The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is an Indian government ministry. This ministry is headed by Secretary Rank senior most IAS officer. The ministry portfolio is currently held by Bhupender Yadav, Union Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
|Jurisdiction||Government of India|
|Headquarters||Indira Paryavaran Bhavan, Jorbagh Road, New Delhi|
|Annual budget||₹2,870 crore (US$360 million) (2021–22 est.)|
The ministry is responsible for planning, promoting, coordinating, and overseeing the implementation of environmental and forestry programmes in the country. The main activities undertaken by the ministry include conservation and survey of the flora of India and fauna of India, forests and other wilderness areas; prevention and control of pollution; Indian Himalayan Environment and its sustainable development;afforestation, and land degradation mitigation. It is responsible for the administration of the 1947 national parks of India.
Environmental debates were first introduced into the national political agenda during Indira Gandhi's first term as Prime Minister of India. The 4th Five-Year Plan (1969–74), for example, proclaimed "harmonious development [...] on the basis of a comprehensive appraisal of environmental issues." In 1977 (during the Emergency) Gandhi added Article 48A to the constitution stating that: "The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country." The same decree transferred wildlife and forests from state list to concurrent list of the constitution, thus giving the central government the power to overrule state decisions on that matter. Such political and constitutional changes prepared the groundwork for the creation of a federal Department of Environment in 1980, turned into the Ministry of Environment and Forests in 1985. Although tackling climate change was already a responsibility of the ministry, its priority was raised when in May 2014 the ministry was renamed to the current title of Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.
The forest administration is based on demarcation of states into Forest Divisions which consists of Forest Ranges. Forest Beats under Ranges are the smallest unit of administration hierarchy. Natural features on the field form the boundaries of each beat which has an average area of around 16 km square.
|No||Portrait||Name||Term of office||Prime Minister||Party|
|1||Rajiv Gandhi||31 December 1984||22 October 1986||1 year, 295 days||Rajiv Gandhi||Indian National Congress|
|2||Bhajan Lal||22 October 1986||14 February 1988||1 year, 115 days|
|3||Ziaur Rahman Ansari
|14 February 1988||02 December 1989||1 year, 291 days|
|4||V. P. Singh||02 December 1989||23 April 1990||142 days||V. P. Singh||Janata Dal|
|5||Nilamani Routray||23 April 1990||10 November 1990||201 days|
|21 November 1990||21 June 1991||212 days||Chandra Shekhar||Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya)|
|21 June 1991||15 September 1995||4 years, 86 days||P. V. Narasimha Rao||Indian National Congress|
|15 September 1995||16 May 1996||244 days|
|9||Atal Bihari Vajpayee||16 May 1996||01 June 1996||16 days||Atal Bihari Vajpayee||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|10||H. D. Deve Gowda||1 June 1996||29 June 1996||28 days||H. D. Deve Gowda||Janata Dal|
|11||Jai Narain Prasad Nishad||29 June 1996||21 February 1997||237 days|
|12||Saifuddin Soz||21 February 1997||19 March 1998||1 year, 26 days||H. D. Deve Gowda
I. K. Gujral
|Jammu & Kashmir National Conference|
|13||Suresh Prabhu||19 March 1998||13 October 1999||1 year, 208 days||Atal Bihari Vajpayee||Shiv Sena|
|14||T. R. Baalu||13 October 1999||21 December 2003||4 years, 69 days||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam|
|(9)||Atal Bihari Vajpayee||21 December 2003||09 January 2004||19 days||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|09 January 2004||22 May 2004||134 days|
|16||A. Raja||23 May 2004||15 May 2007||2 years, 357 days||Manmohan Singh||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam|
|17||Manmohan Singh||15 May 2007||22 May 2009||2 years, 7 days||Indian National Congress|
|28 May 2009||12 July 2011||2 years, 45 days|
|12 July 2011||21 December 2013||2 years, 162 days|
|20||M. Veerappa Moily||21 December 2013||26 May 2014||156 days|
|26 May 2014||05 July 2016||2 years, 40 days||Narendra Modi||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|22||Anil Madhav Dave
|05 July 2016||18 May 2017||317 days|
|23||Dr. Harsh Vardhan||18 May 2017||30 May 2019||2 years, 12 days|
|(21)||Prakash Javdekar||30 May 2019||7 July 2021||2 years, 38 days|
|24||Bhupender Yadav||7 July 2021||Incumbent||1 year, 88 days|
In August 2019 Ministry of Environment released the Draft National Resource Efficiency Policy. It is a set of guidelines which envisions a future with environmentally sustainable and equitable economic growth. The policy is guided by principle of reduction in primary resource consumption; creation of higher value with less material through resource efficient circular approach; waste minimization; material security and creation of employment opportunities and business model beneficial to cause of environment protection and restoration. It was based on the report of NITI Aayog and European Union titled, The strategy on resource efficiency. The policy seeks to set up a National Resource Efficiency Authority with core working group housed in the Ministry. It also plans to offer tax benefits on recycled materials and soft loans to set up waste disposal and material recovery facilities.
As of 8th December 2021, some states have received more than Rupees 47,000 crore for afforestation. The states are directed to channel this amount as compensatory afforestation which shall be used for plantations, assisted natural forest regeneration, forest fire-prevention, pest and disease control in forest, and expedite soil and moisture conservation works.