A newspaper of record is a major national newspaper with large circulation whose editorial and news-gathering functions are considered authoritative and independent; they are thus "newspapers of record by reputation" and include some of the oldest and most widely respected newspapers in the world. The level and trend in the number of "newspapers of record by reputation" is regarded as being related to the state of press freedom and political freedom in a country.
It may also be a newspaper that has been authorized to publish public or legal notices, thus serving as a newspaper of public record. Newspapers whose editorial content is largely directed by the state can be referred to as an official newspaper of record, but the lack of editorial independence means that they are not "newspapers of record by reputation". Newspapers of record by reputation that focus on business can also be called newspapers of financial record.
A "newspaper of public record", or government gazette, refers to a publicly available newspaper that is authorized by a government to publish public or legal notices. It is often established by statute or official action and publication of notices within it, whether by the government or a private party, is usually considered sufficient to comply with legal requirements for public notice. Such gazettes often have little editorial content (i.e. opinion articles), and are focused on transmission of information to the public regarding state services and state decisions; an example is Latvia's Latvijas Vēstnesis.
In some jurisdictions, privately owned newspapers may register with the public authorities to publish public and legal notices, or be otherwise eligible to publish said notices (terms used may include "newspaper of general circulation" among others). Likewise, a private newspaper may be designated by the courts for publication of legal notices, such as notices of fictitious business names, if certain judicial and statutory standards are met. These are sometimes called "legally adjudicated newspapers".
In more extreme cases, some newspapers of public record are owned and operated by a Government that directs their entire editorial content (not just the legal and public notice content). Such newspapers, while pejoratively termed "state mouthpieces", can also be called "official newspapers of record", as their entire editorial copy represents the official view and doctrine of the State. Inclusion of the word "official" can be used to separate them from "newspapers of record by reputation". Notable examples include Russia's Rossiyskaya Gazeta, North Korea's Rodong Sinmun, and China's People's Daily.
The second type of "newspaper of record" (also known as a "journal of record", or by the French term presse de référence) is not defined by any formal criteria and their characteristics can vary. The category typically consists of those newspapers that are considered to meet higher standards of journalism than most print media, including editorial independence (particularly from the ruling government and from its owners), accountability (mistakes are acknowledged), attention to detail and accuracy, and comprehensiveness and balance of coverage; they are often renowned internationally, and regarded as sources in their country and/or region by other global outlets.
Some newspapers of record by reputation, while respected for the accuracy and quality of their reporting, can still be recognized as ideologically conservative (e.g. The Wall Street Journal and The Telegraph) or liberal (e.g. The Washington Post and The Guardian).
While many countries are proud of their newspapers of record by reputation, in some countries, they face an openly hostile state or political system that tries to suppress their press freedoms. Examples include Turkey's Cumhuriyet, where many of the staff have been imprisoned, Panama's La Prensa, where staff have been shot and the owners forced into exile, and Venezuela's El Nacional, which was effectively forced out of print by the state who seized all their assets.
Despite changes in society, newspapers of record by reputation have historically tended to maintain a similar tone, coverage, style, and traditions; many newspapers of record are over a century old, with some close to, or over, two centuries old (e.g. Neue Zürcher Zeitung, The Times, The Guardian, Le Figaro, and The Sydney Morning Herald).
The term is believed to have originated among librarians who began referring to The New York Times as the "newspaper of record" when it became the first U.S. newspaper in 1913 to publish an index of the subjects covered in its pages. In recognition of the usage, The New York Times held an essay contest in 1927 in which entrants had to demonstrate "The Value of The New York Times Index and Files as a Newspaper of Record". The New York Times, and other newspapers of its type, then sought to be chroniclers of events, acting as a record of the day's announcements, schedules, directories, proceedings, transcripts and appointments. The New York Times no longer considers itself a newspaper of record in the original, literal sense.
Over time, historians began to rely on The New York Times and similar titles as a reliable archival and historical record of significant past events, and a gauge of societal opinions at the time of printing. The term "newspaper of record" evolved from its original literal sense to its currently understood meaning.
