This is a tabulated listing of the orders of magnitude in relation to pressure expressed in pascals. psi values, prefixed with +
and -
, denote values relative to Earth's sea level standard atmospheric pressure (psig); otherwise, psia is assumed.
Magnitude | Pressure | lbf/in^{2} or dB | Item |
---|---|---|---|
10^{−17} Pa | 10 aPa | Pressure in outer space in intergalactic voids^{[1]}^{[2]} | |
10^{−15} Pa | 1–10 fPa | Pressure in outer space between stars in the Milky Way^{[1]}^{[3]} | |
10^{−12} Pa | < 1 pPa | Lowest pressure obtained in laboratory conditions^{[4]} | |
10^{−10} Pa | |||
40 pPa | Atmosphere of the Moon at lunar day,^{[5]} very approximately (4×10^{−11} Pa)^{[citation needed]} | ||
10^{−10} Pa | < 100 pPa | Extreme-high vacuum^{[6]} | |
100 pPa | Atmosphere of Mercury, very approximately (1×10^{−10} Pa)^{[7]} | ||
300 pPa | Atmosphere of the Moon at lunar night,^{[5]} very approximately (3×10^{−10} Pa)^{[8]} | ||
10^{−9} Pa | < 1 nPa | Vacuum expected in the beam pipe of the Large Hadron Collider's ATLAS experiment^{[9]} (operates at a pressure of 1 nPa to 10 nPa)^{[10]} | |
~1 nPa | Approximate solar wind pressure at Earth's distance from the Sun^{[11]} (variable)^{[citation needed]} | ||
10^{−8} Pa | 10 nPa | Pressure inside a vacuum chamber for laser cooling of atoms (magneto-optical trap)^{[12]} | |
10–700 nPa | Atmospheric pressure in low Earth orbit, around 500 km altitude^{[13]}^{[14]} | ||
10^{−7} Pa | 100 nPa | Highest pressure still considered ultra-high vacuum^{[15]}^{[16]} | |
10^{−6} Pa | 0.1 - 10 µPa | Pressure inside a cathode ray tube (approximate)^{[17]}^{[18]} | |
1 µPa | Reference pressure for sound in water^{[19]} | ||
1 µPa | Pressure inside a vacuum tube (very approximate)^{[citation needed]} | ||
10^{−5} Pa | 10 µPa | Radiation pressure of sunlight on a perfectly reflecting surface at the distance of the Earth.^{[20]} | |
20 µPa | 0 dB | Reference pressure for sound in air^{[21]} | |
±20 µPa | 0 dB | Threshold of human hearing^{[21]} | |
10^{−4} Pa | |||
10^{−3} Pa | 1–100 mPa | Vacuum pressures used for molecular distillation^{[22]} | |
10^{−2} Pa | |||
10^{−1} Pa | 100 mPa | Upper limit of high vacuum^{[15]}^{[23]} | |
~200 mPa | Atmospheric pressure on Pluto (1988 figure; very roughly)^{[24]} | ||
1 Pa | 1 Pa | Pressure exerted by a US dollar bill resting flat on a surface^{[25]} | |
1 Pa | Upper limit of molecular distillation, where the mean free path of molecules is larger than the equipment size^{[citation needed]} | ||
10 Pa | 10 Pa | Pressure increase per millimeter of a water column at Earth mean sea level^{[26]} | |
10 Pa | Pressure due to direct impact of a gentle breeze (~9 mph or 14 km/h)^{[27]}^{[28]}^{[29]} | ||
86 Pa | Pressure from the weight of a U.S. penny lying flat^{[30]} | ||
10^{2} Pa | 100 Pa | Pressure due to direct impact of a strong breeze (~28 mph or 45 km/h)^{[27]}^{[28]}^{[31]} | |
120 Pa | Pressure from the weight of a U.S. quarter lying flat^{[32]}^{[33]} | ||
133 Pa | 1 torr ≈ 1 mmHg^{[34]} | ||
±200 Pa | ~140 dB | Threshold of pain pressure level for sound where prolonged exposure may lead to hearing loss^{[citation needed]} | |
±300 Pa | ±0.043 psi | Lung air pressure difference moving the normal breaths of a person (only 0.3% of standard atmospheric pressure)^{[35]}^{[36]} | |
400–900 Pa | 0.06–0.13 psi | Atmospheric pressure on Mars, < 1% of atmospheric sea-level pressure on Earth^{[37]} | |
610 Pa | 0.089 psi | Partial vapor pressure at the triple point of water (611.657 Pa)^{[38]}^{[39]} | |
