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**Mu** (/ˈm(j)uː/;^{[1]}^{[2]} uppercase **Μ**, lowercase **μ**; Ancient Greek μῦ [mŷː], Greek: μι or μυ—both [mi]) is the twelfth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the voiced bilabial nasal IPA: [m]. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 40.^{[3]} Mu was derived from the Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol for water, which had been simplified by the Phoenicians and named after their word for water, to become 𐤌^{img} (mem). Letters that derive from mu include the Roman M and the Cyrillic М, though the lowercase resembles a small Latin U (u).

In Greek, the name of the letter was written μῦ and pronounced [mŷː].

In Modern Greek, the letter is spelled μι and pronounced [mi]. In polytonic orthography, it is written with an acute accent: μί.^{[4]}^{[5]}

The lowercase letter mu (μ) is used as a special symbol in many academic fields. Uppercase mu is not used, because it appears identical to Latin M.

"μ" is used as a unit prefix denoting a factor of 10^{−6} (one millionth), in this context, the symbol's name is "micro".

- Metric prefix
- International System of Units prefix, also known as "SI prefix"
- The micrometre with a symbol of "μm" can also be referred to as the non-SI term "micron".

"μ" is conventionally used to denote certain things; however, any Greek letter or other symbol may be used freely as a variable name.

- a measure in measure theory
- minimalization in computability theory and Recursion theory
- the integrating factor in ordinary differential equations
- the degree of membership in a fuzzy set
- the Möbius function in number theory
- the population mean or expected value in probability and statistics
- the Ramanujan–Soldner constant

In classical physics and engineering:

- the coefficient of friction (also used in aviation as braking coefficient (see Braking action))
- reduced mass in the two-body problem
- Standard gravitational parameter in celestial mechanics
- linear density, or mass per unit length, in strings and other one-dimensional objects
- permeability in electromagnetism
- the magnetic dipole moment of a current-carrying coil
- dynamic viscosity in fluid mechanics
- the amplification factor or voltage gain of a triode vacuum tube
^{[6]} - the electrical mobility of a charged particle
- the rotor advance ratio, the ratio of aircraft airspeed to rotor-tip speed in rotorcraft
^{[7]}^{[8]} - the pore water pressure in saturated soil

In particle physics:

- the elementary particles called the muon and antimuon
- the proton-to-electron mass ratio

In thermodynamics:

- the chemical potential of a system or component of a system

- μ, population size from which in each generation λ offspring will generate (the terms μ and λ originate from evolution strategy notation)

In type theory:

- Used to introduce a recursive data type. For example, is the type of lists with elements of type (a type variable): a sum of unit, representing nil, with a pair of a and another (represented by ). In this notation, is a binding form, where the variable ( ) introduced by is bound within the following term ( ) to the term itself. Via substitution and arithmetic, the type expands to , an infinite sum of ever-increasing products of (that is, a is any -tuple of values of type for any ). Another way to express the same type is .

In chemistry:

- the prefix given in IUPAC nomenclature for a bridging ligand

In biology:

- the mutation rate in population genetics
- A class of Immunoglobulin heavy chain that defines IgM type Antibodies

In pharmacology:

- an important opiate receptor

- Standard gravitational parameter of a celestial body, the product of the gravitational constant
*G*and the mass*M* - planetary discriminant, represents an experimental measure of the actual degree of cleanliness of the orbital zone, a criterion for defining a planet. The value of μ is calculated by dividing the mass of the candidate body by the total mass of the other objects that share its orbital zone.

- Mu chord
- Electronic musician Mike Paradinas runs the label Planet Mu which utilizes the letter as its logo, and releases music under the pseudonym μ-Ziq, pronounced "music"
- Used as the name of the school idol group μ's, pronounced "muse", consisting of nine singing idols in the anime Love Live! School Idol Project
- Official fandom name of Kpop group f(x), appearing as either
**MeU**or 'μ' - Hip-hop artist Muonboy has taken inspiration from the particle for his stage name and his first EP named Mu uses the letter as its title.

The Olympus Corporation manufactures a series of digital cameras called Olympus μ [mju:]^{[9]} (known as Olympus Stylus in North America)

In phonology:

In syntax:

- μP (mu phrase) can be used as the name for a functional projection.
^{[10]}

In Celtic linguistics:

- /μ/ can represent an Old Irish nasalized labial fricative of uncertain articulation, the ancestor of the sound represented by Modern Irish
*mh*.