Over time, some established newspapers of record by reputation have lost their status due to various factors including financial collapse, take-over or merger by another entity that did not have the same standards or allowed continued independence, and/or increased government control and suppression of the paper's editorial independence. The existence of newspapers of record by reputation is an aspect of the level of press freedom and political freedom in a country, with major first-world democracies having several such newspapers (e.g. United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Italy and Japan); in contrast, countries that have seen a decline in their newspapers of record by reputation can represent a decline in levels of personal and political freedom (e.g. Zimbabwe, Venezuela, and Cambodia).
|Country||Region||Newspaper||City of publication||Founded||Language||Refs.|
|Argentina||South America||La Nación||Buenos Aires||1870||Spanish|||
|The Sydney Morning Herald||Sydney||1831|||
|Bahamas||Caribbean||—||The Nassau Guardian||Nassau||1844||English|||
|Bangladesh||South Asia||—||The Daily Star||Dhaka||1991||English|||
|Bolivia||South America||—||El Diario||La Paz||1904||Spanish|||
|Brazil||South America||O Estado de S. Paulo||São Paulo||1875||Portuguese|||
|Folha de S.Paulo||1921|||
|O Globo||Rio de Janeiro||1925|||
|Canada||Northern America||Le Devoir||Montreal||1910||French|||
|The Globe and Mail||Toronto||1844[b]||English|||
|Chile||South America||El Mercurio||Santiago||1900[c]||Spanish|||
|Colombia||South America||El Tiempo||Bogotá||1911||Spanish|||
|Czech Republic||Europe||Lidové noviny||Prague||1893||Czech|||
|Germany||Europe||Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung||Frankfurt||1949[g]||German|||
|Hong Kong||East Asia||South China Morning Post||Hong Kong||1903||English|||
|India||South Asia||—||The Hindu||Chennai||1878||English|||
|The Times of India||Mumbai||1838[h]|||
|Ireland||Europe||The Irish Times||Dublin||1859||English|||
|Israel||West Asia||Haaretz||Tel Aviv||1919||Hebrew and English|||
|Italy||Europe||Corriere della Sera||Milan||1876||Italian|||
|Japan||East Asia||The Asahi Shimbun||Osaka||1879||Japanese|||
|Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei)||1876|||
|Malaysia||Southeast Asia||New Straits Times[j]||Kuala Lumpur||1965[k]||English|||
|Mexico||Northern America||—||Reforma||Mexico City||1993||Spanish|||
|New Zealand||Oceania||The New Zealand Herald||Auckland||1863||English|||
|Panama||Central America||La Prensa||Panama City||1980||Spanish|||
|Peru||South America||El Comercio||Lima||1839||Spanish|||
|Philippines||Southeast Asia||Philippine Daily Inquirer||Makati||1985||English|||
|Portugal||Europe||Diário de Notícias||Lisbon||1864||Portuguese|||
|Singapore||Southeast Asia||The Straits Times[j]||Singapore||1845||English|||
|South Africa||Africa||Mail & Guardian||Johannesburg||1985||English|||
|South Korea||East Asia||The Chosun Ilbo||Seoul||1920||Korean|||
|The Dong-a Ilbo||1920|||
|Switzerland||Europe||Neue Zürcher Zeitung||Zurich||1780||German|||
|Trinidad and Tobago||Caribbean||—||Trinidad and Tobago Guardian||Port of Spain||1917||English|||
|United Kingdom||Europe||The Daily Telegraph||London||1855||English|||
|The Financial Times||1888|||
|United States||Northern America||Los Angeles Times||Los Angeles||1881||English|||
|The New York Times||New York City||1851|||
|The Wall Street Journal||1889|||
|The Washington Post||Washington, D.C.||1877|||
... a line that appeared in Rodong Sinmun (Rodong Sinmun, 1999, 29) the official newspaper of record in North Korea.
Most significantly, the People's Daily, China's official newspaper of record, had a special signed editorial attacking Australia's government and media.
...because Cumhuriyet, the country’s newspaper of record that is committed to secularism...
For the past 15 years, Mr. Eisenmann has led Panama's internationally respected daily newspaper of record, La Prensa, as founding editor and publisher.
