania retained the Soviet-based system of ranks until the 1989 revolution.
Outside the Warsaw Alliance, the Soviet system of ranks and insignia influenced those in the following countries: China (before 1958 and after 1988), East Turkestan (unrecognized, part of China), North Korea, Vietnam (with stripes horizontal rather than vertical), Laos (senior officers have a thick stripe instead of two thin stripes), Kampuchea (1979–1993), Afghanistan (senior officers have horizontal stripes instead of vertical), South Yemen (1985–1990), Mongolia, and Cuba (the latter two countries slightly changed designs in the post-Soviet times, but the Soviet patterns are still easy to recognize). In Africa, pro-Soviet regimes in Burkina Faso (under Thomas Sankara) and Mozambique (under Samora Machel) used Soviet-style insignia but abandoned them when political trends changed. Currently, Congo, Ethiopia and Eritrea still retain the Soviet-based system of ranks with slightly changed designs (officers have horizontal stripes rather than vertical).
Post-Soviet countries mostly retained the Soviet-based system of ranks and insignia, except for the Baltic States (they restored their pre-Soviet rank systems), Azerbaijan (which wanted to make its uniforms and ranks prominently different from Armenian), Georgia, and Ukraine (Soviet-style designs were used before 2003 and 2016 in both Georgia and Ukraine respectively).