Nuri (rocket)


Nuri (KSLV-II)
KSLV-II at the launch pad CGI Render 02.jpg
CGI render of a Nuri rocket at the launch pad
FunctionOrbital launch vehicle
Country of originSouth Korea
Project cost 1.96 trillion; US$1.7 billion (spaceport included) [2]
Height47.2 m (155 ft) [3]
Diameter3.5 m (11 ft)
Mass200,000 kg (440,000 lb)
Payload to Low Earth orbit (300 km) [4]
Mass2,600 kg (5,700 lb)
Payload to Low Earth orbit (600~800 km)
Mass1,500 kg (3,300 lb)
Launch history
StatusUnder development
Launch sitesNaro Space Center, LC-2
First stage
Engines4 KRE-075 SL
Thrust266.4 tf (2,612 kN; 262.2 LTf; 293.7 STf) [4]
Specific impulse261.7 seconds (Sea Level),
298.6 seconds (Vaccuum) [5]
Burn time127 seconds [4]
FuelLOX / Jet A-1
Second stage
Engines1 KRE-075 Vacuum
Thrust80.4 tf (788 kN; 79.1 LTf; 88.6 STf) [4]
Specific impulse315.4 seconds (Vacuum) [4]
Burn time148 seconds [4]
FuelLOX / Jet A-1
Third stage
Engines1 KRE-007 Vacuum
Thrust7.0 tf (69 kN; 6.9 LTf; 7.7 STf) [4]
Specific impulse325.1 seconds (Vacuum) [4]
Burn time498 seconds [4]
FuelLOX / Jet A-1

Nuri (Korean: 누리, meaning "world" ), also known as KSLV-II, is South Korea's second carrier rocket and the successor to KSLV-1. Nuri is under development by Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI), and is planned to have its first flight in October 2021.[6][7][8] All three stages are planned to use indigenously developed rocket engines. The South Korean government has set SpaceX as a "role model", striving to develop relatively cheap and reliable rockets competitive enough for the commercial launch market. Currently the goal is to launch a 1500 kg payload into a 600–800 km low Earth orbit (LEO)[8] and 2600 kg into a 300 km LEO.[9]


Nuri is a three-stage rocket. The first stage booster uses four KRE-075 SL engines generating 266.4 tons of thrust with a specific impulse of 289.1 seconds. The second stage booster uses a single KRE-075 Vacuum engine, which has a wider nozzle for increased efficiency in vacuum with a specific impulse of 315.4 seconds. The third stage booster uses one KRE-007 engine with a specific impulse of 325.1 seconds. Both engine models use Jet A-1 as fuel and liquid oxygen (LOX) as oxidizer.

Future Versions

Further improvements will be added after the success of KSLV-II program, mainly increasing the thrust of the KRE-075 from 75.9 tf to 86.6 tf and specific impulse from 261.7 seconds to 315.4 seconds. There are also plans on making the engine lighter by methods such as removing the pyrotechnic ignitor or limiting its gimbal range. This will allow the payload capacity of the modified KSLV-II to increase from 1.5 tons to 2.8 tons.[10]


Engines development

  • In March 2014, the first combustion test of the 7-ton class combustor was successfully completed, and the total assembly and initial ignition test of the KRE-007 engine started in July 2015. In addition, the first phase of the project was completed with the addition of a three-stage engine combustion test facility and a combustor combustion test facility. However, the problem of combustion instability in the KRE-075 burner required rework.
  • Hanwha Techwin Co. has signed on 25 January 2016, a 14.1 billion won (US$11.77 million) contract with the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) to produce both types of liquid propellant rocket engines for Nuri.[11]
  • On 8 January 2016, the second phase of the project was carried out to overcome the difficulties of combustor combustion instability and welding technology of the liquid engine fuel tank, and a combustion test of the KRE-075 engine for a few seconds was successful.
  • On 3 May 2016, the KRE-075 engine underwent a 1.5 second long spark ignition test. It was later burned for 75 seconds on 8 June 2016. Following these successes, on 20 July 2016, at 1:39 pm, the final target combustion time of 145 seconds (147 seconds) was successfully achieved. During the combustion test, the engine performed nominally, with all values such as combustion safety and combustion thrust within the expected error range. During an actual launch, the first stage engine will burn for 127 seconds and the second stage engine for 143 seconds.
  • Starting from October 2016, there has been over 200 combustion tests of the second KRE-075 engine.

KRE-075 Sea Level Engine

An artist's render of Nuri's 75-ton-class engine
KRE-075 Engine
Fuel Jet A-1/LOX
Thrust 66.6tf (SL), 75.9 tf (Vacuum) [5]
Specific Impulse 298.6 seconds[5]
Height 2.9 m
Diameter 2 m
Cycle Gas Generator

The KRE-075 engine was developed after the 30 tf engine development program.[12]

KRE-075 Vacuum Engine

Fuel Jet A-1/LOX
Thrust 80.3 tf (Vacuum) [5]
Specific Impulse 315.4 seconds [5]
Cycle Gas Generator

KRE-007 Engine

Fuel Jet A-1/LOX
Thrust 7.0 tf [5]
Specific Impulse 325.1 seconds [5]
Cycle Gas Generator