10^{3} Pa | 1–10 kPa | Typical explosion peak overpressure needed to break glass windows (approximate)^{[40]} | |
2 kPa | Pressure of popping popcorn (very approximate)^{[41]}^{[42]} | ||
2.6 kPa | 0.38 psi | Pressure at which water boils at room temperature (22 °C) (20 mmHg)^{[43]} | |
5 kPa | 0.8 psi | Blood pressure fluctuation (40 mmHg) between heartbeats for a typical healthy adult^{[44]}^{[45]} | |
6.3 kPa | 0.9 psi | Pressure where water boils at normal human body temperature (37 °C), the pressure below which humans absolutely cannot survive (Armstrong limit)^{[46]} | |
+9.8 kPa | +1.4 psi | Lung pressure that a typical person can exert (74 mmHg)^{[47]} | |
10^{4} Pa | 10 kPa | 1.5 psi | Pressure increase per meter of a water column^{[26]} |
10 kPa | 1.5 psi | Decrease in air pressure when going from Earth sea level to 1000 m elevation^{[citation needed]} | |
+13 kPa | +1.9 psi | High air pressure for human lung, measured for trumpet player making staccato high notes^{[48]} | |
< +16 kPa | +2.3 psi | Systolic blood pressure in a healthy adult while at rest (< 120 mmHg) (gauge pressure)^{[44]} | |
+19.3 kPa | +2.8 psi | High end of lung pressure, exertable without injury by a healthy person for brief times^{[citation needed]} | |
+34 kPa | +5 psi | Level of long-duration blast overpressure (from a large-scale explosion) that would cause most buildings to collapse^{[49]} | |
34 kPa | Atmospheric pressure at the summit of Mount Everest^{[50]} | ||
+70 kPa | +10 psi | Pressure for paint exiting an HVLP (low-pressure) paint spray gun^{[51]} | |
70 kPa | Pressure inside an incandescent light bulb^{[52]} | ||
75 kPa | Minimum airplane cabin pressure and lowest pressure for normal breathing (at 2440 m) and also the limit stated by the Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR)^{[53]} | ||
80 kPa | 12 psi | Pressure inside vacuum cleaner at sea level on Earth (80% of standard atmospheric pressure)^{[citation needed]} | |
87 kPa | 13 psi | Record low atmospheric pressure for typhoon/hurricane (Typhoon Tip in 1979) (only 86% of standard atmospheric pressure)^{[54]} | |
10^{5} Pa | 100 kPa | 15 psi | 1 bar (14.5 psi),^{[55]} approximately equal to the weight of one kilogram (1 kilopond) acting on one square centimeter^{[34]} |
101.325 kPa | 15 psi | Standard atmospheric pressure for Earth sea level (14.7 psi)^{[34]} | |
150 to > 550 kPa | 25 to > 80 psi | Impact pressure of a fist punch (approximate)^{[citation needed]}^{[56]} | |
+180 to +250 kPa | +26 to +36 psi | Air pressure in an automobile tire relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)^{[citation needed]} | |
+210 to +900 kPa | +30 to +130 psi | Air pressure in a bicycle tire relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)^{[57]} | |
300 kPa | 50 psi | Water pressure of a garden hose^{[58]} | |
300 to 700 kPa | 50–100 psi | Typical water pressure of a municipal water supply in the US^{[59]} | |
358 to 524 kPa | 52-76 psi | Threshold of pain for objects outside the human body hitting it^{[60]} | |
400 to 600 kPa | 60–90 psi | Carbon dioxide pressure in a champagne bottle^{[61]} | |
520 kPa | 75 psi | Partial vapour pressure at the triple point of carbon dioxide^{[62]} | |
+690 to +830 kPa | +100 to +120 psi | Air pressure in a heavy truck/bus tire relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure)^{[citation needed]} | |
800 kPa | 120 psi | Vapor pressure of water in a kernel of popcorn when the kernel ruptures^{[63]} | |