^{[11]}

Preview | Μ | μ | µ | Ⲙ | ⲙ | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Unicode name | GREEK CAPITAL LETTER MU | GREEK SMALL LETTER MU | MICRO SIGN | COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER MI | COPTIC SMALL LETTER MI | |||||

Encodings | decimal | hex | dec | hex | dec | hex | dec | hex | dec | hex |

Unicode | 924 | U+039C | 956 | U+03BC | 181 | U+00B5 | 11416 | U+2C98 | 11417 | U+2C99 |

UTF-8 | 206 156 | CE 9C | 206 188 | CE BC | 194 181 | C2 B5 | 226 178 152 | E2 B2 98 | 226 178 153 | E2 B2 99 |

Numeric character reference | Μ |
Μ |
μ |
μ |
µ |
µ |
Ⲙ |
Ⲙ |
ⲙ |
ⲙ |

Named character reference | Μ | μ | µ | |||||||

ISO/IEC 8859-1 | 181 | B5 | ||||||||

ISO/IEC 8859-7 | 204 | CC | 236 | EC | ||||||

Code page 437, 850 | 230 | E6 | 230 | E6 | ||||||

Code page 737 | 139 | 8B | 163 | A3 | ||||||

Code page 851, 869 | 183 | B7 | 230 | E6 | ||||||

Code page 1253 | 204 | CC | 236 | EC | ||||||

Roman-8, Roman-9 | 243 | F3 | 243 | F3 | ||||||

TeX | \mu | \micro |

Preview | 𝚳 | 𝛍 | 𝛭 | 𝜇 | 𝜧 | 𝝁 | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Unicode name | MATHEMATICAL BOLD CAPITAL MU |
MATHEMATICAL BOLD SMALL MU |
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC CAPITAL MU |
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC SMALL MU |
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL MU |
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC SMALL MU | ||||||

Encodings | decimal | hex | dec | hex | dec | hex | dec | hex | dec | hex | dec | hex |

Unicode | 120499 | U+1D6B3 | 120525 | U+1D6CD | 120557 | U+1D6ED | 120583 | U+1D707 | 120615 | U+1D727 | 120641 | U+1D741 |

UTF-8 | 240 157 154 179 | F0 9D 9A B3 | 240 157 155 141 | F0 9D 9B 8D | 240 157 155 173 | F0 9D 9B AD | 240 157 156 135 | F0 9D 9C 87 | 240 157 156 167 | F0 9D 9C A7 | 240 157 157 129 | F0 9D 9D 81 |

UTF-16 | 55349 57011 | D835 DEB3 | 55349 57037 | D835 DECD | 55349 57069 | D835 DEED | 55349 57095 | D835 DF07 | 55349 57127 | D835 DF27 | 55349 57153 | D835 DF41 |

Numeric character reference | 𝚳 |
𝚳 |
𝛍 |
𝛍 |
𝛭 |
𝛭 |
𝜇 |
𝜇 |
𝜧 |
𝜧 |
𝝁 |
𝝁 |

Preview | 𝝡 | 𝝻 | 𝞛 | 𝞵 | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Unicode name | MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF BOLD CAPITAL MU |
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF BOLD SMALL MU |
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL MU |
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF BOLD ITALIC SMALL MU | ||||

Encodings | decimal | hex | dec | hex | dec | hex | dec | hex |

Unicode | 120673 | U+1D761 | 120699 | U+1D77B | 120731 | U+1D79B | 120757 | U+1D7B5 |

UTF-8 | 240 157 157 161 | F0 9D 9D A1 | 240 157 157 187 | F0 9D 9D BB | 240 157 158 155 | F0 9D 9E 9B | 240 157 158 181 | F0 9D 9E B5 |

UTF-16 | 55349 57185 | D835 DF61 | 55349 57211 | D835 DF7B | 55349 57243 | D835 DF9B | 55349 57269 | D835 DFB5 |

Numeric character reference | 𝝡 |
𝝡 |
𝝻 |
𝝻 |
𝞛 |
𝞛 |
𝞵 |
𝞵 |

Look up **Μ** or **μ** in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

**^**"mu".*The Chambers Dictionary*(9th ed.). Chambers. 2003. ISBN 0-550-10105-5.**^**"mu".*Oxford English Dictionary*(Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)**^**Hadley, James (1884).*A Greek Grammar for Schools and Colleges*. New York: American Book. p. 79.**^***Neoelliniki Grammatiki (Tis Dimotikis)*.**^***Grammatiki tis Dimotikis Glossas*.**^**Ballou, Glen (1987).*Handbook for Sound Engineers: The New Audio Cyclopedia*(1 ed.). Howard W. Sams Co. p. 250. ISBN 0-672-21983-2.*Amplification factor or voltage gain*is the amount the signal at the control grid is increased in amplitude after passing through the tube, which is also referred to as the Greek letter μ (mu) or voltage gain (V_{g}) of the tube.**^**"Nomenclature"*NASA***^**Definition**^**"Olympus History : μ[mju:] (Stylus) Series".**^**Johnson, Kyle (1991). "Object Positions".*Natural Language and Linguistic Theory*.**9**(4): 577–636. doi:10.1007/BF00134751. S2CID 189901613.**^**Unicode Code Charts: Greek and Coptic (Range: 0370-03FF)