The Council serves as a check against the mayor in a mayor-council government model. The Council monitors the performance of city agencies and makes land use decisions as well as legislating on a variety of other issues. The City Council also has sole responsibility for approving the city budget. Members elected in or after the year 2010 are limited to two consecutive terms in office, but may run again after a four-year respite; however, Members elected prior to 2010 may seek third consecutive terms.
The head of the City Council is called the Speaker. The current Speaker is Corey Johnson, a Democrat. The Speaker sets the agenda and presides at meetings of the City Council. Proposed legislation is submitted through the Speaker's Office. There are 48 Democratic council members led by Majority Leader Laurie Cumbo. The three Republican council members are led by Minority Leader Steven Matteo.
The Council has 35 committees with oversight of various functions of the city government. Each council member sits on at least three standing, select or subcommittees (listed below). The standing committees meet at least once per month. The Speaker of the Council, the Majority Leader, and the Minority Leader are all ex officio members of every committee.
Council members are elected every four years, except for two consecutive two-year terms every twenty years to allow for redistricting between the terms due to the national census (starting in 2001 and 2003 for the 2000 Census and again in 2021 and 2023 for the 2020 Census).
Council Members currently receive $148,500 a year in base salary, which the council increased from $112,500 in early 2016. Members receive no additional compensation for serving as a committee chairperson or other officer under the new salary raise.
A local law has a status equivalent with a law enacted by the Legislature (subject to certain exceptions and restrictions), and is superior to the older forms of municipal legislation such as ordinances, resolutions, rules and regulations. Each local government must designate a newspaper of notice to publish or describe its laws. The Secretary of State is responsible for publishing local laws as a supplement to the Laws of New York (the "session laws" of the state), but they have not done so in recent years. The New York City Charter, the New York City Administrative Code, and the Rules of the City of New York are published online by the New York Legal Publishing Corp. under contract with the New York City Law Department.
The history of the New York City Council can be traced to Dutch Colonial times when New York City was known as New Amsterdam. On February 2, 1653, the town of New Amsterdam, founded on the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1625, was incorporated as a city under a charter issued by the Dutch West India Company. A Council of Legislators sat as the local lawmaking body and as a court of inferior jurisdiction. During the 18th and 19th centuries the local legislature was called the Common Council and then the Board of Aldermen. In 1898 the amalgamation charter of the City of Greater New York renamed and revamped the Council and added a New York City Board of Estimate with certain administrative and financial powers. After a number of changes through the ensuing years, the present Council was born in 1938 under a new charter which instituted the Council as the sole legislative body and the New York City Board of Estimate as the chief administrative body. Certain functions of the Council, however, remained subject to the approval of the Board.
A system of proportional representation known as Single Transferable Vote seated a 26-member Council in 1938 to serve two-year terms. The term was extended to four years in 1945 to coincide with the term of the mayor. Proportional representation was abolished in 1947, largely from pressure from Democrats, who played on fears of Communist council members being elected (two already had). It was replaced by a system of electing one Council Member from each New York State Senate district within the city. The Charter also provided for the election of two Council Members-at-large from each of the five boroughs. In June 1983, however, a federal court ruled that the 10 at-large seats violated the United States Constitution's one-person, one-vote mandate.
In 1989, the Supreme Court ruled that the Board of Estimate also violated the one-person, one-vote mandate. In response, the new Charter abolished the Board of Estimate and provided for the redrawing of the Council district lines to increase minority representation on the Council. It also increased the number of Council Members from 35 to 51. The Council was then granted full power over the municipal budget, as well as authority over zoning, land use and franchises. In 1993 the New York City Council voted to rename the position of President of the City Council to the Public Advocate. As the presiding officer, the Public Advocate was an ex officio member of all committees in the Council, and in that capacity had the right to introduce and co-sponsor legislation. However the city charter revision of 2002 transferred the duties of presiding officer from the Public Advocate to the Council Speaker; the Public Advocate remains a non-voting member of the Council.
