Oracle Database

Summary

Oracle Database (commonly referred to as Oracle DBMS, Oracle Autonomous Database, or simply as Oracle) is a proprietary multi-model[4] database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.

Oracle Database
Developer(s)Oracle Corporation
Initial release1979; 45 years ago (1979)
Stable release
23ai[1] Edit this on Wikidata / 19 September 2023; 8 months ago (19 September 2023)
Written inAssembly language, C, C++[2]
TypeMulti-model database
LicenseProprietary[3]
Websitewww.oracle.com/database/

It is a database commonly used for running online transaction processing (OLTP), data warehousing (DW) and mixed (OLTP & DW) database workloads. Oracle Database is available by several service providers on-prem, on-cloud, or as a hybrid cloud installation. It may be run on third party servers as well as on Oracle hardware (Exadata on-prem, on Oracle Cloud or at Cloud at Customer).[5]

Oracle Database uses SQL query language for database updating and retrieval.[6]

History edit

Larry Ellison and his two friends and former co-workers, Bob Miner and Ed Oates, started a consultancy called Software Development Laboratories (SDL) in 1977. SDL developed the original version of the Oracle software. The name Oracle comes from the code-name of a CIA-funded project Ellison had worked on while formerly employed by Ampex.[7]

Releases and versions edit

Oracle products follow a custom release-numbering and -naming convention. The "c" in the current release, Oracle Database 23c, stands for "Cloud". Previous releases (e.g. Oracle Database 10g and Oracle9i Database) have used suffixes of "g" and "i" which stand for "Grid" and "Internet" respectively. Prior to the release of Oracle8i Database, no suffixes featured in Oracle Database naming conventions. There was no v1 of Oracle Database, as co-founder Larry Ellison "knew no one would want to buy version 1".[8] For each database release, Oracle also provides an Express Edition (XE) that is free to use.[9]

Oracle Database release numbering has used the following codes:

Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release
Oracle
Database
Version
Initial
Release
Version
Initial
Release
Date
Terminal
Version
Marquee
Features
Current stable version: Oracle Database 23ai 23.4.0 On May 2, 2024, Oracle Database 23ai[10] was released on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) as cloud services, including OCI Exadata Database Service, OCI Exadata Database Cloud@Customer, and OCI Base Database Service. It is also available in Always Free Autonomous Database. Oracle Database 23c (previously released in 2023) was renamed to Oracle Database 23ai (23.4) due to the significant additional engineering effort to add features that bring AI capabilities to the data in Oracle Database. Oracle Database 23ai will be made available for on-premises deployment, including on Oracle Exadata, later in 2024.

Oracle Database 23c (23.2 and 23.3) was released in 2023: April 2023 (Linux) Oracle Database Free - Developer Release[11] September 2023 Oracle Database on Base Database Service[12]

AI Vector Search[13] (includes new Vector data type, Vector indexes, and Vector SQL operators/functions), JSON Relational Duality,[14] JSON Schema Validation, Transactional Microservices Support, OKafka, Operational Property Graphs, Support for SQL/PGQ, Schema Privileges, Developer Role, In-database SQL Firewall, TLS 1.3 Support, Integration with Azure Active Directory OAuth2, True Cache for mid-tier caching, Readable Per-PDB Standby, Globally Distributed Database with active-active RAFT-based replication, Real-time SQL Plan Management, Priority Transactions, SQL Syntax Simplification, Schema Annotations, Data Use Case Domains, Column Value Lock-free Reservations
Older version, yet still maintained: Oracle Database 21c 21.1.0 December 2020 (cloud)[15]

August 2021 (Linux)[16]