The Test Launch Vehicle (TLV) is a two stage-rocket, qualifying the performance of the KRE-075 engine which will power the KSLV-II. The TLV is 25.8 meters in length, 2.6 meters in diameter, and with a mass of 52.1 tons. The main-stage Kerolox engine is fully gimballed.[13][14] With the 2nd stage engine installed, the TLV will perform as a Small Sat Launch Vehicle.[15]

2018 flight

Wet Mass 52.1 t [16]
Dry Mass 38 tons
Height 25.8 m
Diameter 2.6 m
Stages 1
Engine 1 KRE-075
Payload mass simulator

The TLV was launched from the Naro Space Center in Goheung, South Jeolla Province, on 28 November 2018. The main objective of the first suborbital flight was for the single-stage rocket's main engine to burn 140 seconds, reaching a 100 km altitude before splashing down in the sea between Jeju Island and Okinawa Island.[17]

The maiden flight was first delayed from 25 October 2018 for two months, due to abnormal readings detected in the rocket propellant pressurization system.[18] The test flight was then rescheduled for 28 November 2018, at 16:00 KST(UTC+9). No payload was to be placed into orbit.[19]

The launch of the TLV while deemed successful with its main engine burning for 151 seconds in a 10-minute flight,[20] was not broadcast live.[21] After reaching a maximum altitude of 209 kilometers, the rocket stage splashed down in the Pacific Ocean, 429 kilometers southeast of Jeju Island.[22]

As the TLV was meant to serve as a test craft, and as the flight ended in a success, there will not be a second TLV launch.


An upgraded variety of KSLV-II for geostationary equatorial orbit is under development. It will cluster four KRE-090 engines in the core stage, with four side boosters equipped with one KRE-090 engine each. The second stage will be powered with a vacuum-optimized variety of the same KRE-090 engine (KRE-090V), and the third stage will implement a newly developed KRE-010V oxidizer-rich staged combustion engine.[23]


Nuri will be used in launching several Earth observing satellites, such as KOMPSAT, medium-class satellites and LEO reconnaissance satellites. It is planned to support South Korea's Moon exploration mission to send orbiters and landers. Nuri will be South Korea's first rocket to enter the commercial launch service market. The launch cost is estimated to be around US$30 million, which is cheaper than its Asian counterparts. This will allow for South Korea to provide cheap launch services for Southeast Asia countries.

An improved version of Nuri is expected to launch a Korean lunar lander by 2030.

See also


  1. ^ "한국 토종 우주발사체 누리호는 300개 기업이 함께 만들고 있다". Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  2. ^ "과학기술정보통신부".
  3. ^ "Korea Space Launch Vehicle KSLV-II". Korea Aerospace Research Institute.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "대한민국, 이제는 누구? - 한국형발사체 "누리호"!".
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "7톤/75톤급 엔진의 스펙/성능 + 누리호 발사대 설계".
  6. ^ "South Korea delays launch of first homegrown space rocket". Yonhap News Agency. 29 December 2020.
  7. ^ Ko, Jun-tae (7 June 2019). "Space: The final frontier, but not for much longer". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  8. ^ a b "Korea Space Launch Vehicle KSLV-II". Korea Aerospace Research Institute. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
  9. ^ "네이버 뉴스".
  10. ^ "누리호 75톤급 엔진의 개량, 정지궤도 투입, 페이로드 옵션 그리고 재사용에 대하여".
  11. ^ "Hanwha Techwin to Produce Liquid Rocket Engine for Korea Space Launch Vehicle". 비즈니스코리아 - Business Korea. 26 January 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  12. ^ 한국항공우주연구원(KARI). "[KARI]연비가 향상된 로켓엔진 연소시험(100초) 공개". Retrieved 7 February 2019 – via YouTube.
  13. ^ 한국항공우주연구원 (10 September 2018). "올 10월로 다가올 #시험발사체 조립 장면 타임랩스 영상으로 만나 보시죠!". Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  14. ^ "사진 > KARI IMAGE". Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  15. ^ "누리호 75톤급 엔진 시험발사체를 활용한 "소형발사체" 후속 개발에 대하여 (메탄 엔진을 사용하는 2단) > KARI IMAGE".
  16. ^
  17. ^ 김한주 (28 November 2018). "S. Korea to test launch space rocket engine". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  18. ^ "S. Korea delays test launch of space rocket engine". 17 October 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  19. ^ 한국항공우주연구원 (13 November 2018). "11월 28일, 한국형발사체 '누리호'의 엔진시험을 위한 시험발사체 발사가 추진될 예정입니다". Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  20. ^ 김한주 (28 November 2018). "(2nd LD) Space rocket engine burn time test meets target goal". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  21. ^ 한국항공우주연구원 (27 November 2018). "#시험발사체 발사 성공! 발사 모습을 영상으로 공개합니다". Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  22. ^ 김한주 (28 November 2018). "(2nd LD) S. Korea successfully tests space rocket engine". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  23. ^ Yu, Byungil; Lee, Kwang-Jin; Woo, Seongphil; Im, Ji-Hyuk; So, Younseok; Jeon, Junsu; Lee, Jungho; Seo, Daeban; Han, Yeoungmin; Kim, Jinhan (April 2018). "Development Status and Plan of the High Performance Upper Stage Engine for a GEO KSLV". Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers. 22 (2): 125-130.