A two-term limit was imposed on City Council members and citywide elected officials in a 1993 referendum. The movement to introduce term limits was led by Ronald Lauder, a cosmetics heir. In 1996, voters turned down a Council proposal to extend term limits. Lauder spent $4 million on the two referenda.
However, in 2008, under pressure from Mayor Michael Bloomberg (who, like many Council members, was facing the end of his two-term limit at that time), the Council voted 29–22 to extend the limit to three terms; the Council also defeated (by a vote of 22–28, with one abstention) a proposal to submit the issue to public referendum.
Voters voted to reinstate the two-term limit law in another referendum in 2010. However, according to The New York Times, incumbent Members of the City Council who were elected prior to the 2010 referendum “will still be allowed to run for a third term. The two-term limit will only apply to those elected this year and beyond.”
Through several changes in title and duties, this person has been, together with the Mayor and City Comptroller, one of the three municipal officers directly elected by all of the City's voters, and also the person who—when the elected Mayor resigns, dies, or otherwise loses the ability to serve—becomes Acting Mayor until the next special or regular election.
Until 1989, these three officers, together with the five borough presidents, constituted the New York City Board of Estimate. Political campaigns have traditionally tried to balance their candidates for these three offices to appeal as wide a range of the city's political, geographical, social, ethnic and religious constituencies as possible (and, when possible, to both genders).
a. Became acting mayor upon the death or resignation of the elected mayor.
b. Later won election as mayor.
c. Unsuccessful candidate for mayor in a subsequent general election.
d. Not elected by citywide popular vote (Ardolph Kline had been elected deputy president by his fellow aldermen, and then succeeded as president upon Mitchel's resignation).
^"About the Law Department". New York City Law Department. Archived from the original on June 22, 2013. Retrieved June 16, 2013. The most important laws of the City of New York are now available on the web. The Law Department contracted with New York Legal Publishing Corp. for a site where you can browse and search the New York City Charter, the New York City Administrative Code, and the Rules of the City of New York.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
^Amy, Douglas J. (1996). "A Brief History of Proportional Representation in the United States". Retrieved April 30, 2014.
^Andrews v. Koch, 528 F.Supp. 246 (1981), aff’d sub nom., Giacobbe v. Andrews, 459 U.S. 801 (1982).
^Office of NYC Public Advocate Bill de Blasio "The Role of the Public Advocate". Retrieved July 30, 2019.
^Cardwell, Diane. "Betsy Gotbaum, the Advocate, Struggles to Reach Her Public". Retrieved January 14, 2013.
^Sewell Chan and Jonathan P. Hicks. Council Votes, 29 to 22, to Extend Term Limits, New York Times, published on-line and retrieved October 23, 2008.
^Fernanda Santos. The Future of Term Limits Is in Court, New York Times, October 24, 2008, p. A24 (retrieved October 24, 2008).
^Fernanda Santos. Judge Rejects Suit Over Term Limits, New York Times, January 14, 2009, p. A26 (retrieved July 6, 2009).
^Appeals Court Upholds Term Limits Revision, New York Times City Room Blog, April 28, 2009 (retrieved July 6, 2009).
^Javier C. Fernandez. "Once Again, City Voters Approve Term Limits", New York Times, November 3, 2010.
