N-I (rocket)

Summary

The N-I or N-1 was a derivative of the American Thor-Delta rocket, produced under license in Japan. The N stood for "Nippon" (Japan). It used a Long Tank Thor first stage, a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries-designed LE-3 engine on the second stage,[3][4][5] and three Castor SRMs.[2][6] Seven were launched between 1975 and 1982, before it was replaced by the N-II. Six of the seven launches were successful, however on the fifth flight, there was recontact between the satellite and the third stage, which caused the satellite to fail.

N-I
N-I.svg
The N-I rocket[1]
FunctionCarrier rocket
ManufacturerMcDonnell Douglas (design)
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (production)
Country of originUnited States (design)
Japan (production)
Size
Height34 metres (112 ft)[1]
Diameter2.44 metres (8.0 ft)
Mass131,330 kilograms (289,530 lb)[1]
Stages2 or 3
Capacity
Payload to LEO
Mass1,200 kilograms (2,600 lb)[1]
Payload to GTO
Mass360 kilograms (790 lb)[1]
Associated rockets
FamilyDelta
Launch history
StatusRetired
Launch sitesLA-N, Tanegashima
Total launches7
Success(es)6
Partial failure(s)1
First flight9 September 1975
Last flight3 September 1982
Boosters – Castor 2
No. boosters3[2]
Powered by1 TX-354-3
Maximum thrust258.9 kilonewtons (58,200 lbf)
Specific impulse262 sec
Burn time37 seconds
PropellantSolid
First stage – Thor-ELT
Powered by1 MB-3-3
Maximum thrust866.7 kilonewtons (194,800 lbf)
Specific impulse290 sec
Burn time270 seconds
PropellantRP-1/LOX
Second stage
Powered by1 LE-3
Maximum thrust52.9 kilonewtons (11,900 lbf)
Specific impulse290 sec
Burn time246 seconds
PropellantNTO/A-50
Third stage (optional) – Star-37N
Powered by1 solid
Maximum thrust45 kilonewtons (10,000 lbf)
Specific impulse290 sec
Burn time42 seconds
PropellantSolid
Mock up of N-1

On 29 February 1976, the second N-I conducted the only orbital launch to occur on a leap day.[7]

Launch historyEdit

Flight No. Date / time (UTC) Rocket,
Configuration
Launch site Payload Payload mass Orbit Customer Launch
outcome
1(F) 9 September 1975
05:30[8]
Tanegashima ETS-1 (JETS-1/Kiku-1)[9] LEO Success
2(F) 29 February 1976
03:30[8]
Tanegashima ISS-1 (JISS-1/Ume-1)[10] LEO Success
3(F) 23 February 1977
08:50[8]
Tanegashima ETS-2 (Kiku-2)[11] GTO Success
3rd stage used
4(F) 16 February 1978
04:00[8]
Tanegashima ISS-2 (JISS-2/Ume-2)[10] LEO Success
5(F) 6 February 1979
08:46[8]
Tanegashima ECS-A (Ayame-1)[12] GTO Partial failure
3rd stage used; Recontact between satellite and upper stage.
6(F) 22 February 1980
08:35[8]
Tanegashima ECS-B (Ayame-2)[12] GTO Success
3rd stage used
9(F) 3 September 1982
05:00[8]
Tanegashima ETS-3 (Kiku-4)[13] LEO Success

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Wade, Mark. "Delta". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
  2. ^ a b "JAXA Digital Archives". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Archived from the original on 9 September 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009.
  3. ^ "N-Iロケット開発の歩み". Yukihiko Takenaka, NASDA. Retrieved 10 February 2011.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ "三菱重工 名古屋誘導推進システム製作所 事業所紹介 沿革". Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Archived from the original on 4 July 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  5. ^ "第1部 創造性豊かな科学技術を求めて 第2章 自主技術開発への展開 第3節 先導的・基盤的科学技術分野における自主技術開発の展開 2.宇宙開発". Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 10 February 2011.
  6. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "N-1". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  7. ^ Pearlman, Robert. "Space Station Command Change Is One Giant Leap (Day) for Space History". Space.com. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g McDowell, Jonathan. "Thor". Orbital and Suborbital Launch Database. Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
  9. ^ "JAXA | Engineering Test Satellite I "KIKU-1" (ETS-I)". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  10. ^ a b "JAXA | Ionosphere Sounding Satellite "UME" (ISS)". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  11. ^ "JAXA | Engineering Test Satellite II "KIKU-2" (ETS-II)". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  12. ^ a b "JAXA | Experimental Communications Satellites "Ayame" (ECS)". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  13. ^ "JAXA | Engineering Test Satellite III "KIKU-4" (ETS-III)". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 16 March 2020.