National Police Reserve


The National Police Reserve (警察予備隊, Keisatsu Yobitai), or NPR, was a lightly armed national police force established in August 1950 during the Allied occupation of Japan.[2] In October 1952, it was expanded to 110,000 men and renamed as the National Safety Force (保安隊, Hoantai). On July 1, 1954, it was reorganized as the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF).

National Police Reserve (NPR)
NPR insignia
Active10 August 1950–1 July 1954
Country Japan
RoleAnti-tank warfare
Border control
Cold-weather warfare
Crowd control
Force protection
Forward observer
Indirect fire
Intelligence assessment
Internal security
Jungle warfare
Law enforcement
Riot control
Urban warfare
Sizec. 75,000 – 110,000
Part ofNational Safety Agency, Prime Minister's Office
Garrison/HQCamp Etchūjima, Kōtō, Tokyo
Senior Superintendent Keizō Hayashi[1]


General Group Headquarters of the NPR

On the outbreak of the Korean War, many units of the United States Armed Forces stationed in Japan were transferred to South Korea for combat, and Japan was perceived as lacking defenses.[3][4][2] Encouraged by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ), the Japanese government in 1950 authorized the establishment of NPR, consisting of 75,000 men equipped with light infantry weapons.[5][4] Personnel affairs of the NPR was taken charge of by GHQ's Government Section (GS) under Brigadier General Courtney Whitney[6] while the efforts to establish and train the force was made by Civil Affairs Section Annex (CASA) under Major General Whitfield P. Shepard.[7][1]

Given the legal status of police, the National Police Reserve was tasked with the duty to maintain public security under special conditions according to the National Police Reserve Order (Cabinet Order No. 260, 1950),[n 1] while in terms of unit formation and equipment, it was a de facto military force modeled after the United States Army.[10]

In October 1952, the NPR was expanded to 110,000 men and renamed as the National Safety Force (NSF).[11][12][13]

On July 1, 1954, after the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Act [Act No. 165 of 1954] the National Security Board was reorganized as the Defense Agency, and the National Security Force was reorganized as the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (postwar army branch of Japan),[14] while the Coastal Safety Force (waterborne counterpart of the NPR) was reorganized as the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (postwar naval branch of Japan).[15][16]


Rank insignia of the NPR
NPR Regional Units (管区隊, reorganized as JGSDF divisions in 1962)
Ranks of the National Police Reserve[17]
NPR ranks equivalent ranks
in Japanese English translations National Safety Forces ranks Army/JGSDF rnks[18]
Officers Sōtaisōkan-taru-keisatukan (総隊総監たる警察監) Senior Superintendent (serving as Superintendent General of the National Police Reserve)
(Wearing three star rank insignia[19])
Di-ichibakuryōchō-taru-hoankan (第一幕僚長たる保安監) Lieutenant General
Keisatsukan (警察監)[20] Senior Superintendent[1]
(Wearing two star rank insignia[19])
Hoankan (保安監)
Keisatsukanho (警察監補) Assistant Senior Superintendent[19] Hoankanho (保安監補) Major General
Ittō keisatsusei (1等警察正)[21] Superintendent First Class[22] Ittō hoansei (1等保安正) Colonel
Nitō keisatsusei (2等警察正)[23] Superintendent Second Class[24] Nitō hoansei (2等保安正) Lieutenant Colonel
Keisatsushicyō (警察士長)[23] Senior Inspector[24] Santō hoansei (3等保安正) Major
Ittō Keisatsushi (1等警察士)[23] Inspector First Class[24] Ittō hoanshi (1等保安士) Captain
Nitō Keisatsushi (2等警察士)[20] Inspector Second Class[1] Nitō hoanshi (2等保安士) First lieutenant
- - Santō hoanshi (3等保安士)[25] Second lieutenant
Sub-officers Ittō Keisatsushiho (1等警察士補) Assistant Inspector First Class Ittō hoanshiho (1等保安士補) Master Sergeant
Nitō Keisatsushiho (2等警察士補) Assistant Inspector Second Class Nitō hoanshiho (2等保安士補) Sergeant First Class
Santō Keisatsushiho (3等警察士補) Assistant Inspector Third Class Santō hoanshiho (3等保安士補) Sergeant
Patrolmen Keisachō (警査長) Senior Patrolman Hosachō (保査長) Leading Private
Ittō Keisa (1等警査) Patrolman First Class Ittō hosa (1等保査) Private First Class
Nitō Keisa (2等警査)[26] Patrolman Second Class[27] Nitō hosa (2等保査) Private


See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit


  1. ^ According to Article 3, National Police Reserve Order (警察予備隊令第三條), the NPR took action upon appointment by the Prime Minister when it was particularly necessary to maintain public security.[8] (original text in Japanese: 警察予備隊は、治安維持のため特別の必要がある場合において、内閣総理大臣の命を受け行動するものとする。)[9]


  1. ^ a b c d Kuzuhara 2006, p. 99.
  2. ^ a b Kuzuhara 2006, p. 95.
  3. ^ 佐道明廣 2017, p. 36.
  4. ^ a b 佐道明広 2006, p. 23.
  5. ^ Kuzuhara 2006, p. 96.
  6. ^ Maeda 1995, p. 25.
  7. ^ 华丹 2014, p. 22.
  8. ^ 佐道明廣 2017, p. 37.
  9. ^ 松本昌悦, 尾崎利生 & 箭川哲 1988, p. 475.
  10. ^ 佐道明廣 2017, p. 37-38.
  11. ^ 佐道明広 2006, p. 32.
  12. ^ 华丹 2014, p. 30.
  13. ^ 赫赤, 关南 & 姜孝若 1988, p. 189.
  14. ^ Kowalski 2014, p. 72.
  15. ^ Takei 2008, p. 3.
  16. ^ 武居智久 2008, p. 5.
  17. ^ PANZER April 1998 issue page.125 Argonaut.Inc .
  18. ^ 防衛庁 2004, p. 266.
  19. ^ a b c At that time, they corresponded to three-star rank, two-star rank and one-star rank respectively.
  20. ^ a b 葛原和三 2006, p. 83.
  21. ^ 葛原和三 2006, p. 89.
  22. ^ Kuzuhara 2006, p. 107.
  23. ^ a b c 葛原和三 2006, p. 87.
  24. ^ a b c Kuzuhara 2006, p. 104.
  25. ^ Established march 1953.
  26. ^ 葛原和三 2006, p. 82.
  27. ^ Kuzuhara 2006, p. 98.


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