^Hernandez, Javier (November 3, 2010). "Once Again, City Voters Approve Term Limits". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
^"New York City Charter, ch. 1, §10" (PDF). nyc.gov. City of New York. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"Death of Mr. Guggenheimer". New York Times. September 13, 1907. p. 7. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^"Democrats Take All — The Tammany Ticket Makes Almost a Clean Sweep of the Greater City — Only Two Republicans in the Council — Van Wyck's Plurality Is 80,316 — Seth Low Ran Nearly 40,000 Ahead of His Ticket — The Republicans Lose 21 Assemblymen and Elect Only 11 Candidates to the Board of Aldermen". New York Times. November 4, 1897. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"City Legislators Meet — The First Session of the Council in Its Chamber Held Amid a Profusion of Flowers — Address of the President — He Calls the Attention of the Members to Serious Questions Confronting Them and Urges the Necessity of Economy in Expenditures". New York Times. January 4, 1898. p. 5. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"Mr. Guggenheimer". New York Times. January 1, 1902. p. 6. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^ ab"Charles V. Fornes Dies of Stroke at 82 — Twice President of New York City Board of Aldermen Succumbs in Buffalo — Was an Ex-Congressman — Long a Merchant Here and Active in Charities — Former President of Catholic Club". New York Times. May 23, 1929. p. 29. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^"Seth Low Takes The Mayor's Chair — Ex-Mayor Van Wyck Leaves the City Hall Alone — The New Executive Greeted With Courteous Words by His Predecessor Asks the People's Help in Redeeming His Solemn Pledges". New York Times. January 2, 1902. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"Patrick F. M'Gowan Dead in Hospital — Operation for Spleen Growth Fails to Save Former President of Aldermen — Washington Irving High School His Monument — Came to City As a Poor Young Man". New York Times. April 7, 1913. p. 9. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^"Mayor McClellan Sworn In — McGowan, Metz, Hayes, and Gass Also Get Certificates and Follow Suit". New York Times. December 28, 1905. p. 5. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"Kind to Metz and McGowan — Good Committees Picked for Them on Board of Education". New York Times. January 7, 1910. p. 6. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^"Belt Unfastened, Ex-Mayor Mitchel Falls To Death - His Scout Plane 500 Feet from Ground When the Accident Happened - Find Body In Marsh Grass - Other Airmen Believe He Was Trying to Make Landing When He Fell - Wife Not on the Grounds - Bears Shock Bravely and Will Bring Body from Louisiana Field to This City". New York Times. July 7, 1918. p. 1. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
^"Mayor Gaynor Takes Office — But He Will Not Announce His Appointments Before To-morrow — Ridder For Park Board — Publisher May be Commissioner for Manhattan, But Asks Time to Consider — McAneny Is Sworn In — Mitchel, Prendergast and Other Officers of the New Administration Also Take Hold". New York Times. January 2, 1910. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"Mitchel In Office As Port Collector Loeb, Retiring, Wishes Him Well — McAneny and Steers There as He Is Sworn In — Still in Mayoralty Fight — Politicians Say His Federal Appointment Can't Keep Him Out and Will Help Him". New York Times. June 8, 1913. p. C4. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"Ex-Mayor Kline Dies At Age Of 72 — City's Chief Executive A Few Months Upon Death Of Mayor Gaynor In 1913 — Once Head Of Aldermen — A Brigadier General in the National Guard — Was With U.S. Shipping Board At His Death — Joined National Guard In 1876 — Praised By Gaynor". New York Times. October 14, 1930. p. 25. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"Col. Kline For Economy — Successor of Mitchel As Aldermen's Head Will Follow His Lead". New York Times. June 10, 1913. p. 6. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"Kline Elected Alderman — Mayor Gets All but Forty Votes In His Home District". New York Times. November 5, 1913. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^"George M'Aneny, 83, Dead in Princeton — Zoning and Transit Expert Was City Controller, President of Manhattan Borough — Banker, Reform Leader — Former Executive Manager of The Times Helped to Draft Code for Civil Service". New York Times. July 30, 1953. p. 23. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^"Mitchel's First Day As Mayor — Cautions Heads of Departments Against Talking Too Much — Insists on Co-operation — No Police Head Yet — Commissioner McKay May Remain If Mayor Cannot Get the Man He Wants for the Place". New York Times. January 2, 1914. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^ ab"McAneny Stays Till Feb. 1 — President of Aldermen Postpones His Resignation at Mayor's Request". New York Times. January 22, 1916. p. 9. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"M'Aneny to Resign to Join The Times — President of the Board of Aldermen to Give Up Office in January Next — Will Finish Work in Hand — Regrets Leaving Associates, but Feels That He Will Still Be in the Public's Service". New York Times. October 20, 1915. p. 1. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^"Frank L. Dowling Dies of Pneumonia — President of Manhattan Borough Stricken After Attack of Gall Stones a Week Ago — Long Career in Politics — Former President of Board of Aldermen Served 18 Years in That Body — Mayor Pays Tribute". New York Times. September 28, 1919. p. 22. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"Frank L. Dowling Heads Aldermen; Vice Chairman of the Board Will Take President McAneny's Place — Democrats in Control — Dr. Thomas W. Martin Replaces Barry, Who Died In Bronx District — Committees Named". New York Times. January 4, 1916. p. 8. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"A Tammany Sweep — Hylan Can Get Every Vote in the Board of Estimate — Carries Every Borough — His Vote Is 293,382, Mitchel's 148,060, and Hillquit's 138,793 — Lewis, Attorney General — Beaten in This City, but Had a Big Plurality Up-State — Hylan Promises Loyalty". New York Times. November 7, 1917. p. 1. Retrieved November 21, 2016.
