Orders of magnitude (temperature)


Temperature in °C compared to the thermodynamic scale in electron volts, which are also used as a unit of temperature.

List of orders of magnitude for temperatureEdit

Factor Multiple Item
0 0 K Absolute zero: free bodies are still, no interaction within or without a thermodynamic system
1 qK Particular speeds bound paths to exceed size and lifetime of the universe, i.e. the particles total path traveled (but not the distance from its place of origin) since the beginning of the universe is less than the size of the universe
(see least-energy in orders of magnitude (energy))
1 aK Macroscopic teleportation of matter can occur
Hawking temperature of supermassive black holes
1 fK Atomic waves coherent over centimeters
atomic particles decoherent over centimeters
1 pK 38 pK, lowest temperature ever produced, achieved through matter-wave lensing of rubidium Bose-Einstein condensates.[1]
100 pK, the current record for lowest temperature, achieved by cooling the nuclear spins of rhodium metal.[2]
450 pK, lowest temperature sodium Bose–Einstein condensate gas ever achieved in the laboratory, at MIT[3]
1 nK 50 nK, Fermi temperature of potassium-40
critical temperature of alkali Bose–Einstein condensates
1 μK Nuclear demagnetization
Doppler-cooled refrigerants in laser cooling and magneto-optical traps
1 mK Radio excitations
1.7 mK, temperature record for helium-3/helium-4 dilution refrigeration, and the lowest temperature which may be sustained for arbitrarily long time with known techniques.
2.5 mK, Fermi melting point of helium-3
60 mK adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic molecules
300 mK in evaporative cooling of helium-3
700 mK, helium-3/helium-4 mixtures begin phase separation
950 mK, melting point of helium at 2.5 megapascals of pressure- All 118 elements are solid at or below this temperature.
microwave excitations
1 K 1 K at the Boomerang Nebula, the coldest natural environment known
1.5 K, melting point of overbound helium
2.19 K, lambda point of overbound superfluid helium
2.725 K, cosmic microwave background
4.1 K, superconductivity point of mercury
4.22 K, boiling point of bound helium
5.19 K, critical temperature of helium
7.2 K, superconductivity point of lead
9.3 K, superconductivity point of niobium
101 10 K Fermi melting point of valence electrons for superconductivity
14.01 K, melting point of bound hydrogen
20.28 K, boiling point of bound hydrogen
33 K, critical temperature of hydrogen
44 K mean on Pluto
53 K mean of Neptune
63 K, melting point of bound nitrogen
68 K mean of Uranus
77.35 K, boiling point of bound nitrogen
90.19 K, boiling point of bound oxygen
92 K, superconductivity point of YBaCuoxide (YBCO)
102 100 K Infrared excitations
134 K, highest-temperature superconductor at ambient pressure, mercury barium calcium copper oxide
165 K, glass point of supercooled water
184.0 K (–89.2 °C), coldest air recorded on Earth
192 K, Debye temperature of ice
273.15 K (0 °C), melting point of bound water
273.16 K (0.01 °C), temperature of triple point of water
~293 K, room temperature
373.15 K (100 °C), boiling point of bound water at sea level
647 K, critical point of superheated water
737.5 K, mean on Venus

See detailed list below

1 kK Visible light excitations
500–2200 K on brown dwarfs (photosphere)
1043 K Curie temperature of iron (point at which iron transitions from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic behavior and loses any permanent magnetism)
1170 K at wood fire
1300 K in lava flows, open flames
1500 K in basalt lava flows
~1670 K at blue candle flame
1811 K, melting point of iron (lower for steel)
1830 K in Bunsen burner flame
1900 K at the Space Shuttle orbiter hull in 8 km/s dive
2022 K, boiling point of lead

