Ministries of Japan

Summary

The Ministries of Japan (中央省庁, Chūō shōchō, Central ministries and agencies) or Government Agencies of Japan (行政機関, Gyōsei kikan, Public administration organizations) are the most influential part of the executive branch of the Government of Japan. Each ministry is headed by a Minister of State appointed by the Prime Minister. In postwar politics, the posts of ministers have been given to senior legislators, mostly of the LDP. However, few ministers serve for more than one or two years to develop the necessary grasp of the organisation to become really influential. Thus, most of the power lies within the ministries, with the senior bureaucrats.

List of Ministries

Past

Just Before 2001 Central Government Reform

Just After 2001 Central Government Reform

As a result of the reforming in 2001, many ministries were reformed.

  • The Financial Reconstruction Commission was abolished.
  • Prime Minister's Office + Economic Planning Agency + Okinawa Development Agency = Cabinet Office
  • Management and Coordination Agency + Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications + Ministry of Home Affairs = Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications
  • Science and Technology Agency + Ministry of Education, Science and Culture = Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
  • Ministry of Health and Welfare + Ministry of Labour = Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare
  • The Ministry of International Trade and Industry changed its name into "Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry".
  • Hokkaido Development Agency + National Land Agency + Ministry of Transport + Ministry of Construction = Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport
  • The Environment Agency was reorganized into "Ministry of the Environment".

As of September 2021

After the big reforming, several small reforms have been made.

  • In 2004, the Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications, changed its English name into "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications" (Japanese name was not changed).
  • In 2007, the Defense Agency was reorganized into "Ministry of Defense".
  • In 2008, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, changed its English name into "Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism" (Japanese name was not changed).
  • In 2012, "Reconstruction Agency" was established in the aim of recovery from 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.
  • In 2021, "Digital Agency" was established in the aim to promote e-government and digital transformation.

List of Ministers of State

  • Prime Minister (内閣総理大臣)
  • Deputy Prime Minister (副総理)
  • Minister for Internal Affairs and Communications (総務大臣)
  • Minister of Justice (法務大臣)
  • Minister for Foreign Affairs (外務大臣)
  • Minister of Finance (財務大臣)
  • Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (文部科学大臣)
  • Minister of Health, Labour and Welfare (厚生労働大臣)
  • Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (農林水産大臣)
  • Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry (経済産業大臣)
  • Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (国土交通大臣)
  • Minister of the Environment (環境大臣)
  • Minister of Defense (防衛大臣)
  • Chief Cabinet Secretary (内閣官房長官)
  • Digital Minister (デジタル大臣)
  • Minister for Reconstruction (復興大臣)
  • Chairperson of the National Public Safety Commission (国家公安委員会委員長)
  • Minister of State for Okinawa and Northern Territories Affairs (内閣府特命担当大臣- 沖縄及び北方対策)
  • Minister of State for Gender Equality (内閣府特命担当大臣: 男女共同参画)
  • Minister of State for Youth Affairs and Measures for Declining Birthrate (内閣府特命担当大臣- 青少年育成及び少子化対策)
  • Minister of State for Disaster Management (内閣府特命担当大臣- 防災)
  • Minister of State for National Emergency Legislation (内閣府特命担当大臣- 有事法制担当)
  • Minister of State for Financial Policy (内閣府特命担当大臣- 金融)
  • Minister of State for Economic and Fiscal Policy (内閣府特命担当大臣- 経済財政政策)
  • Minister of State for Privatization of the Postal Services (内閣府特命担当大臣- 郵政民営化担当)
  • Minister of State for Regulatory Reform (内閣府特命担当大臣- 規制改革)
  • Minister of State for Industrial Revitalization Corporation of Japan (内閣府特命担当大臣- 産業再生機構)
  • Minister of State for Administrative Reform (内閣府特命担当大臣- 行政改革担当)
  • Minister of State for Special Zones for Structural Reform (内閣府特命担当大臣- 構造改革特区)
  • Minister of State for Regional Revitalization (内閣府特命担当大臣- 地域再生担当)
  • Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy (内閣府特命担当大臣- 科学技術政策)
  • Minister of State for Food Safety (内閣府特命担当大臣- 食品安全)
  • Minister of State for Information Technology (内閣府特命担当大臣- 情報通信技術(IT)担当)