^"Alfred E. Smith Dies Here at 70 — 4 Times Governor — End Comes After a Sudden Relapse Following Earlier Turn for the Better — Ran For President in '28 — His Rise From Newsboy and Fishmonger Had No Exact Parallel in U.S. History". New York Times. October 4, 1944. p. 1. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"Smith Fills Offices — Matthew T. Horgan Will Be Assistant President of Aldermen". New York Times. January 2, 1918. p. 3. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^ ab"Named By Smith To Military Staff — Governor-Elect Will Appoint 4 More Men Later Who Have Seen Active Service — Resigns From Aldermen — Will Use Governor's Room at City Hall to Meet Persons Here on Official Business". New York Times. December 24, 1918. p. 7. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"R.L. Moran, Led City's Aldermen — Chief of Board Under Hylan Dies — Was Commissioner of Bronx Public Works". New York Times. August 19, 1954. p. 23. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"La Guardia Wins By 1,530 — Beats Moran for President of Board of Aldermen in a Close Contest — Koenig Ordered Vigilance — Warned Republican Chairmen to Stay by the Ballot Boxes and Scrutinize Count — Curran Defeats Boyle — Five Republican Votes in Board of Estimate Assured — Clean Cut Result in Supreme Court". New York Times. November 5, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^"La Guardia is Dead; City Pays Homage to 3-Time Mayor — Body Lying in State at St. John the Divine, Where Services Will Be Held Tomorrow — Gilbert Will Officiate — Truman, O'Dwyer and General Assembly of U.N. Mourn 'Champion of Democracy'". New York Times. September 21, 1947. p. 1. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"Curran Sworn In, LaGuardia Also — Borough President and Head of Aldermen Silent on Public Issues — Two Resignations Asked — Curran Pays Tribute to the Late Frank L. Dowling — Says Fairer Man Never Lived". New York Times. January 2, 1920. p. 8. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"Curran Defeats La Guardia by 60,000 — Haskell Third — Gilroy Wins — Hines Loses — Hines's Manager and a Candidate Shot — Fusion Wins All Over City — Wet Republican Runs 3 to 1 Behind — Bennett a Poor Fourth — Connolly Wins in Queens — Organization Leader Defeats Denis O'Leary, Insurgent Democrat, by 3 to 1 — Lockwood in Easy Victory — With 455 Districts Missing, Curran Has 83,425, LaGuardia 30,955, Bennett 3,777". New York Times. September 14, 1921. p. 1. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^"Murray Hulbert, Jurist, 65, Dead — Member of the Federal Bench Since 1934 Formerly Headed Board of Aldermen Here". New York Times. April 27, 1950. p. 19. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"Hylan Reinstalled, Pledges Old Policy; Keeps His Old Staff — In Inaugural Address Continues His Criticism of Press, Legislature and Port Authority — Refers to His Large Vote — Says It Is Not a Personal Tribute, but It Imposes Grave Responsibility — For Higher Aldermanic Pay — Craig Appears With Draft of New Charter Providing $5,000 Salaries for Members". New York Times. January 3, 1922. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^ abc"Court Ousts Hulbert From City Office; Forfeited Post By Taking State Job; Hylan Hopes Smith Will Reappoint Him — Collins His Successor — His Eligibility to the Office Since Jan. 1 Is Questioned, However — Dispute Over The Law — Governor May Have Power to Appoint Hulbert to His Old Position — Comma Figures in Case". New York Times. January 9, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
^"William Collins, Ex-Justice, Dead — Surrogate Served on State Supreme Court, 1928–45". New York Times. September 6, 1961. p. 37. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^ ab"Hylan And Enright Out With Pensions; Last-Hour Shifts In Police Department; Walker Fills Important City Posts — Collins Mayor for a Day — Leach is the Active Head of the Police Force for the Last Day of 1925 — Hylan to Get $4,205 A Year — Retirement Voted by Board of Estimate, He Quits to Assure Pension — Enright to Draw $5,000 — Approval of His Retirement as Commissioner One of Hylan's Last Official Acts". New York Times. December 31, 1925. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"J.V. M'Kee is Dead; Served as Mayor — President of Old Aldermanic Board Replaced Walker in Wave of Reform — Known as 'Holy Joe' — Former Teacher Entered Politics 'by Accident' — Headed Trust Company". New York Times. January 29, 1956. p. 93. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"McKee Resigns as Judge". New York Times. December 31, 1925. p. 2. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