2074 K, surface temperature of the coolest star, 2MASS J0523-1403
2230 K, Debye temperature of carbon
2320 K at open hydrogen flame
2150–2450 K at open hydrocarbon flame
2900 K, color temperature of halogen lamps, blackbody radiation maximum at 1000 nm
3683 K, melting point of tungsten
3925 K, sublimation point of carbon
4160 K, melting point of hafnium carbide
4800 K, 10 MPa, triple point of carbon[4]
5000 K, 12 GPa melting point of diamond[5]
5100 K in cyanogen-dioxygen flame
5516 K at dicyanoacetylene (carbon subnitride)-ozone flame
5650 K at Earth's Inner Core Boundary
5780 K on surface of the Sun
5933 K, boiling point of tungsten
6000 K, mean of the Universe 300,000 years after the Big Bang
7445 K, 850 GPa;[6] 8750 K, 520 GPa;[7] 5400 K, 220 GPa,[8] critical point of diamond/solid III
7735 K, a monatomic ideal gas has one electron volt of kinetic energy
ultraviolet excitations
8000 K, routinely sustainable temperature in an analytical inductively coupled plasma
8801 K, 10.56 GPa[9] 7020.5 K, 797 MPa,[10] critical point of carbon
anionic sparks

104 10 kK 10 kK on Sirius A
10–15 kK in mononitrogen recombination
15.5 kK, critical point of tungsten
25 kK, mean of the Universe 10,000 years after the Big Bang
26 kK on white dwarf Sirius B
28 kK in record cationic lightning over Earth
29 kK on surface of Alnitak (easternmost star of Orion's belt)
4–8–40–160 kK on white dwarfs
30–400 kK on a planetary nebula's asymptotic giant helium star
36 kK boundary between inner and outer core within Jupiter
37 kK in protonelectron reactions
38 kK on Eta Carinae
46 kK on Wolf–Rayet star R136a1[11]
50 kK at protostar (core)
54.5 kK on ON2 III(f*) star LH64-16[12]
>200 kK on Butterfly Nebula
~300 kK at 17 meters from Little Boy's detonation
Fermi boiling point of valence electrons
X-ray excitations
1 MK 0.8 MK in solar wind
γ-ray excitations
1 MK inside old neutron stars, brown dwarfs, and at gravital deuterium fusion range
1–3–10 MK above Sun (corona)
2.4 MK at T Tauri stars and gravital lithium-6 fusion range
2.5 MK at red dwarfs and gravital protium fusion range
10 MK at orange dwarfs and gravital helium-3 fusion range
15.6 MK at Sun's core
10–30–100 MK in stellar flares
20 MK in novæ
23 MK, beryllium-7 fusion range
60 MK above Eta Carinae
85 MK (15 keV) in a magnetic confinement fusion plasma
200 MK at helium star and gravital helium-4 fusion range
230 MK, gravital carbon-12 fusion range
460 MK, gravital neon fusiondisproportionation range
5–530 MK in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor's plasma
750 MK, gravital oxygen fusion range
1 GK 1 GK, everything 100 seconds after the Big Bang
1.3–1.7 GK, gravital silicon fusion range
3 GK in electronpositron reactions
10 GK in supernovae
10 GK, everything 1 second after the Big Bang
700 GK in quasars' accretion discs
740 GK, Hagedorn temperature or Fermi melting point of pions
1 TK 0.1–1 TK at new neutron star
0.5–1.2 TK, Fermi melting point of hadrons into quark–gluon plasma
3–5 TK in protonantiproton reactions
3.6 TK, temperature at which matter doubles in mass (compared to its mass at 0 K) due to relativistic effects
5.5 TK, highest man-made temperature in thermal equilibrium as of 2015 (quark–gluon plasma from LHC collisions)[13]
10 TK, 100 microseconds after the Big Bang
45–67 TK at collapsar of a gamma-ray burst
300–900 TK at protonnickel conversions in the Tevatron's Main Injector[clarification needed]
1 PK 0.3–2.2 PK at protonantiproton collisions

2.8 PK within an electroweak star

1 EK
1 ZK
1 YK 0.5–7 YK at ultra-high-energy cosmic ray collisions
1 RK everything 10−35 seconds after the Big Bang
1 QK Hagedorn temperature of strings
100 QK 142 QK, Planck temperature
1000 QK Theory of everything excitations[citation needed]
10260 QK Landau pole of Quantum electrodynamics

Detailed list for 100 K to 1000 KEdit

Most ordinary human activity takes place at temperatures of this order of magnitude. Circumstances where water naturally occurs in liquid form are shown in light grey.

