Old Tagalog
ᜎᜓᜋᜅ᜔ᜆᜄᜎᜓᜄ᜔
Lumang Tagalog
RegionPhilippines, particularly Southern Tagalog (Calabarzon and Mimaropa)
Era10th century AD (developed into Classical Tagalog in c. 16th century)
Baybayin
Kawi [1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3
GlottologNone

Old Tagalog (Filipino: Lumang Tagalog; Baybayin: ᜎᜓᜋᜅ᜔ᜆᜄᜎᜓᜄ᜔, Pre-Kudlit: ᜎᜓᜋᜆᜄᜎᜓ) is the earliest form of the Tagalog language and was the language of Central and Southern Luzon during the Classical period in Luzon. It is the language of Tondo, Namayan, state of Ma-i, Rajahnate of Maynila, and other regions of the northern Philippines. The language originated from the Proto-Philippine language and evolved to Classical Tagalog, which was the basis for Modern Tagalog.

Etymology

The word Tagalog is derived from the endonym ᜆᜄ ᜁᜎᜓᜄ᜔ (taga-ilog, "river dweller"), composed of ᜆᜄ (tagá-, "native of" or "from") and ᜁᜎᜓᜄ᜔ (ílog, "river"). Very little is known about the ancient history of the language; linguists such as David Zorc and Robert Blust speculate that the Tagalogs and other Central Philippine ethno-linguistic groups had originated in Northeastern Mindanao or the Eastern Visayas.[2][3]

History

The Baybayin script, used to write in Tagalog prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 16th century.

Old Tagalog is one of the Central Philippine languages, which evolved from the Proto-Philippine language, which comes from the Austronesian peoples who settled in the Philippines, 2000 years ago. This is the language of Ma-i, Tondo, Maynila, Namayan, and other regions of Central Luzon.

The early history of the Tagalog language remains relatively obscure, and a number of theories exist as to the exact origins of the Tagalog peoples and their language. Most[who?] scholars suggest that the Tagalogs originated in North-eastern Mindanao or the Eastern Visayas.[citation needed] Possible words of Old Tagalog origin are attested in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription from the tenth century, which is largely written in Old Malay.[4] The first known complete book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine), printed in 1593.[5]

The question has been raised about the origin of some words in the various dialects of the Philippines and their possible connection to ancient Buddhist and Hindu culture in the region, as the language is influenced by Sanskrit, Malay, Tamil and Chinese.[6][7]

Writing system

Old Tagalog was written in Baybayin, which belongs to the Brahmic family of scripts. Loanwords from Malay and Sanskrit were written in the Kawi script because they could not be represented in Baybayin.

vowels

a
i
e
u
o

b

b ᜊ᜔
ba
bi
be
ᜊᜒ
bu
bo
ᜊᜓ

k

k ᜃ᜔
ka
ki
ke
ᜃᜒ
ku
ko
ᜃᜓᜓ

d/r

d/r ᜇ᜔
da/ra
di/ri
de/re
ᜇᜒ
du/ru
do/ro
ᜇᜓ

g

g ᜄ᜔
ga
gi
ge
ᜄᜒ
gu
go
ᜄᜓ

h

h ᜑ᜔
ha
hi
he
ᜑᜒ
hu
ho
ᜑᜓ

l

l ᜎ᜔
la
li
le
ᜎᜒ
lu
lo
ᜎᜓ

m

m ᜋ᜔
ma
mi
me
ᜋᜒ
mu
mo
ᜋᜓ

n

n ᜈ᜔
na
ni
ne
ᜈᜒ
nu
no
ᜈᜓ

ng

ng ᜅ᜔
nga
ngi
nge
ᜅᜒ
ngu
ngo
ᜅᜓ

p

p ᜉ᜔
pa
pi
pe
ᜉᜒ
pu
po
ᜉᜓ

s

s ᜐ᜔
sa
si
se
ᜐᜒ
su
so
ᜐᜓ

t

t ᜆ᜔
ta
ti
te
ᜆᜒ
tu
to
ᜆᜓ

w

w ᜏ᜔
wa
wi
we
ᜏᜒ
wu
wo
ᜏᜓ

y

y ᜌ᜔
ya
yi
ye
ᜌᜒ
yu
yo
ᜌᜓ

Phonology

Old Tagalog Vowels
Height Front Central Back
Close i /i/ u /u/
Mid ə /ə/
Open a /a/
Table of consonant phonemes of Old Tagalog
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Postalveolar/
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p b t d k ɡ ʔ
Fricative s ʃ h
Tap ɾ
Approximant l j w