^ ab"M'Kee Reinstates Man The Man He Had Ousted — Just Before Quitting Office He Names McEneny, Dropped in School Site Inquiry — Now Finds Charges Fail — O'Brien Assures His Departing Associate He Will Always Be Welcome at City Hall". New York Times. May 16, 1933. p. 1. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
^"Dennis J. Mahon, Tammany Aide, 71 — Acting Mayor in 30's Dies — Assisted De Sapio". New York Times. June 14, 1965. p. 33. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"City Charter Bill Voted — Aldermen Provide Referendum on Question of Revision". New York Times. May 17, 1933. p. 19. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
^"Rockway Subway Approved by City — Long Island Road's Route Held Best of 3 Proposed — Buying of Line Up to LaGuardia — Cost Put at $34,114,000 — Estimate Board Also Passes on Site of Staten Island Tube and Brooklyn Tunnel". New York Times. December 30, 1933. p. 15. Retrieved December 28, 2016.
^"Democrats Keep Aldermanic Rule — But the Republican-Fusionists Elect Seventeen, a Gain of Sixteen Seats — Majority Leader Loses — Mahon's Defeat Blow to Tammany — Kiernan Beaten in Brooklyn — Baldwin Winner". New York Times. November 8, 1933. p. 2. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^ abcd"Bernard S. Deutsch Dies Unexpectedly At 51 In Bronx Home — President of Board of Aldermen Succumbs to Brief Illness Not Known to Be Serious — Strain of Office Blamed — Wife and Two Daughters at Bedside — Mayor Goes to Home on Learning News — He Was Leader in Fusion — Long Identified With Law Here — Rose in Politics After 1930 Ambulance Chasing Inquiry". New York Times. November 22, 1935. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"LaGuardia Takes Office To Give City A New Deal; Sworn at Seabury Home — Ceremony At Midnight — Wife and Fusion Chiefs Are Present as McCook Administers Oath — His Day to Begin Early — Goes to Headquarters at 8:30 A.M. to Induct O'Ryan as Police Commissioner — Board to Hear His Plans — Mayor Faces Many Problems, a Hostile Tammany and Fight for His Program at Albany". New York Times. January 1, 1934. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"List of Candidates Who Will Be on Ballots in Municipal Election Nov. 7". New York Times. November 5, 1933. p. N2. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"T.J. Sullivan Dies; Once Acting Mayor — Former President of the Board of Aldermen and Midtown Democratic Leader". New York Times. December 14, 1951. p. 31. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"William Brunner ot Queens, 77, Last Alderman Board Head, Dies — Representative, 1928 to '35, Assemblyman and Sheriff — Headed Peninsula Hospital". New York Times. April 24, 1965. p. 29. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"Brunner Sworn In To Head Aldermen — Hallinan Administers Oath in Presence of Family and a Few Close Friends — Induction on Monday — Former Sheriff of Queens is Expected to Outline Policies at Meeting of Board". New York Times. January 2, 1937. p. 4. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"Tables Showing the Vote for City-Wide Officials and Borough and County Posts". New York Times. November 3, 1937. p. 14. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^"Morris, An Athlete, Heads City Council — Amateur Skating Champion and College Oarsman a Descendant of Declaration Signer". New York Times. November 3, 1937. p. 13. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"Morris Is Sworn As Council Head — Takes Oath Under Portrait of Great-Grandfather, Mayor of City 1851 to 1853 — 200 Attend Ceremonies — Lazarus is Selected as Head of Administrative Staff — 5 Other Aides Named". New York Times. January 1, 1938. p. 36. