The National Police Reserve (警察予備隊, Keisatsu Yobitai), or NPR, was a lightly armed national police force established in August 1950 during the Allied occupation of Japan. In October 1952, it was expanded to 110,000 men and renamed as the National Safety Force (保安隊, Hoantai). On July 1, 1954, it was reorganized as the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF).
|National Police Reserve (NPR)|
|Active||10 August 1950–1 July 1954|
|Size||c. 75,000 – 110,000|
|Part of||National Safety Agency, Prime Minister's Office|
|Garrison/HQ||Camp Etchūjima, Kōtō, Tokyo|
|Senior Superintendent Keizō Hayashi|
On the outbreak of the Korean War, many units of the United States Armed Forces stationed in Japan were transferred to South Korea for combat, and Japan was perceived as lacking defenses. Encouraged by the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ), the Japanese government in 1950 authorized the establishment of NPR, consisting of 75,000 men equipped with light infantry weapons. Personnel affairs of the NPR was taken charge of by GHQ's Government Section (GS) under Brigadier General Courtney Whitney while the efforts to establish and train the force was made by Civil Affairs Section Annex (CASA) under Major General Whitfield P. Shepard.
Given the legal status of police, the National Police Reserve was tasked with the duty to maintain public security under special conditions according to the National Police Reserve Order (Cabinet Order No. 260, 1950),[n 1] while in terms of unit formation and equipment, it was a de facto military force modeled after the United States Army.
In October 1952, the NPR was expanded to 110,000 men and renamed as the National Safety Force (NSF).
On July 1, 1954, after the 1954 Self-Defense Forces Act [Act No. 165 of 1954] the National Security Board was reorganized as the Defense Agency, and the National Security Force was reorganized as the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (postwar army branch of Japan), while the Coastal Safety Force (waterborne counterpart of the NPR) was reorganized as the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (postwar naval branch of Japan).
|NPR ranks||equivalent ranks|
|in Japanese||English translations||National Safety Forces ranks||Army/JGSDF rnks|
|Officers||Sōtaisōkan-taru-keisatukan (総隊総監たる警察監)||Senior Superintendent (serving as Superintendent General of the National Police Reserve)
(Wearing three star rank insignia)
|Di-ichibakuryōchō-taru-hoankan (第一幕僚長たる保安監)||Lieutenant General|
|Keisatsukan (警察監)||Senior Superintendent
(Wearing two star rank insignia)
|Keisatsukanho (警察監補)||Assistant Senior Superintendent||Hoankanho (保安監補)||Major General|
|Ittō keisatsusei (1等警察正)||Superintendent First Class||Ittō hoansei (1等保安正)||Colonel|
|Nitō keisatsusei (2等警察正)||Superintendent Second Class||Nitō hoansei (2等保安正)||Lieutenant Colonel|
|Keisatsushicyō (警察士長)||Senior Inspector||Santō hoansei (3等保安正)||Major|
|Ittō Keisatsushi (1等警察士)||Inspector First Class||Ittō hoanshi (1等保安士)||Captain|
|Nitō Keisatsushi (2等警察士)||Inspector Second Class||Nitō hoanshi (2等保安士)||First lieutenant|
|-||-||Santō hoanshi (3等保安士)||Second lieutenant|
|Sub-officers||Ittō Keisatsushiho (1等警察士補)||Assistant Inspector First Class||Ittō hoanshiho (1等保安士補)||Master Sergeant|
|Nitō Keisatsushiho (2等警察士補)||Assistant Inspector Second Class||Nitō hoanshiho (2等保安士補)||Sergeant First Class|
|Santō Keisatsushiho (3等警察士補)||Assistant Inspector Third Class||Santō hoanshiho (3等保安士補)||Sergeant|
|Patrolmen||Keisachō (警査長)||Senior Patrolman||Hosachō (保査長)||Leading Private|
|Ittō Keisa (1等警査)||Patrolman First Class||Ittō hosa (1等保査)||Private First Class|
|Nitō Keisa (2等警査)||Patrolman Second Class||Nitō hosa (2等保査)||Private|
National Police Reserve Corps, (Showa 27) May 3, 1952
Police Reserve Corps 1st Regiment
A police officer of a police reserve party who will face the first morning assembly after commissioning
NPR bazooka training