Blockchain Tables, Multilingual Engine - JavaScript Execution in the Database, Binary JSON Data Type, Per-PDB Data Guard Physical Standby (aka Multitenant Data Guard), Per-PDB GoldenGate Change Capture, Self-Managing In-Memory, In-Memory Hybrid Columnar Scan, In-Memory Vector Joins with SIMD, Sharding Advisor Tool, Property Graph Visualization Studio, Automatic Materialized Views, Automatic Zone Maps, SQL Macros, Gradual Password Rollover
Older version, yet still maintained: Oracle Database 19c 19.1.0 // 12.2.0.3 February 2019 (Exadata)[17]

April 2019 (Linux)[18]
June 2019 (cloud)

Active Data Guard DML Redirection, Automatic Index Creation, Real-Time Statistics Maintenance, SQL Queries on Object Stores, In-Memory for IoT Data Streams, Hybrid Partitioned Tables, Automatic SQL Plan Management, SQL Quarantine, Zero-Downtime Grid Infrastructure Patching, Finer-Granularity Supplemental Logging, Automated PDB Relocation
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle Database 18c 18.1.0 // 12.2.0.2 February 2018 (cloud, Exadata)[19]

July 2018 (other)[20]

18.17.0
January 2022
Polymorphic Table Functions, Active Directory Integration, Transparent Application Continuity, Approximate Top-N Query Processing, PDB Snapshot Carousel, Online Merging of Partitions and Subpartitions
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle Database 12c Release 2 12.2.0.1
March 2017
August 2016 (cloud)

March 2017 (on-prem)

12.2.0.1
March 2017
Native Sharding, Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance, Exadata Cloud Service, Cloud at Customer
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle Database 12c Release 1 12.1.0.1 July 2013[21] 12.1.0.2
July 2014
Multitenant architecture, In-Memory Column Store, Native JSON, SQL Pattern Matching, Database Cloud Service
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle Database 11g Release 2 11.2.0.1 September 2009[22] 11.2.0.4
August 2013
Edition-Based Redefinition, Data Redaction, Hybrid Columnar Compression, Cluster File System, Golden Gate Replication, Database Appliance
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle Database 11g Release 1 11.1.0.6 September 2007 11.1.0.7
September 2008
Active Data Guard, Secure Files, Exadata
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle Database 10g Release 2 10.2.0.1 July 2005[23] 10.2.0.5
April 2010
Real Application Testing, Database Vault, Online Indexing, Advanced Compression, Data Guard Fast-Start Failover, Transparent Data Encryption
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle Database 10g Release 1 10.1.0.2 2003 10.1.0.5
February 2006
Automated Database Management, Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor, Grid infrastructure, Oracle ASM, Flashback Database
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle9i Database Release 2 9.2.0.1 2002 9.2.0.8
April 2007
Advanced Queuing, Data Mining, Streams, Logical Standby
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle9i Database 9.0.1.0 2001 9.0.1.5
December 2003
Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC), Oracle XML DB
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle8i Database 8.1.5.0 1998 8.1.7.4
August 2000
Native internet protocols and Java, Virtual Private Database
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle8 Database 8.0.3 June 1997 8.0.6 Recovery Manager, Partitioning. First version available for Linux.[24]
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle 7.3 7.3.0 February 1996 7.3.4 Object-relational database
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle 7.2 7.2.0 May 1995 Shared Server, XA Transactions, Transparent Application Failover
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle 7.1 7.1.0 May 1994 Parallel SQL Execution. First version available for Windows NT.[25]
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle7 7.0.12 June 1992 PL/SQL stored procedures, Triggers, Distributed 2-phase commit, Shared Cursors, Cost-Based Optimizer
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle 6.2 6.2.0 Oracle Parallel Server
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle v6 6.0.17 1988 6.0.37 Row-level locking, scalability / performance, online backup and recovery, B*Tree indexes, PL/SQL executed from compiled programs (C etc). First version available for Novell Netware 386.[26]
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle v5 5.0.22 (5.1.17) 1985 5.1.22 Support for client/server computing and distributed database systems. First version available for OS/2. Correlated sub-queries[27]
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle v4 4.1.4.0 1984 4.1.4.4 Multiversion read consistency. First version available for MS-DOS.[28][29]
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle v3 3.1.3 1983 Concurrency control, data distribution, and scalability. Re-written in C for portability to other operating systems, including UNIX.[30]
Old version, no longer maintained: Oracle v2 2.3 1979 First commercially available SQL RDBMS. Basic SQL queries, simple joins[31] and CONNECT BY joins. Written in assembly language for the PDP-11 to run in 128KB of RAM.[32] Ran on PDP-11 and VAX/VMS in PDP-11 compatibility mode.
Legend:
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release