Kelvin Degrees
100 K −173.15 °C −279.67 °F
165 K −108 °C −163 °F Glass point of supercooled water (Debatable)[14]
175.4 K −97.8 °C −144 °F Coldest luminance temperature recorded on Earth (measured remotely by satellite), in Antarctica[15]
183.7 K −89.5 °C −129.1 °F Freezing/melting point of isopropyl alcohol[16]
183.9 K −89.2 °C −128.6 °F Coldest officially recorded air temperature on Earth, at Vostok Station, Antarctica on 1983-07-21 01:45 UTC
192 K −81 °C −114 °F Debye temperature of ice
194.6 K −78.5 °C −109.3 °F Sublimation point of carbon dioxide (dry ice)
205.5 K −67.7 °C −89.9 °F Coldest officially recorded air temperature in the Northern Hemisphere, at Oymyakon, Oymyakon District, Sakha Republic, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 1933-02-06[17]
207.05 K −66.1 °C −86.98 °F Coldest officially recorded air temperature in North America, at North Ice, Greenland on 1954-01-09[18]
210 K −63 °C −80 °F Mean on Mars
214.9 K –58.3 °C –72.9 °F Coldest annual mean temperature on Earth, at Dome Argus, Antarctica[19]
223.15 K −50 °C −58 °F Mean on Earth during Snowball Earth[20] around 650 million years ago
224.8 K −48.4 °C −55.0 °F Coldest temperature that water can remain a liquid (see supercooling)
225 K −48 °C −55 °F Freezing/melting point of cottonseed oil[21]
233.15 K −40 °C −40 °F Intersecting point of the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales
Skin may freeze almost instantly at or below this temperature[22]
234.3 K −38.83 °C −37.89 °F Freezing/melting point of mercury
240.4 K −32.8 °C −27.0 °F Coldest air temperature recorded in South America, at Sarmiento, Argentina on 1907-06-01[23]
249 K –24 °C –11 °F Freezing/melting point of flax seed oil[21]
249.3 K –23.9 °C –11.0 °F Coldest air temperature recorded in Africa, at Ifrane, Morocco on 1935-02-11[23]
250 K –23 °C –9 °F Coldest air temperature recorded in Australia, at Charlotte Pass, New South Wales, Australia on 1994-06-29[23]
255.37 K –1779 °C 0 °F Coldest brine-ice solution found by Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
255 K –18 °C 0 °F Freezing/melting point of almond oil[21]
Typical temperature of a household freezer[24]
256 K –17 °C 1 °F Freezing/melting point of sunflower oil[21]
256 K –17 °C 2 °F Freezing/melting point of safflower oil[21]
257 K –16 °C 3 °F Freezing/melting point of soybean oil[21]
262 K −11 °C 12 °F Freezing/melting point of corn oil[21]
263.15 K –10 °C 14 °F Freezing/melting point of canola oil[21]
Freezing/melting point of grape seed oil[21]
265 K –8 °C 18 °F White frost can form below this temperature (see frost)
Freezing/melting point of hemp seed oil[21]
265.8 K –7.2 °C 19 °F Freezing/melting point of bromine
267 K –6 °C 21 °F Freezing/melting point of olive oil[21]
Freezing/melting point of sesame oil[21]
271.15 K −2 °C 28.4 °F Average freezing/melting point of oceans, the salinity is around 3.47%.[25][26]
273.14 K -0.01 °C 31.98 °F Maximum temperature of an object causing frostbite
273.15 K 0.00 °C 32.00 °F Freezing/melting point of fresh water (at 1 atm pressure)
273.16 K 0.01 °C 32.02 °F Triple point of fresh water (defining constant)
276 K 3 °C 37 °F Freezing/melting point of peanut oil[27]