Examples of words

  • The words and sentences of Old Tagalog are the roots of the Modern Tagalog language. Some of the words and sentences have evolved over time (like the word Babuy or Pig, which became Baboy in modern Tagalog), but some of the words in Old Tagalog (like Hari or King), have survived and are in common use in Modern Tagalog.

Other terms influenced by Sanskrit/Tamil

As in most Austronesian languages, the Sanskrit vocabulary incorporated into Tagalog are mostly borrowed indirectly via Malay or Javanese.[8] Examples include:

Tagalog Sanskrit Meaning in Tagalog
Agham Āgama (आगम), meaning acquisition of knowledge, science Science
Antala Antara (अन्तर), meaning duration, gap Delay
Asal Ācāra (आचार), meaning manner of action, conduct, behavior Behaviour; Character
Bagyo Vāyu (वायु), meaning wind Typhoon
Bahala Bhara (भार), meaning burden, load, weight, heavy work To manage; to take care of; to take charge
Balita Vārtā (वार्ता), meaning account, report News
Bansa Vaṃśa (वंश), meaning bamboo cane, genealogy, dynasty, race, Country
Banyaga Vaṇijaka (वणिजक), meaning merchant, trader Foreigner
Basa Vaca (वच), meaning voice, speech To read
Bathalà Batthara (भट्टार), meaning noble lord, venerable Supreme Being; God
Bihasa Abhyasa (अभ्यास), meaning habit Accustomed
Budhi Bodhi (बोधि), meaning understanding Conscience
Dala Dhara (धर), meaning bearing, supporting To carry; to bring
Dawa[9] Yava (यव), meaning Hordeum vulgare Panicum miliaceum
Daya Dvaya (द्वय), meaning twofold nature, falsehood Cheating; Deception
Dila Lidha (लीढ), meaning licked, tasted, eaten Tongue
Diwa Jīva (जीव), meaning the principle of life, vital breath Spirit; Soul
Diwata Devata (देवता), meaning divinity Fairy, Goddess, Nymph
Dukha Dukkha (दुःख),meaning sorrow, misery, hardship Poverty
Dusa Doṣa (दोष), meaning harm, damage, bad consequence Suffering
Dusta Dūṣita (दूषित), meaning defiled, violated, injured Ignominiously insulted
Gadya Gaja (गज), meaning elephant Elephant
Guro Guru (गुरु), meaning master, teacher Mentor; Teacher
Halaga Argha (अर्घ), meaning value Price; Value
Halata Arthaya (अर्थय), meaning perceive Noticeable; Perceptible; Obvious
Kasubha Kusumbha (कुसुम्भ), meaning Carthamus tinctorius Carthamus tinctorius
Kastuli Kastūrī (कस्तूरी), meaning Abelmoschus moschatus Abelmoschus moschatus
Katha Kathā (कथा), meaning a feigned story, fable Literary composition; Fiction; Invention
Kalapati; Palapati Pārāpataḥ (पारापत), meaning pigeon Pigeon, Dove
Kuba Kubja (कुब्ज), meaning hunchback Hunchback
Kuta Kota (कोट), meaning fort, stronghold Fort
Ladya Raja (राज), meaning king, chief, sovereign Raja
Lagundi Nirgundi (निर्गुण्डि), meaning Vitex negundo Vitex negundo
Laho Rāhu (राहु), meaning eclipse Eclipse,; to vanish
Lasa Rasa (रस), meaning taste, savour Taste
Lathala Yantrālaya (यन्त्रालय), meaning printing office, press To print
Likha Lekhā (लेखा), meaning drawing, figure To create
Lisa Likṣā (लिक्षा), meaning egg of a louse Egg of a louse
Madla Mandala (मण्डल), meaning circle, multitude The general public
Maharlika Maharddhika (महर्द्धिक), meaning prosperous Nobility; Prehispanic Tagalog social class composed of freedmen
Mukha Mukha (मुख), meaning face Face
Mula Mula (मूल), meaning basis, foundation, origin, beginning From; since; origin
Mutya Mutya (मुत्य), meaning pearl Amulet; Charm; Jewel; Pearl
Palakol Paraśu (परशु), meaning axe Axe
Palibhasa Paribhasa (परिभाषा), meaning speech, censure, reproof Irony; Sarcasm; Criticism
Pana Bana (बाण), meaning arrow Arrow
Parusa Pūruṣaghna (पूरुषघ्न), meaning slaying men Punishment
Patola Patola (पटोल), meaning Trichosanthes dioica Luffa acutangula
Puti Puti (पूति), meaning purity, purification White
Saksí Sākṣin (साक्षिन्), meaning eye-witness Witness
Sakuna Zakuna (शकुन), meaning a bird of omen Disaster
Salamuha Samuha (समूह), meaning gathering, crowd To mingle with people
Salanta Randa (रण्ड), meaning maimed, crippled Infirm
Salita Carita (चरित), meaning behaviour, acts, deeds, adventures To speak; to talk; word
Samantala Samantara (समान्तर), meaning parallel Meanwhile
Sampalataya Sampratyaya (सम्प्रत्यय), meaning trust, confidence Faith
Sigla Sīghra (शीघ्र), meaning swift, quick, speedy Enthusiasm; Vitality
Suka Cukra (चुक्र), meaning vinegar Vinegar
Sutla Sūtra (सूत्र), meaning thread, string, wire Silk
Tala Tāra (तार), meaning star Star
Tama Uttama (उत्तम), meaning uppermost, most elevated, best, excellent Correct
Tanikala Sṛṅkhala (शृङ्खल), meaning chain Chain
Tingga Tivra (तीव्र), meaning tin, iron, steel Tin
Tsampaka Campaka (चम्पक), meaning Magnolia champaca Magnolia champaca
Upang Upa (उप), meaning towards, near to So as to, in order to