10^{6} Pa | 0.8–2 MPa | 120–290 psi | Pressure used in boilers of steam locomotives^{[citation needed]} |
1.1 MPa | 162 psi | Pressure of an average human bite^{[citation needed]} | |
2.8–8.3 MPa | 400–1,200 psi | Pressure of carbon dioxide propellant in a paintball gun^{[64]} | |
5 MPa | 700 psi | Water pressure of the output of a coin-operated car wash spray nozzle^{[58]} | |
5 MPa | 700 psi | Military submarine max. rated pressure (est.) of Seawolf-class nuclear submarine, at depth of 500 m^{[65]}^{[66]} | |
10-21 MPa | 1,500–3,000 psi | Chamber pressure of a high-powered (non-carbon dioxide) air gun | |
6.9–27 MPa | 1,000–4,000 psi | Water spray pressure used by pressure washers^{[67]} | |
9.2 MPa | 1,300 psi | Atmosphere of Venus^{[68]} | |
10^{7} Pa | > 10 MPa | > 1,500 psi | Pressure exerted by a 45 kg person wearing stiletto heels when a heel hits the floor^{[69]} |
15.5 Mpa | 2,250 psi | Primary coolant loop of a pressurized water reactor | |
20 MPa | 2,900 psi | Typical pressure used for hydrogenolysis reactions^{[70]} | |
21 MPa | 3,000 psi | Pressure of a typical aluminium scuba tank of pressurized air (210 bar)^{[71]} | |
21 MPa | 3,000 psi | Ballistic pressure exerted as high-power bullet strikes a solid bulletproof object^{[citation needed]} | |
22 MPa | 3,200 psi | Critical pressure of water | |
25 MPa | 3,600 psi | Record diesel engine common rail fuel system pressure^{[72]} | |
28 MPa | 4,100 psi | Overpressure caused by the bomb explosion during the Oklahoma City bombing^{[73]} | |
40 MPa | 5,800 psi | Water pressure at the depth of the wreck of the Titanic | |
69 MPa | 10,000 psi | Water pressure withstood by the DSV Shinkai 6500 in visiting ocean depths of > 6500 meters^{[74]} | |
70 to 280 MPa | 10,000 to 40,000 psi | Maximal chamber pressure during a pistol firing^{[75]} | |
10^{8} Pa | |||
110 MPa | 16,000 psi | Pressure at bottom of Mariana Trench, about 11 km below ocean surface (1100 bar)^{[76]} | |
100 to 300 MPa | 15,000 to 44,000 psi | Pressure inside reactor for the synthesis of high-pressure polyethylene (HPPE)^{[77]} | |
400 MPa | 58,000 psi | Chamber pressure of late 1910s .50 Browning machine gun discharge^{[citation needed]} | |
240–620 MPa | 35,000–90,000 psi | Water pressure used in a water jet cutter^{[78]} | |
10^{9} Pa | 1 GPa | Extremely high-pressure chemical reactors (10 kbar)^{[citation needed]} | |
1.5 GPa | Diamond melts using a 3 kJ laser without turning into graphite first^{[79]} | ||
1.5 GPa | 220,000 psi | tensile strength of Inconel 625 according to Aircraft metal strength tables and the Mil-Hdbk-5^{[80]} | |
5.8 GPa | 840,000 psi | Ultimate tensile strength of the polymer Zylon | |
10^{10} Pa | 10 GPa | Pressure at which octaoxygen forms at room temperature (100,000 bar)^{[81]} | |
18 GPa | Pressure needed for the first commercially successful synthesis of diamond^{[82]} | ||
24 to 110 GPa | Stability range of enstatite in its perovskite-structured polymorph, possibly the most common mineral inside the Earth^{[citation needed]} | ||
40 GPa | Quantum-mechanical electron degeneracy pressure in a block of copper^{[83]} | ||
48 GPa | Detonation pressure of pure CL-20,^{[84]} the most powerful high explosive in mass production | ||
69 GPa | 10,000,000 psi | Highest water jet pressure attained in research lab^{[85]} | |
96 GPa | Pressure at which metallic oxygen forms (960,000 bar)^{[81]} | ||
10^{11} Pa | 100 GPa | Theoretical tensile strength of a carbon nanotube (CNT) ^{[86]} | |