277.13 K 3.98 °C 39.16 °F Water is at maximum density[28]
278 K 4 °C 40 °F Typical temperature of a household refrigerator
278.52 K 5.39 °C 41.69 °F Half-way point between the world's coldest air temperature at Vostok, Antarctica and the boiling point of water
279.8 K 6.67 °C 44 °F Threshold of skin numbness if skin reaches this temperature
283.2 K 10 °C 50 °F Minimum temperature for most plant growth (see Growing degree-day)
286.9 K 12.7 °C 54.9 °F Coldest body temperature of a human that survived accidental hypothermia (a 2-year-old boy in Racławice, Poland, on November 30, 2014)[29][30]
287.6 K 14.44 °C 58 °F Cold threshold of pain if skin reaches this temperature
288 K 15 °C 59 °F Mean on Earth
291.6 K 18.4 °C 65.1 °F Hottest temperature in Antarctica, recorded on 2020 February 6 at the Esperanza Base[31]
294 K 21 °C 70 °F Commonly defined value for room temperature
296 K 23 °C 73 °F Mean on Earth during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum[32] about 55.8 million years ago
297 K 24 °C 75 °F Melting/freezing point of palm kernel oil[21]
298 K 25 °C 77 °F Melting/freezing point of coconut oil[21]
300 K 27 °C 81 °F Thermoneutral temperature of an unclothed human at rest[33][34]
Estimated melting/freezing point of francium
302.9 K 29.8 °C 85.6 °F Melting/freezing point of gallium
303.15 K 30 °C 86 °F The rate of plant growth is typically no greater above this temperature than at this temperature. (see Growing degree-day)
304 K 31 °C 88 °F Melting/freezing point of butter, critical point for carbon dioxide
307 K 34 °C 93 °F Kindling point of white phosphorus
307.6 K 34.4 °C 93.9 °F Hottest annual mean temperature on Earth, at Dallol, Ethiopia[19]
308 K 35 °C 95 °F Hypothermic body temperature for humans (see Hypothermia)
Warmest sea measured, at the Red Sea
Melting/freezing point of palm oil[21]
309.5 K 36.4 °C 97.5 °F Average body temperature for a human[35]
311.03 K 37.87 °C 100.2 °F Beginnings of a fever for humans
311.8 K 38.6 °C 101.5 °F Average body temperature for a cat[36]
313.15 K 40 °C 104 °F Maximum standard temperature recommended for hot tub users[37]
315 K 42 °C 108 °F Usually fatal human fever
317.6 K 44.44 °C 112 °F Hot threshold of pain if skin reaches this temperature
319.3 K 46.1 °C 115 °F World's hottest air temperature recorded while raining, at Needles, California, USA on August 13, 2012[38]
319.7 K 46.5 °C 115.7 °F Highest human fever survived (Willie Jones)[39]
322.1 K 48.9 °C 120.0 °F Hottest air temperature recorded in South America, at Rivadavia, Argentina on 1905-12-11[23]
Maximum safe temperature for hot water according to numeric U.S. plumbing codes[40]
Water will cause a second-degree burn after 8 minutes and a third-degree burn after 10 minutes[40]
323.14 K 49.99 °C 121.99 °F Half-way point between freezing and boiling
323.9 K 50.7 °C 123.3 °F Hottest air temperature recorded in the Southern Hemisphere, at Oodnadatta, Australia on 1960-02-01[23]
328 K 54 °C 130 °F Hottest reliably measured air temperature on Earth, in Death Valley at Furnace Creek, Inyo County, California, United States of America on 2020 August 16[41] and 2021 July 9[42]