See also

References

  1. ^ Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Continental Sales, Incorporated. p. 236. ISBN 9789814155670.
  2. ^ Zorc, David. 1977. The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Pacific Linguistics C.44. Canberra: The Australian National University
  3. ^ Blust, Robert. 1991. The Greater Central Philippines hypothesis. Oceanic Linguistics 30:73–129
  4. ^ Postma, Antoon. (1992). The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary. Philippine Studies vol. 40, no. 2:183–203
  5. ^ Zorc, David. 1977. The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Pacific Linguistics C.44. Canberra: The Australian National University
  6. ^ "Indian Origins of Filipino Customs". Vedic Empire. Retrieved 2013-11-09.
  7. ^ "The Indian in the Filipino - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos". Globalnation.inquirer.net. Archived from the original on 2015-06-21. Retrieved 2013-11-09.
  8. ^ Haspelmath, Martin. Loanwords in the World's Languages: A Comparative Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton. p. 724. ISBN 3110218437.
  9. ^ Potet, Jean-Paul G. (2016). Tagalog Borrowings and Cognates. Lulu.com. pp. 73, 191. ISBN 9781326615796.

External links

  • A Handbook and Grammar
  • of the Tagalog Language by W.E.W. MacKinlay, 1905.
  • Online E-book of Doctrina Christiana in Old Tagalog and
  • Old Spanish, the first book published in the Philippines. Manila. 1593
  • Online E-book of Arte de la Lengua Tagala y Manual Tagalog by Sebastián de Totanes published in Binondo, Manila in 1865
  • http://unicode-table.com/en/sections/tagalog/