The Introduction to Oracle Database includes a brief history on some of the key innovations introduced with each major release of Oracle Database.

See My Oracle Support (MOS) note Release Schedule of Current Database Releases (Doc ID 742060.1) for the current Oracle Database releases and their patching end dates.

Patch updates and security alerts edit

Prior to Oracle Database 18c, Oracle Corporation released Critical Patch Updates (CPUs) and Security Patch Updates (SPUs)[33] and Security Alerts to close security vulnerabilities. These releases are issued quarterly; some of these releases have updates issued prior to the next quarterly release.

Starting with Oracle Database 18c, Oracle Corporation releases Release Updates (RUs) and Release Update Revisions (RURs).[34] RUs usually contain security, regression (bug), optimizer, and functional fixes which may include feature extensions as well. RURs include all fixes from their corresponding RU but only add new security and regression fixes. However, no new optimizer or functional fixes are included.

Market position edit

A 2016 Gartner report claimed to show Oracle holding #1 RDBMS market share worldwide based on the revenue share ahead of its four closest competitors – Microsoft, IBM, SAP and Teradata .[35][verification needed][clarification needed] A 2021 Gartner Magic Quadrant report named Oracle a leader in Cloud Database Management Systems.[36]

Competition edit

In the market for relational databases, Oracle Database competes against commercial products such as IBM Db2 and Microsoft SQL Server. Oracle and IBM tend to battle for the mid-range database market on Unix and Linux platforms, while Microsoft dominates the mid-range database market on Microsoft Windows platforms. However, since they share many of the same customers, Oracle and IBM tend to support each other's products in many middleware and application categories (for example: WebSphere, PeopleSoft, and Siebel Systems CRM), and IBM's hardware divisions work closely[citation needed] with Oracle on performance-optimizing server-technologies (for example, Linux on IBM Z). Niche commercial competitors include Teradata (in data warehousing and business intelligence), Software AG's ADABAS, Sybase, and IBM's Informix, among many others.

In the cloud, Oracle Database competes against the database services of AWS, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform.