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"O'Dwyer Elected Mayor in City Sweep; Carries Ticket With Him; Goldstein 2d; Molotov Rebukes US on Atomic Policy — Record Plurality — Margin Totals 685,175 — McGoldrick Out but Runs Ahead of Ticket — Blow to Dewey Seen — Beldock Defeated by Big Margin — Lynch Loses to Hall in Richmond". New York Times. November 7, 1945. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^McFadden, Robert D. (January 30, 1987). "Vincdent Impellitteri is Dead; Mayor of New York in 1950's". New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^Potter, Robert W. (January 2, 1946). "O'Dwyer As Mayor Pledges His Regime 'To Do Good Work' — In Inaugural Talk He Appeals for Citizens' Aid in Meeting 'Heavy' Responsibilities — Homecoming Spirit Noted — Democrats Happy in Taking Over City Hall — LaGuardia Waves Hat in Farewell". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^Fowler, Glenn (January 3, 1991). "Joseph Sharkey, 97, Former Head Of New York City Council, Is Dead". New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^Crowell, Paul (November 9, 1950). "Mayor Will Delay Changing Top Aides — In No Hurry, but Some Will Go, Says Impellitteri After Crowd Cheers Him at City Hall" (PDF). New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^ ab"Halley Induction Slated For Today — Board Certifies the Election of President of City Council by Plurality of 163,342 Votes" (PDF). New York Times. November 14, 1951. p. 25. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"Halley Dies at 43; Ex-Crime Counsel — Former Kefauver Committee Aide Served as President of City Council Here — Exposed Rackets on TV — Lawyer Suffered Reverses in Municipal Post — Lost in '53 Mayoralty Race". New York Times. November 20, 1956. p. 37. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"Wagner Wins By 360,078 in Democratic Sweep; Meyner is Elected in Jersey By a Landslide and — City Vote 2,205,662 — Riegelman Runs Second — Stark Tops Ticket in New Dealers' Triumph". New York Times. November 4, 1953. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^Illson, Murray (July 4, 1972). "Abe Stark of Brooklyn, Who Led City Council, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^Crowell, Paul (January 2, 1954). "Wagner Pledges His Best To City At Inauguration — Mayor, in Ceremony, Voices Aims for Housing, Schools, Health and Security — Swears In His 36 Aides — Moses Retained in All Three Posts — Impellitteri Will Get His Judgeship Today" (PDF). New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^Kihss, Peter (November 8, 1961). "City Vote Heavy – Lefkowitz Takes 34% of Total, Screvane and Beame Elected". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
^Martin, Douglas (November 7, 2001). "Paul R. Screvane Dies at 87; Held Many Political Offices". Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^Crowell, Paul (January 1, 1962). "Wagner Gives Jobs to 7 Who Helped to Elect Him". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^Grutzner, Charles (November 7, 1961). "City Elects Mayor Today; Vote Of 2 Million Is Seen; Jersey To Pick Governor — Wagner and Lefkowitz End Bitterly Fought Campaign — Union Cheers for Mayor". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^Bigart, Homer (September 15, 1965). "For Beame, an Unexpected Joy — For Screvane, Stunning Dismay". New York Times. p. 37. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^Hevesi, Dennis (December 3, 1992). "Frank D. O'Connor, 82, Is Dead; Retired New York Appellate Judge". New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^Knowles, Clayton (December 30, 1965). "O'Connor Chooses First 3 Top Aides — Bragdon, Mrs. Shainswit and Olivero Are Lawyers". New York Times. p. 50. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^King, Seth S. (January 5, 1969). "Council Narrows Presidency Race — Seeks to Fill Vacancy With Member From Queens". New York Times. p. 37. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^King, Seth S. (January 9, 1969). "F.X. Smith Elected City Council Head". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^Reeves, Richard (November 8, 1969). "Lindsay, Garelik and Beame Victors; Cahill Beats Meyner in New Jersey — Marchi Gets 20% — He Wins Enough Votes to Prevent Victory by Procaccino". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^Flegenheimer, Matt (November 21, 2011). "Sanford Garelik, Former Mayoral Candidate, Dies at 93". New York Times. p. A27. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^"Mayor Lindsay's Second Term". New York Times. January 1, 1970. p. 22. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"Beame Tops Democratic Primary But Must Face Badillo in Runoff; Hogan Turns Back Vanden Heuvel — 2D Place is Close — Biaggi Finishes Third in Mayoral Contest — Goldin Is Victor". New York Times. June 5, 1973. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^"The Primary". New York Times. June 5, 1973. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^Clines, Francis X. (June 25, 1998). "Paul O'Dwyer, New York's Liberal Battler For Underdogs and Outsiders, Dies at 90". New York Times. Retrieved December 31, 2016.
^Carroll, Maurice (January 1, 1974). "Quiet Ceremony Held at Home". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^Gupte, Pranay (September 7, 1977). "Carol Bellamy Wins a Place in Runoff — State Senator to Face O'Dwyer in Council Presidency Race". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^Carroll, Maurice (September 20, 1977). "Easy Triumph by Miss Bellamy Opens Door to Top Council Post". New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^"List of City Officers Who Were Sworn In". New York Times. January 2, 1978. p. 13. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^"The '85 Elections — Election Results in Voting Tuesday in City and on Long Island — Vote Totals for the Elections Held in New York and New Jersey". New York Times. November 7, 1985. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^Heller Anderson, Susan; Bird, David. "Honoring Unisex Tradition". New York Times (January 3, 1986). Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^Hicks, Jonathan P. (September 12, 1993). "Voters Guide — A Wide Field Battles for a Weakened Office". New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^Mitchell, Alison (January 3, 1994). "The New Mayor: The Overview — Giuliani Urges Dream of Better City and End to Fear". New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^Nagourney, Adam (November 7, 2001). "The 2001 Election: Mayor — Bloomberg Edges Green in Race for Mayor; McGreevey is an Easy Winner in New Jersey". New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^Cardwell, Diane (January 10, 2002). "A Very Different Council Ushers In New Leadership". New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^Hu, Winnie (December 4, 2015). "Council Wants to Extend Term Limits". New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^Hu, Winnie (September 14, 2005). "The New York Primary: The Council Speaker — Miller Loses Mayoral Bid but Vows to Try Again". New York Times. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
^Hu, Winnie (January 3, 2006). "Council Ready to Fill the Job of Speaker". New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
^Kantor, Jodi; Taylor, Kate (September 12, 2013). "In Quinn's Loss, Questions About Role of Gender and Sexuality". New York Times. p. A23. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
^Grynbaum, Michael M.; Taylor, Kate (January 8, 2014). "Mayoral Ally Elected Speaker, Furthering City's Liberal Shift". New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
New York City Council main page
La Guardia and Wagner Archives/The Council of the City of New York Collection
David W. Chen, Council Gets a Charge From Vote on Term Limits, New York Times, New York edition, October 25, 2008, page A18, retrieved the same day. (Discusses changes in the Council's degree of independence and authority in relation to the Mayor's powers.)
New York Forum
Councilpedia, a Wiki about the City Council (inactive since January 2013)
New York City Charter, the New York City Administrative Code, and the Rules of the City of New York from the New York Legal Publishing Corp.