...the newspaper of record in any country is compulsory reading for political, business, and cultural leaders and the most prestigious such papers in the region, organized into the Grupo de Diarios America, are La Nacion (Buenos Aires, Argentina), O Globo (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), El Tiempo (Bogota, Colombia), El Mercurio (Santiago, Chile), El Comercio (Ecuador), Reforma (Mexico), El Nuevo Dia Interactivo (Puerto Rico), El Comercio (Lima, Peru), El Pais (Montevideo, Uruguay), and El Nacional (Caracas, Venezuela)
The Wall Street Journal is the financial newspaper of record
...the Nihon Keizai Shimbun, the business or financial newspaper of record, had three million;...
In spite of the readership crisis in the United States, The New York Times is a newspaper of record in many countries, as is Le Monde in France or La Nación in Argentina.
The country's newspaper of record is La Nación.
The Nassau Guardian, founded in 1844, is the country's newspaper of record and one of the oldest continuously published newspapers in the Western Hemisphere.
Reports on the demands of the students that were published on the Daily Star, often considered Bangladesh's newspaper of record, ....
Bangladesh: The first and most articles (19) appear in The Daily Star, often considered the newspaper of record.
... Bruno Colmant, head of the Brussels stock exchange and professor of economics, published an oped in Le Soir, the Frenchlanguage daily newspaper of record, stating that ...
For example, the Flemish newspaper of record, De Standaard, published an ...
It is the...country's newspaper of record. O Estado is sometimes called the "New York Times of Latin America" because of its grave editorial demeanour.
The statement, published on Tuesday by O Estado de Sao Paulo, Brazil's newspaper of record, was datelined in Fortaleza, a mid-sized city in northeastern Brazil.
The daily Folha de São Paulo is Brazil's newspaper of record
[T]he Toronto-based Globe and Mail has had the kind of success in Canada that the New York Times had enjoyed in the U.S., as the leading 'newspaper of record' with a national readership.
This essay interrogates representations of Afghan women in the Globe and Mail, Canada's major English-language daily and newspaper of record.
Germany's FAZ [Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung] and Chile's El Mercurio are each nation's newspaper of record.
Luis Carlos Sarmiento, who has a $14bn fortune, according to Forbes, in 2012 bought El Tiempo, Colombia’s largest-circulation daily and the newspaper of record.
On January 19th in Bogota, the city section of El Tiempo, Colombia's newspaper of record, ran a report which sent shivers through most urban readers.
... generally regarded as Denmark’s leading paper.
At the time, Camilla Plum, a Danish food writer and TV personality, was quoted in Denmark’s newspaper of record, Berlingske, lambasting the manifesto’s toothlessness.
Their relations were destined to end abruptly shortly thereafter, but as long as they lasted the report on their marriage along with their photos were featured on the front page of al-Ahram, Egypt's newspaper of record.
This is significant because the state-run Al Ahram is considered the paper of record in Egypt
... with long excerpts of it published in columns on the front page of al-Ahram, Egypt's newspaper of record.
... one of the great newspapers of France and of the world.
... one of the most important and widely respected newspapers in the world.
Le Monde - respected national daily, considered to be France's newspaper of record
She had been the courageous publisher of the conservative Kathimerini, the nearest thing that Greece had to a newspaper of record.
Alexis Papahelas, editor of Kathimerini, Greece's newspaper of record, has coined the term “coalition of the unwilling” to describe the array of ultra-leftist and ultra-traditionalist forces bent on blocking reform.
The South China Morning Post remained staunchly pro—government and surpassed expectations by becoming the newspaper of record ...
The clippings are from the South China Morning Post, the paper of record in Hong Kong
.. Kompass, the Indonesian national newspaper of record.
They include the daily Kompas, the newspaper of record, with a circulation of more than half a million, and the weekly Tempo, which has built a solid reputation for investigative journalism.
In the years to come, of the three main pre-Revolution dailies, Ettela'at continued its traditional position as a 'newspaper of record'.
Today, the Irish Times is one of Ireland's most authoritative journals – the newspaper of record for political and intellectual elites from Mayo to Monkstown.
Ha'aretz, the left-of-center daily of record, ...
In the past few months, Haaretz, Israel's paper of record, has run a series of articles expressing misgivings about outside influence.
Recent polling, alongside articles in both the New York Times and the Israeli paper of record, Ha'aretz, indicate that the American Jewish community no longer feels represented by our so-called representatives - if we ever did.
