Nalanda district


Nalanda district is one of the thirty-eight districts of the state of Bihar in India. Bihar Sharif is the administrative headquarters of this district. The districts contain the ancient Nalanda Mahavihara a UNESCO World Heritage site. Nalanda is located in the Magadh region of southern Bihar.[2]

Nalanda district
Ruins of Nalanda Mahavihara
Ruins of Nalanda Mahavihara
Location of Nalanda district in Bihar
Location of Nalanda district in Bihar
Country India
Established9 November 1972
HeadquartersBihar Sharif
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesNalanda
 • Total2,367 km2 (914 sq mi)
 • Urban
112.91 km2 (43.59 sq mi)
 • Total2,877,653
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)
 • Literacy66.41 (M=77.11; F=54.76)
 • Sex ratio921 (2011)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
PIN Code
Major highwaysNH 20, NH 33, NH 120, NH 431
WebsiteNalanda District
Administrative map of Nalanda district


Nalanda became a fully-fledged district when it was split from Patna on 9 November 1972.[3][4]


Nalanda district occupies an area of 2,355 square kilometres (909 sq mi).[5] The Phalgu, Mohane, Jirayan, and Kumbhari rivers flow through it. The district is a part of Patna Division. Majority of the land in the district is fertile land of Indo Gangetic plane. In the extreme South, there lies the hills of Rajgir. There is also one small hillock in the district headquarters of Bihar Sharif.

Flora and faunaEdit

In 1978 Nalanda district became home to the Pant Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajgir which has an area of 35.84 km2 (13.8 sq mi).[6]


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
Religions in Nalanda District
Religion Percent

According to the 2011 census Nalanda district has a population of 2,877,653,[8] roughly equal to the nation of Mongolia[9] or the US state of Kansas.[10] This gives it a ranking of 134th in India (out of a total of 640),[8] and 18th in state. The district has a population density of 1,220 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,200/sq mi) .[8] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 21.18%.[8] Nalanda has a sex ratio of 921 females for every 1000 males,[8] and a literacy rate of 66.41%. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 21.12% and 0.05% of the population respectively.[8]

Languages of Nalanda district (2011)

  Magahi (56.27%)
  Hindi (37.28%)
  Urdu (5.69%)
  Others (0.76%)

At the time of the 2011 Census of India, 56.27% of the population in the district spoke Magahi, 37.28% Hindi and 5.69% Urdu as their first language.[11]


No. Constituency Name Party Alliance Remarks
171 Asthawan Jitendra Kumar Janata Dal (United) MGB
172 Biharsharif Sunil Kumar Bharatiya Janata Party NDA
173 Rajgir Kaushal Kishore Janata Dal (United) MGB
174 Islampur Rakesh Raushan Yadav Rashtriya Janata Dal MGB
175 Hilsa Krishna Murari Sharan Janata Dal (United) MGB
176 Nalanda Shrawan Kumar Janata Dal (United) MGB
177 Harnaut Hari Narayan Singh Janata Dal (United) MGB

Since Kurmis are dominant in Nalanda, it is also known by the name Kurmistan in political circle.[12]


Sub Divisions: 3 - Modern District of Nalanda with HQ Biharsharif was established on 9 November 1972. Earlier it was Biharsharif sub-division of Patna district. Bihar Sharif, Rajgir, Hilsa
Blocks: 20 - Giriyak, Rahui, Noorsarai, Harnaut, Chandi, Islampur, Rajgir, Asthawan, Sarmera, Hilsa, Biharsharif, Ekangarsarai, Bena, Nagarnausa, Karai Parsurai, Silao, Parwalpur, Katrisarai, Bind, Tharthari.


Nalanda district is fast developing and the ruins of the ancient Nalanda University or UNESCO Nalanda Archaeological Site attracts tourists from all over the world driving the local economy.


Agriculture is the backbone of the economy, with the majority of the population engaged in agriculture. Rice, wheat, maize, pulses, potato, fruits, and vegetables are the main crops. A newly setup Ordnance Factory, one of the 41 Indian Ordnance Factories has been set up by the Ministry of Defence, Government of India to manufacture artillery shells at Nalanda by the then Defence Minister Shri George Fernandes. Then there is the railway coach maintenance plant at Harnaut Block of Nalanda.

Tourism is well developed, with lakhs of people flocking at ruins of Nalanda University, Rajgir and Pawapuri. Rajgir was the first capital of Magadh Empire. Buddha had spent years at this place. Surrounded by five hills, it has got scenic views. Pawapuri, the Nirwana place of Mahavir, is holy place for the Jains.[13][14] In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Nalanda one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[15] It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[15]

Notable peopleEdit


  1. ^ "NALANDA Pin Code - 803111, Silao All Post Office Areas PIN Codes, Search NALANDA Post Office Address". ABP Live. Retrieved 28 July 2022.
  2. ^ Chaudhary, Pranava Kumar (15 July 2016). "UNESCO declares Nalanda Mahavihara World Heritage Site". The Times of India. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  3. ^ "Sub-Divisions | District Nalanda, Government of Bihar | India". Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  4. ^ "Districts of India". Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  5. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Bihar: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1118–1119. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. {{cite book}}: |last1= has generic name (help)
  6. ^ Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: Bihar". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  7. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  8. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  9. ^ Wordometer. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1 October 2011. Mongolia 3,278,290 July 2011 est
  10. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Kansas 2,853,118
  11. ^ "C-16 Population By Mother Tongue - Bihar". Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  12. ^ IANS (27 October 2015). "Caste dominates in Bihar's third round polling". Business Standard India. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 May 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ PTI (17 November 2017). "OFB Nalanda to develop indigenous artillery shells". @businessline. Retrieved 19 November 2020.
  15. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 April 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2011.

External linksEdit

  • Official website

Coordinates: 25°12′00″N 85°31′12″E / 25.20000°N 85.52000°E / 25.20000; 85.52000