333.15 K 60 °C 140 °F Water will cause a second-degree burn in 3 seconds and a third-degree burn in 5 seconds[40]
Average temperature of a hair dryer
336 K 63 °C 145.4 °F Milk pasteurization
342 K 69 °C 157 °F Boiling point of water on the summit of Mount Everest[43]
343.15 K 70 °C 158 °F Food is well done
Hot springs at which some bacteria thrive[44]
350 K 77 °C 170 °F Poaching of food
351.52 K 78.37 °C 173.07 °F Boiling point of ethanol
353.15 K 80 °C 176 °F Average temperature of a sauna
355 K 82 °C 180 °F Recommended final rinse temperature in industrial-grade commercial dishwashers[45]
355.6 K 82.4 °C 180.3 °F Boiling point of isopropyl alcohol[16]
366 K 93 °C 200 °F Simmering of food
367 K 94 °C 201 °F Hottest ground temperature recorded on Earth at Furnace Creek, Death Valley, California, USA on 1972-07-15[46]
371 K 98 °C 209 °F Freezing/melting point of sodium
373.13 K 99.98 °C 211.97 °F Boiling point of water at 1 atm pressure (see Celsius)
380 K 107 °C 225 °F Smoke point of raw safflower oil
Syrup is concentrated to 75% sugar
388 K 115 °C 239 °F Melting/freezing point of sulfur
400 K 127 °C 260 °F Concorde nose tip during supersonic flight
Coldest known stars in space (approximate temperature)[47]
433.15 K 160 °C 320 °F Syrup is concentrated to 100% sugar
Sucrose (table sugar) caramelizes
450 K 177 °C 350 °F Mean on Mercury
Smoke point of butter
Deep frying
453.15 K 180 °C 356 °F Popcorn pops
483 K 210 °C 410 °F Autoignition (kindling) point of diesel fuel
491 K 218 °C 425 °F Kindling point of paper
519 K 246 °C 475 °F Kindling point of automotive gasoline
522 K 249 °C 480 °F Kindling point of jet fuel (Jet A/Jet A-1)[48]
525 K 252 °C 485 °F Smoke point of milkfat
Kindling point of jet fuel (Jet B)[48]
538 K 265 °C 510 °F Smoke point of refined safflower oil
574.5875 K 301.4375 °C 574.5875 °F Intersecting point of the Fahrenheit and Kelvin temperature scales
600.65 K 327.5 °C 621.5 °F Melting/freezing point of lead
647 K 374 °C 705 °F Critical point of superheated water
693 K 419 °C 787 °F Melting/freezing point of zinc
723.15 K 450 °C 842 °F Kindling point of aviation gasoline[48]
738 K 465 °C 870 °F Mean on Venus
749 K 476 °C 889 °F Kindling point of magnesium
798 K 525 °C 977 °F Draper Point (the point at which nearly all objects start to glow dim red)[49]
858 K 585 °C 1085 °F Kindling point of hydrogen[50]
933.47 K 660.32 °C 1220.58 °F Melting/freezing point of aluminium
1000 K 726.85 °C 1340.33 °F

SI multiplesEdit

SI multiples of kelvin (K)
Submultiples Multiples
Value SI symbol Name Value SI symbol Name
10−1 K dK decikelvin 101 K daK decakelvin
10−2 K cK centikelvin 102 K hK hectokelvin
10−3 K mK millikelvin 103 K kK kilokelvin
10−6 K µK microkelvin 106 K MK megakelvin
10−9 K nK nanokelvin 109 K GK gigakelvin
10−12 K pK picokelvin 1012 K TK terakelvin
10−15 K fK femtokelvin 1015 K PK petakelvin
10−18 K aK attokelvin 1018 K EK exakelvin
10−21 K zK zeptokelvin 1021 K ZK zettakelvin
10−24 K yK yoctokelvin 1024 K YK yottakelvin
10−27 K rK rontokelvin 1027 K RK ronnakelvin
10−30 K qK quectokelvin 1030 K QK quettakelvin


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External linksEdit

  • Online Temperature Conversion