130 GPa | Ultimate tensile strength of monolayer graphene^{[87]} | ||
360 GPa | Pressure inside Earth's inner core (3.64 million bar)^{[88]}^{[89]} | ||
495 GPa | Lower bound at which metallic hydrogen theoretically forms | ||
> 600 GPa | Pressure attainable with a diamond anvil cell^{[90]} | ||
10^{12} Pa | 5 TPa | Pressure generated by the National Ignition Facility fusion reactor | |
10^{13} Pa | 10 TPa | solid matter changes to the metastable inner-shell molecular state | |
32.9 TPa | Pressure at which metallic helium theoretically forms^{[91]} | ||
10^{14} Pa | 100 TPa | Pressure generated by the extremely high-pressure laser implosion plasmas generator.^{[92]} | |
208.4 TPa | Pressure at which metallic neon theoretically forms (the highest metallization pressure for any element)^{[93]} | ||
540 TPa | Pressure inside an "Ivy Mike"-like nuclear bomb detonation (5.3 billion bar)^{[94]}^{[95]} | ||
10^{15} Pa | 6.5 PPa | Pressure inside a W80 nuclear warhead detonation (64 billion bar)^{[94]}^{[96]} | |
10^{16} Pa | 25 PPa | Pressure inside Sun's core (250 billion bar)^{[97]} | |
10^{23} Pa | 100 EPa - 100 YPa | Pressure inside the core of a white dwarf at the Chandrasekhar limit^{[98]} | |
10^{32} Pa | 3.2-160 QPa | Pressure range inside a neutron star^{[99]} | |
10^{35} Pa | Approximate pressure at the center of a proton^{[100]} | ||
... | ... | ... | ... |
10^{113} Pa | 4.6×10^{113} Pa | 6.7×10^{109} psi | The Planck pressure (4.63×10^{108} bar) |
10^-19 torr
The undisturbed gas concentration is only about 2x10^5 molecules/cm^3 during the lunar night, falling to perhaps 10^4 molecules/cm^3 during the lunar day.
~10^-15 bar
we expect pressures below 10^-9 Pa
ambient pressure is in the range of 10^-10 to 5x10^-8 Torr.
operating pressures in the range 0.1–0.001 Pa
deepest layers reach pressures of no more than a few microbars
10 kPa - the pressure below 1 m of water
a normal inspiratory breath of say 500 ml in an adult requires a distending pressure of under 3cm H2O
variable from 4.0 to 8.7 mb
Iverson (1968) gives the range of breaking pressures as 1-10 kPa
force ... which turns out to be 0.22 psi
2.6 kPa
paint exiting the gun at 10 PSI
Road tires typically require 80 to 130 psi, mountain tires 30 to 50 psi and hybrid tires 50 to 70 psi.
A typical garden hose dispenses water at about 50 PSI, and a coin-operated car wash provides about 700 PSI.
A typical municipal water supply runs at between 50 and 100 PSI
Fischer7 reported pressure pain thresholds of 3.7 kg/cm2 and 5.4 kg/cm2 in normal adult females.
5.185 bar ... uncertainty ... 0.005 bar
Co2 pressure output can range from 400 psi up to 1200 psi
a normal operating depth of "greater than 800 feet", ... it may be assumed that the ... depth ... is roughly double the official figure
range from about 1,000 p.s.i. to 4,000 or more
when you get your tank filled it will be filled to 3000 psi
Pressure at a depth of 6,500 m reaches around 680 atmospheres
.45 Colt ... 14,000 ... 9.mm Luger +P ... 38,500
a pump that delivers up to 90,000 PSI ... pumps that deliver 35,000 PSI to 55,000 PSI
Substance ... GPa ... CL-20 ... 48.23
the highest pressure jet that we generated in the MS&T [Missouri University of Science and Technology] Laboratories was at around 10 million psi.
363.850 GPa
Mike... Ivy... radiation pressures are 73 and 1400 megabars ... respectively ... Mike ... 5.3 x 10^9 bars ... Ivy ... 6.4 x 10^10 bars
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