Increasingly, the Oracle database products compete against open-source software relational and non-relational database systems such as PostgreSQL, MongoDB, Couchbase, Neo4j, ArangoDB and others. Oracle acquired Innobase, supplier of the InnoDB codebase to MySQL, in part to compete better against open source alternatives, and acquired Sun Microsystems, owner of MySQL, in 2010. Database products licensed as open-source are, by the legal terms of the Open Source Definition, free to distribute and free of royalty or other licensing fees.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Oracle Database 23c: The Next Long Term Support Release".
  2. ^ Lextrait, Vincent (March 2016). "The Programming Languages Beacon, v16". Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  3. ^ "OTN Standard License", Technical network, Oracle
  4. ^ "Multimodel Database with Oracle Database 12c Release 2" (PDF). Oracle. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  5. ^ "Exadata" (PDF), Technical network, Oracle
  6. ^ Roeser, Mary Beth; Adams, Drew; Ashdown, Lance; Baby, Thomas; Baer, Hermann; Baskan, Yasin; Bayliss, Nigel; Chen, Shuo; Belden, Eric. "Oracle and Standard SQL". Oracle Help Center. Retrieved 9 June 2023.
  7. ^ "Welcome to Larryland". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 August 2016. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  8. ^ Julie Bort (29 September 2014). "Larry Ellison Is A Billionaire Today Thanks to the CIA". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  9. ^ "Free Oracle Database for Everyone". Oracle. Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  10. ^ "Announcing Oracle Database 23ai: General Availability". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  11. ^ "Oracle Database 23c Free - Developer Release". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 3 April 2023.
  12. ^ "Oracle Database 23c on OCI Base Database Service". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 19 September 2023.
  13. ^ "Oracle Announces General Availability of AI Vector Search in Oracle Database 23ai". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  14. ^ "Oracle Announces General Availability of JSON Relational Duality in Oracle Database 23ai". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2 May 2024.
  15. ^ "Oracle Database 21c". Oracle Help Center. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  16. ^ Hardie, William (23 September 2021). "Oracle Database 21c Now Available On Linux". Oracle Database Insider. Retrieved 17 December 2023.
  17. ^ Giles, Dominic (13 February 2019). "Oracle Database 19c Now Available on Oracle Exadata". Oracle Database Insider. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  18. ^ Hardie, William (25 April 2019). "Oracle Database 19c Now Available on Linux". Oracle Database Insider. Archived from the original on 5 April 2024. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  19. ^ "Oracle Database 18c : Now available on the Oracle Cloud and Oracle Engineered Systems". Oracle Database Insider. 16 February 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  20. ^ Zagar, Adriana (23 July 2018). "Oracle Database 18c Now Available For On-Premises". Oracle Community. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  21. ^ "Oracle Announces General Availability of Oracle Database 12c, the First Database Designed for the Cloud". Oracle. 1 July 2013. Archived from the original on 9 September 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  22. ^ "Oracle® Database 11g Release 2 is Now Available". Oracle. 1 September 2009. Archived from the original on 5 April 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  23. ^ "Oracle Announces General Availability of Oracle® Database 10g Release 2". Oracle. 11 July 2005. Archived from the original on 5 April 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
  24. ^ Biggs, Maggie (5 October 1998). "Oracle8 on Linux shows promise". InfoWorld. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  25. ^ Nash, Kim (3 October 1994). "Oracle users ponder product overload". Infoworld. IDG Enterprise. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  26. ^ O'Brien, Timothy (29 April 1991). "Oracle8 on Linux shows promise". InfoWorld. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  27. ^ Mace, Scott (30 January 1989). "DOS Version of Professional Oracle 5.1B Adds SQL Report Writer". InfoWorld. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  28. ^ Webster, Robin (13 November 1984). "PC Relational Database? New Answer is Oracle". PC Magazine. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  29. ^ Gralike, Marco (4 April 2006). "Back to the future (Oracle 4.1 VM appliance)". amis.nl. Archived from the original on 1 July 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
  30. ^ Data Processing Digest Volumes 29-30. Data Processing Digest. 1983. p. 2.
  31. ^ Departments of Informatics. "Oracle V2". Virtual Exhibitions in Informatics. University of Klagenfurt. Archived from the original on 30 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  32. ^ Maheshwari, Sharad (2007). Introduction to SQL and PL/SQL. Firewall Media. p. 12. ISBN 9788131800386.
  33. ^ Baransel, Emre (2013). Oracle Data Guard 11gR2 Administration Beginner's Guide. Packt Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9781849687911. Archived from the original on 23 November 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2014. You should not get confused between Critical Patch Update (CPU) and Security Patch Update (SPU) as CPU terminology has been changed to SPU from October 2012.
  34. ^ "Patch Delivery Methods for Oracle Database 12c Release 2 (12.2.0.1) and Later Versions". Docs.oracle.com. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  35. ^ Heudecker, Nick; Feinberg, Donald; Adrian, Merv (25 July 2017). "State of the Operational DBMS Market, 2017". Gartner. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  36. ^ "Magic Quadrant for Cloud Database Management Systems". Gartner. Retrieved 18 April 2022.

External links edit

  • Overview provided by Oracle Corporation.