|Headquarters||Cape Canaveral, FL 32920|
|Robert D. Richards, Naveen Jain, Barney Pell|
|Footnotes / references|
Moon Express's machines are designed to look for materials that are scarce on Earth
Moon Express (MoonEx), is an American privately held early-stage company formed by a group of Silicon Valley and space entrepreneurs, with the goal winning the Google Lunar X Prize, and of ultimately mining the Moon for natural resources of economic value.
In August 2010, Robert D. Richards, Naveen Jain, and Barney Pell co-founded Moon Express, a Mountain View, California-based company that plans to offer commercial lunar robotic transportation and data services with a long-term goal of mining the Moon for resources, including elements that are rare on Earth, including niobium, yttrium and dysprosium. Moon Express based itself at the NASA Ames Research Center from 2010 to 2015, and the company announced its relocation to Florida's Cape Canaveral in 2015.
In mid-2012, Moon Express started work with the International Lunar Observatory Association (ILOA) to put a shoebox-sized astronomical telescope called International Lunar Observatory on the Moon.
By 2012, MoonEx had 20 employees, and in December 2012, MoonEx acquired one of the other Google Lunar X-Prize teams, Rocket City Space Pioneers, from Dynetics for an undisclosed sum. The agreement made Tim Pickens, the former lead of the RCSP team, the Chief Propulsion Engineer for MoonEx. In September 2013, MoonEx added Paul Spudis as Chief Scientist and Jack Burns as Science Advisory Board Chair.
In July 2016, Moon Express stated it would be taking over Cape Canaveral Launch Complexes 17 and 18, and 12 July 2018, both historic launch towers at Space Launch Complex 17 were demolished via controlled demolition to make way for Moon Express facilities to test its lunar lander.
On July 20, 2016, the Federal Aviation Administration approved Moon Express plans for a mission to deliver commercial payloads to the Moon, making Moon Express the first private company to receive government approval for a commercial space mission beyond traditional Earth orbit under the requirements of the Outer Space Treaty.
By July 2018, Moon Express had been unable to make payroll on several occasions and laid off nine employees. The employees did not receive back-pay until October 2018, four months later. 
On November 29, 2018 Moon Express was awarded a Commercial Lunar Payload Services contract by NASA, which makes it eligible to bid on delivering science and technology payloads to the Moon for NASA.
Moon Express is partnered with NASA through a Reimbursable Space Act Agreement that allowed Moon Express to invest over $500K into the commercialization of technology developed by NASA. On June 30, 2011, the company held its first successful test flight of a prototype lunar lander system called the Lander Test Vehicle (LTV) that was developed in partnership with NASA. On September 11, 2011 Moon Express set up a robotics lab for a lunar probe named the "Moon Express Robotics Lab for INnovation" (MERLIN) and hired several engineering students who had successfully competed at the FIRST Robotics Competition.
In October and November 2013, Moon Express conducted several free flight tests of its flight software utilizing the NASA Mighty Eagle lander test vehicle, under a Reimbursable Space Act Agreement with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. One month later, in December 2013, MoonEx unveiled the MX-1 lunar lander, a toroidal robotic lander that uses high-test hydrogen peroxide as its rocket propellant to support vertical landing on the lunar surface. On April 30, 2014 NASA announced that Moon Express was one of the three companies selected for the Lunar CATALYST initiative, an agreement which was extended on October 31, 2017 for 2 more years.
By December 2014, Moon Express successfully conducted flight tests of its "MTV-1X" lander test vehicle at the Kennedy Space Center Shuttle Landing Facility, becoming the first private company (and GLXP team) to demonstrate a commercial lunar lander test.
Google Lunar XPRIZE
The company was a competitor in the Google Lunar X Prize. By October 2015, there were 16 teams competing for the prize. On January 23, 2018, X Prize founder and chairman Peter Diamandis stated "After close consultation with our five finalist Google Lunar X Prize teams over the past several months, we have concluded that no team will make a launch attempt to reach the moon by the March 31, 2018, deadline." Google would have awarded $30 million to the first team to land a robotic spacecraft on the Moon and deliver data, images and video from the landing site and from 500 meters away from its landing site.
The company's robotic spacecraft are modular and scalable platforms that can be configured as landers or orbiters. All MoonEx robotic spacecraft use low-toxicity fuels, advanced carbon composites and silicates and a Moon Express PECO rocket engine. The PECO main engine uses RP-1 as a fuel and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidiser. The landing thrusters use hydrogen peroxide as a monopropellant. PECO stands for 'propulsion that is eco-friendly'. The company has the "MX lander family": 
- MX-1 – a single-engine spacecraft with a mass of 250 kg (fuelled); 30 kg payload capacity.
- MX-2 – a twin-engine spacecraft with a 30 kg payload capacity.
- MX-5 – a 5-engine platform configuration that can include MX-1 or MX-2 staged system. The MX-5 has a 150 kg payload capacity.
- MX-9 – a 9-engine platform configuration, designed for sample return. The MX-9 has a payload capacity of about 500 kg.
Moon Express signed a contract with Rocket Lab on 30 September 2015, for five launches where Rocket Lab will use its Electron rocket system to launch the lunar missions. Two launches are for 2019, with a third to be scheduled at a later date, possibly for 2020.
The first mission, called the Lunar Scout, is planned for 2019 and will use the MX-1E lander. This is a technology demonstration flight that will include three payloads:
- International Lunar Observatory (ILO-1) is a small optical telescope that will operate from the south pole of the Moon. The selected landing location is the 5 km (3.1 mi)-high Malapert mountain.
- MoonLIGHT is a laser retroreflector experiment built by Italy's INFN and the University of Maryland to perform research on gravity and on general relativity.
- Celestis memorial is a container with some human remains.
The second mission is the Lunar Outpost MX-3, a robotic lander to the lunar south pole that would scout for water ice and useful minerals. The third mission, called Harvest Moon, would be a sample-return mission for 2020.
- Hennigan, W.J. (2011-08-20). "MoonEx aims to scour Moon for rare materials". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2011-04-10.
MoonEx's machines are designed to look for materials that are scarce on Earth but found in everything from a Toyota Prius car battery to guidance systems on cruise missiles. ... The company is among several teams hoping to someday win the Google Lunar X Prize competition, a $30-million race to the Moon in which a privately-funded team must successfully place a robot on the Moon's surface and have it explore at least 1/3 of a mile. It also must transmit high definition video and images back to Earth before 2016. ... should be ready to land on the lunar surface by 2013.
- Brown 2011.
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