In late January, the declaration ran as an ad in Ha'aretz, the national paper of record...
The Daily Gleaner, established in 1834, is one of the oldest continually published newspapers in the hemisphere and is still Jamaica's newspaper of record.
One frequent target is the Asahi Shimbun, which to many is the liberal newspaper of record in Japan.
Some months later, Japan's newspaper of record (the Asahi Shimbun) published a poem calling Hatoyama "the grim reaper" (shinigami).
..Asahi Shimbun, Japan's second largest newspaper and the 'newspaper of record' ..
It is usually ranked second to Asahi shimbun as regards national and international prestige, but it appears with its rival on most experts' lists of the world's greatest newspapers.
The Yomiuri Shimbun is considered by many to be Japan's newspaper of record, particularly as it is the newspaper that most closely reflects the position of the Japanese government (Luther, 2002).
The Yomiuri had been founded twenty-five years earlier, when the President of the Yomiuri Shinbun, Japan's newspaper of record, wanted to celebrate the paper's anniversary with a symphony concert for its employees.
Kenya's newspaper of record, the Daily Nation, published a banner headline "Never Again" over an editorial with a sharp, eloquent warning
An Nahar, the newspaper of record for the entire Arab world, which was printed every day during the 1975-76 civil war, ground to a halt Wednesday on its 50th anniversary after an Israeli phosphorous [sic] shell sailed into the fourth floor of its building.
Countless buildings in the Hamra area were badly damaged, including the Information Ministry and the headquarters of An Nahar, the newspaper of record for the entire Arab world.
Straits Times (and New Straits Times): ... it has emerged as a newspaper of record
Cyril Almeida, a senior journalist with Dawn, Pakistan's newspaper of record, who, furious at the news of my expulsion.
Dawn is the unofficial newspaper of record - indispensable for businessmen, diplomats and military officers alike - and known for its influential editorials that affect Pakistan's image worldwide.
In Pakistan, which has a longstanding, if strained, military alliance with the U.S., the country’s newspaper of record, Dawn, ran an editorial under the headline "Trump on the Warpath."
After the 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama , and the ouster of General Manuel Noriega , La Prensa became the country's newspaper of record
The Philippine Daily Inquirer, popularly known as the Inquirer, is an English-language newspaper in the Philippines. Founded in 1985, it is often regarded as the Philippines' newspaper of record.
The creation of what is arguably the national newspaper of record, Gazeta Wyborcza, stands as an example of ....
...Rzeczpospolita daily newspaper, the main Polish newspaper of record...
The major Lisbon newspapers are Didrio de Noticias (daily and newspaper of record) ....
The most prestigious newspaper for print journalists is the Diario de noticias, Portugal's “newspaper of record,” followed by the more popular Jornal de noticias and the staunchly independent Publico.
Our case study of a Portuguese newspaper of record, Público, ....
The daily Público is Portugal's newspaper of record, with typical news and section divides.
.... with Portuguese journalists included José Manuel Fernandes, at the time director of Portugal's newspaper of record, Publico, Lisbon.
The prominent "big three" publications — Chosun Ilbo, Dong-A Ilbo, and Joongang Ilbo — are newspapers of record with a combined three million subscribers.
ABC, the third 'newspaper of record' in Spain ...
As of July 1936, ABC in Madrid, a conservative newspaper of record and the largest Spanish daily, was seized by the Popular Front
ABC, the newspaper of record in Franco's Spain
Coverage in El Mundo, the second 'newspaper of record' in Spain (mainly in 2016) begins with two well-researched ...
For this chapter, we analyzed the environmental information published by the newspaper of record in Spain, El País.
A few days later, a Spanish newspaper of record, El País, published an interview ...
Dagens Nyheter, Sweden's paper of record.
In addition, we consulted all 302 newspaper articles in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung (the newspaper of record in the German-speaking part of Switzerland), and Le Temps (the newspaper of record in the German-speaking part of Switzerland), that covered...
..that although the Guardian is the nation's [Trinidad and Tobago] newspaper of record...
The [Trinidad and Togabo] Guardian, founded in 1917, is the country's newspaper of record.
... long the newspaper of record in the United States and one of the world's great newspapers.
The New York Times is widely recognised as the country's newspaper of record.